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Articles by D.F. Apata
Total Records ( 5 ) for D.F. Apata
  D.F. Apata
  The worldwide increase in the use of antibiotics as an integral part of the poultry and livestock production industry to treat and prevent infectious bacterial diseases and as growth promoters at sub-therapeutic levels in feeds has led to the problem of the development of bacterial antibiotic resistance during the past years. Recent scientific evidence has shown that resistance to antibiotics is not only due to the natural ability of a tiny fraction of the bacteria with unusual traits to survive antibiotic’s attack, enabling resistant strains to multiply, but also stems from the transmissibility of acquired resistance to their progeny and across to other unrelated bacteria species through extrachromosomal DNA fragment called the plasmid which provide a slew of different resistances. The emergence and spread of resistant bacterial strains like Campylobacter sp, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus sp. from poultry products to consumers put humans at risk to new strains of bacteria that resist antibiotic treatment. Resistant bacteria thwart antibiotics by interfering with their mode of action via a range of effectors’ mechanisms, including synthesis of inactivating enzymes, alteration in the configuration of cell wall or ribosome and modification of membrane carrier systems. These mechanisms are specific to the type of resistance developed. Because of the growing global concerns that resistance bacteria can pass from animals to humans, there is an increase in public and governmental interest in phasing out inappropriate antibiotic use in animal husbandry. Improvement in the hygienic practice of handling raw animal products and adequate heat treatment to eliminate the possibility of antibiotic resistant bacteria surviving may play a role in preventing the spread. More attention should be focused on increasing antibiotic surveillance capacity to cope with the spread of emerging resistances and on the alternative approach to sub-therapeutic antibiotics in poultry, especially the use of probiotic micro-organisms that can positively influence poultry health and produce safe edible products.
  D.F. Apata
  The effects of treatment methods on the nutritive value of Cotton Seed Cake (CSC) for laying hens were examined. Olympia laying hens (n = 96) were assigned randomly to a 2 x 3 factorial combination of fermented or unfermented CSC supplemented with enzyme, Vitamin E and ferrous sulphate over a 4-week feeding period. CSC was incorporated at 15% in the diets. Results showed no significant differences (p>0.05) in feed intake, body weight gain and egg weight due to treatments. However, hen-day egg production was significantly reduced (p<0.05) among dietary treatments compared with the control. Layers fed on unfermented CSC + Vitamin E and unfermented CSC + FeSO4 had the lowest (p<0.05) values for packed cell volume and haemoglobin. Treatment differences in red blood cell and white blood cell were not significant (p>0.05). Serum concentration of total protein among dietary treatments was lower (p<0.05) than the control, while albumin and cholesterol values were similar (p>0.05) for all treatments. Generally, activities of alanine and aspartate aminotransferases increased (p<0.05) among CSC dietary treatments compared with the control diet. The interaction between CSC form and additives had no significant effect on any of the parameters. The results of this study indicate that the treatment methods employed for CSC could not significantly improve its nutritive value for egg production at 15% level in the diet of laying hen.
  A.A. Annongu , J.K. Joseph , D.F. Apata , A.O. Adeyina , R.M.O. Kayode , A.H.A. Badmos and V. Awopetu
  Ackee Apple Seeds (AAS) subjected to chemical detoxification with glycine and riboflavin at 5% coupled with traditional treatments of soaking and boiling to leach out some soluble AAS toxins, hypoglycin A and B, was evaluated for nutritional adequacy using day chicks (DOC). Six iso-caloric and nitrogenous diets were prepared with graded levels of 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0 and 12.5% AAS meal in rations 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 respectively. The diets including a corn-soybeans control diet were fed ad libitum to 144-DOC in a 4-week feeding trial. Results showed that the test feedstuff improved blood composition (PCV, WBC). The non- significant difference recorded on lengths of GIT parts including ileum and duodenum relative to the reference diet suggest the similarity of the test diets with the conventional diet (p>0.05). Differences observed on absolute and relative organ weights (AOW and ROW) supported the result on performance which gave significant increase in body weight gain (p<0.05). Results on hematology, GIT, AOW and ROW following detoxified AAS meal ingestion suggest that the methods offer great potential for effective detoxification of Ackee apple seeds.
  D.F. Apata
  The effects of treatment methods on the nutritive value of Cotton Seed Cake (CSC) for laying hens were examined. Olympia laying hens (n = 96) were assigned randomly to a 2x3 factorial combination of fermented or unfermented CSC supplemented with enzyme, Vitamin E and ferrous sulphate over a 4 week feeding period. CSC was incorporated at 15% in the diets. Results showed no significant differences (p>0.05) in feed intake, body weight gain and egg weight due to treatments. However, hen day egg production was significantly reduced (p<0.05) among dietary treatments compared with the control. Layers fed on unfermented CSC+Vitamin E and unfermented CSC+FeSO4 had the lowest (p<0.05) values for packed cell volume and haemoglobin. Treatment differences in red blood cell and white blood cell were not significant (p>0.05). Serum concentration of total protein among dietary treatments was lower (p<0.05) than the control while albumin and cholesterol values were similar (p>0.05) for all treatments. Generally, activities of alanine and aspartate aminotransferases increased (p<0.05) among CSC dietary treatments compared with the control diet. The interaction between CSC form and additives had no significant effect on any of the parameters. The results of this study indicate that the treatment methods employed for CSC could not significantly improve its nutritive value for egg production at 15% level in the diet of laying hen.
  A.A. Annongu , J.K. Joseph , D.F. Apata , A.O. Adeyina , M.B. Yousuf and K.B. Ogunjimi
  An experiment was conducted to investigate the utilization of Jatropha seed cake by Albino rats. Jatropha Seed Cake (JSC) treated by boiling, fermentation followed by extraction with equal volumes of hexane and ethanol was included in diets at graded levels of 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25%. Data obtained on performance and body organ indices showed that rats tolerated up to 15% dietary JSC without adverse effects on the measured parameters in relation to the corn-soy reference diet (p>0.05). However, 20 and 25% inclusion levels elicited mortality in all the animal subjects receiving the diets within one week in the course of the experimental trial.
 
 
 
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