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Articles by D.A. Roland Sr.
Total Records ( 6 ) for D.A. Roland Sr.
  S.S. Sohail , M.M. Bryant and D.A. Roland Sr.
  A study was conducted to determine if synthetic glycine could replace dietary protein and improve performance of commercial broilers. Nine diets were formulated per feed regimen (starter, finisher, and withdrawal). A commercial diet was used as control (Diet A). Amino acids were reduced by 15% from Diet A to obtain Diet B. Synthetic methionine and lysine were added to Diet B to bring their level equal to Diet A, and create Diet C. Three levels of synthetic glycine (0, 0.05 and 0.1%) were added to Diets A, B, and C to obtain the nine dietary treatments. Male chicks (n = 3,150) originating from Ross male x Hubbard female breeder flocks were randomly placed in 63 floor pens in an open-sided house with thermostatically controlled curtains. Floor pens were divided into 7 blocks, each block containing 9 pens. The nine dietary treatments in each feed regimen were randomly assigned to pens in each of the seven blocks on d 1 (starter), 22 (finisher), and 43 (withdrawal) of age. Mortality, feed consumption (FC), body weight (BW) and feed to gain ratio (FG) were determined. Supplementing glycine, or methionine and lysine had no effect on FC. Glycine had no influence on the BW of chicks. The BW decreased with the reduction in dietary amino acids, and increased with an increase in dietary methionine and lysine fed the amino acid deficient diet. Glycine had no beneficial effect on FG, and 0.05% glycine increased (P < 0.05) FG up to 3 weeks. Addition of synthetic glycine (0.05 to 0.1%) to the 15% amino acid deficient diet could not make up for the deficiency of dietary amino acids in broiler diets.
  Hafiz Anwar Ahmad , S.S. Yadalam and D.A. Roland Sr.
  Calcium requirements of laying hens have been widely studied yet keep challenging nutritionists as a result of new genetic make-ups of commercial strains, farm management techniques, environmental concerns, and economics considerations. The present research was conducted to determine the calcium requirement of "Bovines" hens that represent about 17% of US layer industry. Increasing dietary level of calcium from 2.5 to 5.0% in hens` diets in increments of 0.5% had a significant positive linear effect on egg production and egg specific gravity. Increasing dietary calcium level from 2.5 to 5.0% increased egg production from 75.3 to 82.4% and egg specific gravity from 1.078 to 1.083 units. Calcium level had no effect on feed consumption or egg weight. "Bovines" hens required 5.57 g calcium/h/d for a maximum egg specific gravity index of 1.083 units (high shell quality). The decision to feed this level of calcium to achieve maximum shell quality however depends upon the nature and cost-benefits analysis of the layer operation.
  Z. Liu , A. Bateman , S.S. Sohail , B. Zinner and D.A. Roland Sr.
  Two studies were conducted to compare bioavailability of DL-methionine hydroxy analogue-free acid (MHA-FA) relative to DL-methionine (DLM) in layers. The bioavailability was compared for egg production, egg mass, egg weight and feed conversion. In trial 1 five supplemental levels of methionine (0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08 and 0.10%) from DLM or MHA-FA source were added respectively to a basal diet containing 14.97% protein, 0.27% methionine, and 0.24% cystine. Hy-Line W-36 hens (1,760) 37 weeks old were used. Egg production was not improved beyond the first 0.02% added methionine level. Thus, an accurate bioavailability value of MHA-FA relative to DLM could not be obtained, indicating that this test was not statistically sensitive enough to estimate the bioavailability of MHA-FA relative to DLM. In trial 2, 1,920 Hy-Line W-36 hens 53 weeks old were used in a 3 x 2 x 2 factorial experiment with three protein levels, two supplemental methionine levels, and two methionine sources. DLM and MHA-FA were compared at different protein and supplemental methionine levels on an equimolar basis. There were no differences (P > 0.05) between the 0.02% and 0.04% supplemental methionine level or between DLM and MHA-FA in egg production, egg mass, or feed conversion. Because no difference in egg production, egg mass and feed conversion between 0.02% and 0.04% methionine could be detected and that difference should be greater than the difference between DLM and MHA-FA, no potential differences between DLM and MHA-FA could be detected. There was a difference (P < 0.05) in egg weight between the two supplemental methionine levels. Although the average egg weight of hens fed DLM was not higher (P > 0.05) than that of hens fed MHA-FA, the difference was calculated to indicate that the bioavailability of MHA-FA might be 88.9% on a molar basis or 78.2% on a weight basis.
  A. Bateman , Z. Liu , M.M. Bryant , G. Wu and D.A. Roland Sr.
  Two studies were conducted to compare bioefficacy of liquid DL-methionine hydroxy analogue-free acid (MHA-FA) and DL-methionine (DL-Met). Biological efficacy was determined for egg production, feed consumption, egg mass, and egg weight using linear and nonlinear regression models. In Experiment 1, five levels of DL-Met (0.023, 0.045, 0.068, 0.090 and 0.113%) and MHA-FA (0.026, 0.051, 0.077, 0.102 and 0.128%) were added on an equimolar basis to a basal diet containing 14.97% protein and 0.27% Met. This trial used 1,760 first cycle, Phase II Hy-Line W-36 hens. There was no response above the basal diet in any of the criteria measured, so regression analysis was not performed. In Experiment 2, five levels of DL-Met (0.012, 0.024, 0.036, 0.048 and 0.060%) and MHA-FA (0.014, 0.027, 0.041, 0.054 and 0.068%) were added on an equimolar basis to the basal diet used in Experiment 1. This trial used 1,760 second cycle, Phase I Hy-Line W-36 hens. The average bioefficacy of MHA-FA related to DL-Met was 82.45% on a weight basis (or 93.70% on a molar basis) based on egg production, was 89.23% on a weight basis (or 101.40% on a molar basis) based on egg mass, and was 106.29% on a weight basis (or 120.79% on a molar basis) based on egg weight, more research is needed to improve accuracy of bioefficacy values.
  Z. Liu , G. Wu , M.M. Bryant and D.A. Roland Sr.
  A 3 x 4 factorial experiment with three protein levels (17.52, 16.24 and 15.22%) and four added synthetic lysine levels (0.0000, 0.0295, 0.0590 and 0.0884%) was conducted to determine the influence of adding synthetic lysine in er diets while maintaining a 0.75 Met+Cys/Lys ratio. In this experiment, a total of 1,440 Hy-Line W-36 hens (first phase of second cycle) were randomly divided into 480 cages with 3 birds per cage. Five adjoining cages consisted of a group and then the ninety-six groups were randomly assigned to 12 dietary treatments. The results showed there were no interactions (P > 0.05) between protein level and added synthetic lysine on feed intake, egg production, egg mass, egg weight or feed conversion. Protein effects were observed for feed intake (P < 0.01), egg production (P < 0.01), egg mass (P < 0.01), egg weight (P < 0.05) and feed conversion (P < 0.05). There was no difference (P > 0.05) obtained among the four supplemental synthetic lysine levels, indicating the influences of adding synthetic lysine on performances was not significant (P > 0.05) for hens fed diets containing a low protein level up to 15.22% and with feed intake at approximate 100 g/hen/day.
  G. Wu , Z. Liu , M.M. Bryant and D.A. Roland Sr.
  Five commercial white egg layer strains (Current-Bovans, Older-Bovans, Oldest-Bovans, Experimental-Bovans, and Dekalb) were used to compare performance and nutrient requirements when fed three protein levels (16.00, 14.85 and 13.99%). There were eight replicates of 15 hens (67 wk of age) for each treatment and the trial lasted 10 weeks. The results showed that there were no interactions between protein and strain on feed intake, egg production, egg mass, egg weight, feed conversion, egg specific gravity, and body weight of hens. Protein had significant effects on feed intake, egg mass, egg weight, egg specific gravity, and body weight. There were significant strain effects on feed intake, egg production, egg mass, egg weight, feed conversion and egg specific gravity. Current-Bovans had the best overall performance among the five layer strains. However, Dekalb had significant higher egg weight compared to Bovans. The best performance of Current-Bovans and Dekalb was obtained with hens fed the diet containing 16.00% protein. Current-Bovans hens required 16.5 g protein, 640 mg TSAA, 856 mg lysine, and 296 kcal ME per hen daily or 0.31 g protein, 12.00 mg TSAA, 16.07 mg lysine, and 5.55 kcal ME per g egg for the best performance. Dekalb hens required 17.8 g protein, 691 mg TSAA, 925 mg lysine, and 319 kcal ME per hen daily or 0.34 g protein, 13.04 mg TSAA, 17.45 mg lysine, and 6.03 kcal ME per g egg for the best performance.
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