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Articles by D. Krishnaiah
Total Records ( 11 ) for D. Krishnaiah
  D. Krishnaiah , R. Sarbatly , S. Ram Mohan Rao and R. Rajesh Nithyanandam
  A detailed study was conducted using lab scale spray dryer to produce micro particles using κ-carrageenan (1 wt.%) as the encapsulation or binding agent by different ratio, Mcore/Mwall (1:1, 1:2, 1:4 and 1:6) at different temperature (90, 100, 120 and 140°C). The concentrated noni extract and spray dried noni micro particles were analyzed for encapsulation yield, DPPH scavenging activity, total phenolic content and particle size analysis. From the results it was clear that percentage of DPPH scavenging activity and total phenolic content was slightly higher for 1:6 at 90°C than 1:2 at 90°C. However, 1:2 at 90°C was concluded as optimal operating conditions. By particle size analyzer it was found that at optimal operating spray drying condition, the mean diameter of the particle was varied from 2.53 to 2.27 μm, which is found to be less when compared to all the other ratios at different temperatures.
  D. Krishnaiah , R. Sarbatly , A.M.M. Hafiz , A.B. Hafeza and S.R.M. Rao
  The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of spray drying conditions on the chemical and biological properties of Morinda citrifolia L. powder. The process was carried out on a lab scale spray dryer using carrageenan as a coating agent. The effect of inlet temperature and Mcore/Mwall on Encapsulation Yield (EY), particles morphology and antioxidant potential were investigated. The evaluation of antioxidant potential was assessed using DPPH radical, total phenolic and flavonoid content. The highest quality of powder in terms of antioxidant capacity was produced at optimum drying temperature of 130°C using Mcore/Mwall of 1/4 and at constant temperature of 150°C, the highest Mcore/Mwall ratio was 1/2. The encapsulation yield was higher at higher temperature (150°C) and using Mcore/Mwall of 1/4. Particle size analyzer and scanning electron microscope were used to monitor the structure and size of the powders. The results indicated that all the powders obtained were smooth spheres with size range of 1-20 μm.
  A. Bono , Y.Y. Farm , D. Krishnaiah , N.M. Ismail , L.Y.K. Yee and L.M. Lee
  Palm kernel cake is a by-product of palm kernel oil industry. The production of palm kernel cake is more than 5000 million tons annually in the past few years. This quantity is expected to rise further in the future due to production of bio-diesel. Currently palm kernel cake is used for animal feed supplement such as cattle and goat. Due to indigestible compounds in palm kernel cake, it is less suitable for animals such as poultry, fish and swine. However palm kernel cake contains about 20% protein, with this protein composition palm kernel cake can be used as ingredient of protein based resin. Unlike soya bean which contain higher protein composition and can be used directly as ingredient of protein based resin, palm kernel cake require protein enhancement before it can be used for this purposes. In this study, wood adhesive was produced using palm kernel cake with protein content enhancement as a base ingredient. Soya protein extract was selected as a protein enhancement of palm kernel cake. Here the enhanced protein content palm kernel cake was reacted with polyetheleneimine and maleic anhydride at alkali environment. The experimental study was conducted at various compositions and various strength of alkali. The wood adhesive produced was tested on type II plywood. Japanese Agriculture Standard of strength and durability test was employed for the characterization of the adhesive produced. Results show that, palm kernel cake can be used as ingredient of protein based wood adhesive. In certain condition the mixture of palm kernel and soya protein show that the wood adhesive produced better strength and reliability compared to unmixed soya protein extract.
  L.Y. Hui , A.M. Mat Jais , D. Krishnaiah , M. Sundang , N.M. Ismail , T.L. Hong and A. Bono
  Channa Striatus is known as snakehead fish or local name as haruan, has been always associated with its medical value especially in wound healing. This fish is rich in protein as well as others biochemical compounds such as polyunsaturated fatty acids and antioxidants. Usually, the haruan is extracted and marketed in the form of liquid concentrated as health food supplement. In this study, encapsulated haruan extract were produced using spray drying process. The main purpose is for easy handling and the preservation of the biochemical compounds. The biochemical compound in the powder produced is expected to have properties such as more stable and longer shelf life. K-carrageenan was used as coating material for the encapsulzation during the spray drying process. The properties of encapsulated powder produced were observed in term of particle size distribution, Fish Protein Hydrolysates (FPH) and moisture content. The process parameters of spray drying process studied were hot air inlet flow rate, temperature and the liquid feed flow rate. The experimental run and optimization were designed using Box-Behnken method as suggested by Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The optimum operation conditions for highest protein extracted with lowest moisture content and smallest particle size distribution were obtained at hot air inlet temperature and flow rate of 144.51°C and 400 mL h-1, respectively; whereas, the liquid feed flow rate is at 47 m3 h-1. The optimal properties of encapsulated powder obtained were 5.2850 μm, 91% of protein and 8.7% in moisture content.
  D. Krishnaiah , R. Sarbatly and R. Nithyanandam
  Hot water extract of Morinda citrifolia L. fruit was spray dried using κ-carrageenan (1 wt%). Spray drying was carried out according to D-optimal design and independent variables selected were temperature and Mcore/Mwall. Spray drying process was optimized by using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) for four different responses such as moisture content, DPPH scavenging activity, Total Phenolic Content (TPC) and Total Flavonoid (TF). Effects of temperature and ratio of core to wall material found to be significant on all responses. Applying desirability function method, optimal spray drying condition for κ-carrageenan as binding material were found to be 1:1.5 (Mcore/Mwall) at 90°C. Experimental value of response variables match well with the predicted values. The nanoparticles obtained in this study represent an interesting food additive for incorporation into functional foods due to presence of antioxidants.
  C.G. Joseph , Y.L.S. Liew , D. Krishnaiah and A. Bono
  The use of chlorine bleaching in study and pulp industry has resulted in chlorinated phenol contaminated wastewater from that industry. A new wastewater treatment process, sonophotodegradation of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP) in a heterogeneous aqueous system was investigated and reported in this study. TCP was degraded with ultrasonic or ultraviolet irradiation or a combination of both, in the presence of titanium dioxide semiconductor catalyst (anatase and/or rutile), in order to study the effectiveness of sonocatalysis, photocatalysis and sonophotocatalysis oxidation in a batch sonophotoreactor system. Preliminary studies presented in this study suggested that rutile worked well under sonocatalysis, anatase was the preference for photocatalysis and sonophotocatalysis benefited from a combined rutile and anatase mixture catalyst. Sonophotocatalysis oxidation of TCP demonstrated a degradation that was higher than sonocatalysis or photocatalysis individually while the first-order kinetics rate constants indicated that sonophotocatalysis degradation of TCP was synergistic with a positive value of 0.0203 in the presence of the mixture catalyst.
  S.M. Anisuzzaman , D. Krishnaiah , S. Abang and G.M. Labadin
  This study reviews the suitability and effectiveness of oil palm shells as low cost adsorbents via physically activation with carbon dioxide as an adsorbent for denitrogenation of fuel under different concentrations. With hydrogen, high temperature and pressure, hydro-denitrogenation (HDN) is used to remove Nitrogen Containing Compounds (NCCs). However, the cost of HDN is increasing rapidly due to the increasing concentration of NCCs in fossil fuels. NCCs compete with sulfur compounds on the active sites of catalysts in the conventional process. Therefore, NCCs should be removed as much as possible. Thus, searching for an alternative process to remove NCCs in a cost efficient manner is very important.
  S.M. Anisuzzaman , D. Krishnaiah , C.G. Joseph , S. Abang and W.K. Tai
  Petroleum has been a major energy sources to our human being in operating machine and in other usages. The high profitable petroleum is important in our daily life but before acquiring the useful products, there are also impurities such as hydrogen sulfide which is available in the crude oil that must be removed to avoid any hazard that could bring to the environment and human health. In oil refinery industry, hydrogen sulfide is commonly removed through water stripper but very little data is available on the removal of hydrogen sulfide using adsorption process. Thus, in this study, simulation modeling of adsorption of hydrogen sulfide onto activated carbon was carried out by providing respective adsorption isotherm, adsorption kinetic, mass balance and kinetic modeling. Under isothermal conditions with no pressure drop and constant velocity, the simulation had been conducted to justify the feasibility of the data provided by the industry after optimizing the size of adsorption bed that should be used. Most of the parameters should be assumed with a reasonable value in order to continue with the simulation. As a result, the actual data provided by the industry shows the feasibility of the size of adsorption bed after optimization due to the high flow rate and high hydrogen sulfide concentration.
  Collin G. Joseph , A. Bono , S.M. Anisuzzaman , D. Krishnaiah and W.C. Tan
  The study aims to use, soot as adsorbent for the removal of 2, 5-dichlorophenol (2, 5-DCP) in aqueous medium. The adsorption kinetic and isotherm were studied using a variety of adsorption models. Soot, obtain from the exhaust pipe of vehicles, was a poor adsorbent with a very limited surface area. As such, the adsorption of 2, 5-DCP had to be conducted for 7 h in order to achieve equilibrium which was between the 240 and 360th min. The highest percentage of removal of 2, 5-DCP achieve was 43.9%. This showed that soot was a weak adsorbent. The experimental data showed that the adsorption kinetics and adsorption isotherm of 2, 5-DCP by soot obeyed the pseudo-second order kinetic model (R2 = 0.9985) and Freundlich isotherm (R2 = 0.9825), respectively indicating that both physisorption and chemisorptions were instrumental in the adsorption process. Characterization of the soot recovered from the exhaust pipe showed that the ash content and moisture content in soot were quite high at 4.62 and 2.50%, respectively. The SEM indicated that the soot was nanoparticle in size (>100 nm) with non-visible pores. The soot had spherical shape and tend to cluster together forming aggregates. The FTIR showed that the functional groups such as O-H, C-H and C = O groups, may have contributed to the adsorption process. The BET isotherm indicated that soot obey the type III isotherm without the presence of hysteresis loop. Although this material is not a good adsorbent, it adsorptive ability may be improved by altering its structure chemically providing a waste to wealth opportunity.
  D. Krishnaiah , S.M. Anisuzzaman , C.G. Joseph , S. Abang and L.C. Siang
  Water pollution is a very persistent problem. The intensive throwing up of different toxic substances without control constitutes a real danger for humanity. Phenolic compounds are common contaminants in wastewater, generated by petroleum and petrochemical, coal conversion and phenol producing industries. The phenols are considered as priority pollutants since they are harmful to organisms at low concentrations because of their potential harm to human health. United State Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations call for lowering phenol content in wastewater to less than 1 mg L-1 before discharging. This study focuses on the feasibility of using activated carbon to remove phenol from waste water in industry. Simulation by Aspen Adsorption is conducted to investigate the feasibility. Several sensitivity analyses such as changing the parameters which affected the rate of adsorption are discussed. Besides that, it is found that the scaling up of the column is not practicable in industry.
  R. Sarbatly , C.P. Yee , T.S. Fong and D. Krishnaiah
  The objective of this study is to purify red soil from Indah Permai (IP) for industrial applications. Particle size distribution of IP soil was studied and impurities of clay was removed. A series of methods for the extraction of iron oxides from soil and clay was tested with using dithionite (Na2S2O4) as reducing agent at varied pH. Theoretically, the oxidation potential of dithionite increases with increase in pH. A buffer was used in method 1 to maintain the pH at the optimum level (alkalinity). NaHCO3 is served as the buffer. HCl was used in method 2 to provide its acidic environment. However, method 3 reacts in neither acidic nor base environment. Results showed that different methods have different removal efficiency.
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