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Articles by D. W Kitzman
Total Records ( 3 ) for D. W Kitzman
  E Barasch , J. S Gottdiener , G Aurigemma , D. W Kitzman , J Han , W. J Kop and R. P. Tracy

Background— Myocardial fibrosis reflects excess collagen deposition in the extracellular left ventricular matrix, which has been associated with heart failure (HF). No studies have addressed the relation between fibrosis biomarkers and HF in the elderly.

Methods and Results— Serum fibrosis markers were measured in 880 participants of the Cardiovascular Health Study (mean age 77±6 years, 48% women). Participants with systolic HF (n=131, left ventricular ejection fraction <55%) and those with diastolic HF (n=179, left ventricular ejection fraction ≥55%) were compared with controls (280 with cardiovascular risk factors, and 279 healthy individuals) using a nested case-control design. Fibrosis markers included carboxyl-terminal peptide of procollagen type I, carboxyl-terminal telopeptide of collagen type I, and amino-terminal peptide of procollagen type III. Echocardiography was used to document systolic and diastolic function parameters. Analysis of variance and logistic regression analysis (per tertile odds ratios [OR]), adjusted by age, gender, race, hypertension, atrial fibrillation, coronary heart disease, baseline serum glucose, serum cystatin C, serum creatinine, C-reactive protein, any angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, spironolactone or any diuretic, NT-proBNP, and total bone mineral density were performed. Systolic HF was associated with significantly elevated carboxyl-terminal telopeptide of collagen type I (OR=2.6; 95% CI=1.2 to 5.7) and amino-terminal peptide of procollagen type III (OR=3.3; 95% CI=1.6 to 5.8), when adjusting for covariates. Associations of diastolic HF were significant for carboxyl-terminal telopeptide of collagen type I (OR=3.9; 95% CI=1.9 to 8.3) and amino-terminal peptide of procollagen type III (OR=2.7; 95% CI=1.4 to 5.4). HF was not associated with elevated carboxyl-terminal peptide of procollagen type I (P>0.10), and fibrosis markers did not significantly differ between HF with diastolic versus those with systolic dysfunction (P>0.10) whereas NT-proBNP mean values were higher in systolic heart failure than in diastolic heart failure (P<0.0001).

Conclusions— Fibrosis markers are significantly elevated in elderly individuals with diastolic or systolic HF. These associations remained significant when adjusting for covariates relevant to the aging process.

  D. W Kitzman , W. G Hundley , P. H Brubaker , T. M Morgan , J. B Moore , K. P Stewart and W. C. Little

Exercise intolerance is the primary symptom in older patients with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF); however, little is known regarding its mechanisms and therapy.

Methods and Results—

Seventy-one stable elderly (70±1 years) patients (80% women) with compensated HFPEF and controlled blood pressure were randomized into a 12-month follow-up double-blind trial of enalapril 20 mg/d versus placebo. Assessments were peak exercise oxygen consumption; 6-minute walk test; Minnesota Living with HF Questionnaire; MRI; Doppler echocardiography; and vascular ultrasound. Compliance by pill count was excellent (94%). Twenty-five patients in the enalapril group versus 34 in the placebo group completed the 12-month follow-up. During follow-up, there was no difference in the primary outcome of peak exercise oxygen consumption (enalapril, 14.5±3.2 mL/kg/min; placebo, 14.3±3.4 mL/kg/min; P=0.99), or in 6-minute walk distance, aortic distensibility (the primary mechanistic outcome), left ventricle mass, or neurohormonal profile. The effect size of enalapril on peak exercise oxygen consumption was small (0.7%; 95% CI, 4.2% to 5.6%). There was a trend toward improved Minnesota Living with HF Questionnaire total score (P=0.07), a modest reduction in systolic blood pressure at peak exercise (P=0.02), and a marginal improvement in carotid arterial distensibility (P=0.04).


In stable, older patients with compensated HFPEF and controlled blood pressure, 12 months of enalapril did not improve exercise capacity or aortic distensibility. These data, combined with those from large clinical event trials, suggest that angiotensin inhibition does not substantially improve key long-term clinical outcomes in this group of patients. This finding contrasts sharply with observations in HF with reduced EF and highlights our incomplete understanding of this important and common disorder.

  D. W Kitzman , P. H Brubaker , T. M Morgan , K. P Stewart and W. C. Little

Heart failure (HF) with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (HFPEF) is the most common form of HF in the older population. Exercise intolerance is the primary chronic symptom in patients with HFPEF and is a strong determinant of their reduced quality of life (QOL). Exercise training (ET) improves exercise intolerance and QOL in patients with HF with reduced ejection fraction (EF). However, the effect of ET in HFPEF has not been examined in a randomized controlled trial.

Methods and Results—

This 16-week investigation was a randomized, attention-controlled, single-blind study of medically supervised ET (3 days per week) on exercise intolerance and QOL in 53 elderly patients (mean age, 70±6 years; range, 60 to 82 years; women, 46) with isolated HFPEF (EF ≥50% and no significant coronary, valvular, or pulmonary disease). Attention controls received biweekly follow-up telephone calls. Forty-six patients completed the study (24 ET, 22 controls). Attendance at exercise sessions in the ET group was excellent (88%; range, 64% to 100%). There were no trial-related adverse events. The primary outcome of peak exercise oxygen uptake increased significantly in the ET group compared to the control group (13.8±2.5 to 16.1±2.6 mL/kg per minute [change, 2.3±2.2 mL/kg per minute] versus 12.8±2.6 to 12.5±3.4 mL/kg per minute [change, –0.3±2.1 mL/kg per minute]; P=0.0002). There were significant improvements in peak power output, exercise time, 6-minute walk distance, and ventilatory anaerobic threshold (all P<0.002). There was improvement in the physical QOL score (P=0.03) but not in the total score (P=0.11).


ET improves peak and submaximal exercise capacity in older patients with HFPEF.

Clinical Trial Registration—

URL: Unique identifier: NCT01113840.

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