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Articles by D Wang
Total Records ( 21 ) for D Wang
  K Zhang , D Wang and J. Song

Cortactin is an F-actin binding protein, regulating cell movement and adhesive junction assembly. However, the function of cortactin in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) remains elusive. Here we found that during transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)-induced EMT in AML-12 murine hepatocytes, cortactin underwent tyrosine dephosphorylation. Inhibition of the dephosphorylation of cortactin by sodium vanadate blocked TGF-β1-induced EMT. Knockdown of cortactin by RNAi led to decrease of intercellular junction proteins E-cadherin and Zonula occludens-1 and induced expression of mesenchymal protein fibronectin. Additionally, knockdown of cortactin further promoted TGF-β1-induced EMT in AML-12 cells, as determined by EMT markers and cell morphological changes. Moreover, migration assay showed that cortactin knockdown promoted the migration of AML-12 cells, and also enhanced TGF-β1-induced migration. Our study showed the involvement of cortactin in the TGF-β1-induced EMT.

  X Zhang , Z Zhang , G Chen , M Zhao , D Wang , Z Du , Y Xu and X. Yu

Previous studies have shown that histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis) can kill cancer cells. In addition, HDACis can induce mitotic catastrophe in cancer cells due to insufficient localization of chromosomal passenger complex (CPC) to the centromere. However, the mechanisms behind these phenomena remain unclear. In this study, we found that a HDACi, FK228, affected multiple epigenetic modification characteristics of the centromere, including enhanced acetylation of histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9), decreased trimethylation of H3K9, and decreased phosphorylation of histone H3 serine 10 (H3S10) and centromere protein A (CENP-A). These epigenetic changes implied that H3K9 hyperacetylation inhibits the CPC recruitment, induces impaired centromere assembly and function, and eventually leads to aberrant mitosis. These data suggested that hypoacetylation of histone in the pericentromere is the most important landmark for recruiting CPC and leading to the mitotic catastrophe in HDACi-induced killing of cancer cells.

  K. T Pfaffenbach , C. L Gentile , A. M Nivala , D Wang , Y Wei and M. J. Pagliassotti

Prolonged endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) have been linked to apoptosis via several mechanisms, including increased expression of C/EBP homologous protein (Chop). Increased long-chain fatty acids, in particular saturated fatty acids, induce ER stress, Chop expression, and apoptosis in liver cells. The first aim of the present study was to determine the role of Chop in lipid-induced hepatocyte cell death and liver injury induced by a methionine-choline-deficient diet. Albumin-bound palmitate increased Chop gene and protein expression in a dose-dependent fashion in H4IIE liver cells. siRNA-mediated silencing of Chop in H4IIE liver cells reduced thapsigargin-mediated cell death by ~40% and delayed palmitate-mediated cell death, but only at high concentrations of palmitate (400–500 µM). Similar results were observed in primary hepatocytes isolated from Chop-knockout mice. Indices of liver injury were also not reduced in Chop-knockout mice provided a methionine-choline-deficient diet. To ascertain whether ER stress was linked to palmitate-induced cell death, primary hepatocytes were incubated in the absence or presence of the chemical chaperones taurine-conjugated ursodeoxycholic acid or 4-phenylbutyric acid. The presence of either of these chemical chaperones protected liver cells from palmitate-mediated ER stress and cell death, in part, via inhibition of JNK activation. These data suggest that ER stress is linked to palmitate-mediated cell death via mechanisms that include JNK activation.

  S Priebe , M Bogic , D Ajdukovic , T Franciskovic , G. M Galeazzi , A Kucukalic , D Lecic Tosevski , N Morina , M Popovski , D Wang and M. Schutzwohl

Context  War experience may affect mental health. However, no community-based study has assessed mental disorders several years after war using consistent random sampling of war-affected people across several Western countries.

Objectives  To assess current prevalence rates of mental disorders in an adult population who were directly exposed to war in the Balkans and who still live in the area of conflict, and to identify factors associated with the occurrence of different types of mental disorders.

Design, Setting, and Participants  War-affected community samples in Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia, Kosovo, the Republic of Macedonia, and Serbia were recruited through a random-walk technique.

Main Outcome Measure  Prevalence rates of mood, anxiety, and substance use disorders were assessed using the Mini–International Neuropsychiatric Interview.

Results  Between 637 and 727 interviewees were assessed in each country (N = 3313). The prevalence rates were 15.6% to 41.8% for anxiety disorders, 12.1% to 47.6% for mood disorders, and 0.6% to 9.0% for substance use disorders. In multivariable analyses across countries, older age, female sex, having more potentially traumatic experiences during and after the war, and unemployment were associated with higher rates of mood and anxiety disorders. In addition, mood disorders were correlated with lower educational level and having more potentially traumatic experiences before the war. Male sex and not living with a partner were the only factors associated with higher rates of substance use disorders. Most of these associations did not significantly differ among countries.

Conclusions  Several years after the end of the war, the prevalence rates of mental disorders among war-affected people vary across countries but are generally high. War experiences appear to be linked to anxiety and mood disorders but not substance use disorders. Long-term policies to meet the mental health needs of war-affected populations are required.

  K. R Chava , M Karpurapu , D Wang , M Bhanoori , V Kundumani Sridharan , Q Zhang , T Ichiki , W. C Glasgow and G. N. Rao

Objective— Migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) from media to intima is a key event in the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis and restenosis. The lipoxygenase products of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were shown to play a role in these diseases. cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) has been implicated in the regulation of VSMC growth and motility in response to thrombin and angiotensin II. The aim of the present study was to test the role of CREB in an oxidized lipid molecule, 15(S)-HETE–induced VSMC migration and neointima formation.

Methods and Results— 15(S)-HETE stimulated VSMC migration in CREB-dependent manner, as measured by the modified Boyden chamber method. Blockade of MEK1, JNK1, or p38MAPK inhibited 15(S)-HETE–induced CREB phosphorylation and VSMC migration. 15(S)-HETE induced expression and secretion of interleukin-6 (IL-6), as analyzed by RT-PCR and ELISA, respectively. Neutralizing anti–IL-6 antibodies blocked 15(S)-HETE–induced VSMC migration. Dominant-negative mutant-mediated blockade of ERK1/2, JNK1, p38MAPK, or CREB suppressed 15(S)-HETE–induced IL-6 expression in VSMCs. Serial 5' deletions and site-directed mutagenesis of IL-6 promoter along with chromatin immunoprecipitation using anti-CREB antibodies showed that cAMP response element is essential for 15(S)-HETE–induced IL-6 expression. Dominant-negative CREB also suppressed balloon injury–induced IL-6 expression, SMC migration from media to intimal region, and neointima formation. Adenovirus-mediated transduction of 15-lipoxygenase 2 (15-LOX2) caused increased production of 15-HETE in VSMCs and enhanced IL-6 expression, SMC migration from media to intimal region, and neointima formation in response to arterial injury.

Conclusions— The above results suggest a role for 15-LOX2–15-HETE in the regulation of VSMC migration and neointima formation involving CREB-mediated IL-6 expression.

  M Zhang , L Zhang , J Zou , C Yao , H Xiao , Q Liu , J Wang , D Wang , C Wang and Z. Guo

Motivation: According to current consistency metrics such as percentage of overlapping genes (POG), lists of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) detected from different microarray studies for a complex disease are often highly inconsistent. This irreproducibility problem also exists in other high-throughput post-genomic areas such as proteomics and metabolism. A complex disease is often characterized with many coordinated molecular changes, which should be considered when evaluating the reproducibility of discovery lists from different studies.

Results: We proposed metrics percentage of overlapping genes-related (POGR) and normalized POGR (nPOGR) to evaluate the consistency between two DEG lists for a complex disease, considering correlated molecular changes rather than only counting gene overlaps between the lists. Based on microarray datasets of three diseases, we showed that though the POG scores for DEG lists from different studies for each disease are extremely low, the POGR and nPOGR scores can be rather high, suggesting that the apparently inconsistent DEG lists may be highly reproducible in the sense that they are actually significantly correlated. Observing different discovery results for a disease by the POGR and nPOGR scores will obviously reduce the uncertainty of the microarray studies. The proposed metrics could also be applicable in many other high-throughput post-genomic areas.

  S. Y Cheranov , D Wang , V Kundumani Sridharan , M Karpurapu , Q Zhang , K. R Chava and G. N. Rao

To understand the molecular basis underlying 15(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (15(S)-HETE)–induced angiogenesis, we have studied the role of the Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription (Jak-STAT) signaling. The 15(S)-HETE stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of Jak2 in a time-dependent manner in human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (HRMVECs). Inhibition of Jak2 activation via adenovirus-mediated expression of its dominant-negative mutant attenuated 15(S)-HETE–induced HRMVEC migration and tube formation and Matrigel plug angiogenesis. Similarly, 15(S)-HETE activated tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT-5B in a time-dependent manner. Dominant-negative mutant-mediated interference of STAT-5B activation suppressed 15(S)-HETE–induced HRMVEC migration and tube formation and Matrigel plug angiogenesis. The 15(S)-HETE induced interleukin-8 (IL-8) expression in Jak2-STAT-5B–dependent manner in HRMVECs. In addition, neutralizing anti–IL-8 antibodies reduced 15(S)-HETE–induced HRMVEC migration and tube formation and Matrigel plug angiogenesis. Cloning and Transfac analysis of IL-8 promoter revealed the presence of 1 putative STAT-binding sequence at –476 nt, and electrophoretic mobility shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis showed the binding of STAT-5B to this site in response to 15(S)-HETE. Mutational analysis showed that STAT binding site is essential for 15(S)-HETE–induced IL-8 promoter activity. Together, these observations suggest that 15(S)-HETE–induced angiogenesis requires Jak2-STAT-5B–dependent expression of IL-8.

  P. H Huang , D Wang , H. C Chuang , S Wei , S. K Kulp and C. S. Chen

As part of our effort to understand the mechanism underlying -tocopheryl succinate [vitamin E succinate (VES)]-mediated antitumor effects, we investigated the signaling pathway by which VES suppresses androgen receptor (AR) expression in prostate cancer cells. VES and, to a greater extent, its truncated derivative TS-1 mediated transcriptional repression of AR in prostate cancer cells but not in normal prostate epithelial cells; a finding that underscores the differential susceptibility of normal versus malignant cells to the antiproliferative effect of these agents. This AR repression was attributable to the ability of VES and TS-1 to facilitate the proteasomal degradation of the transcription factor Sp1. This mechanistic link was corroborated by the finding that proteasome inhibitors or ectopic expression of Sp1 protected cells against drug-induced AR ablation. Furthermore, evidence suggests that the destabilization of Sp1 by VES and TS-1 resulted from the inactivation of Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) as a consequence of increased phosphatase activity of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). Stable transfection of LNCaP cells with the dominant-negative JNK1 plasmid mimicked drug-induced Sp1 repression, whereas constitutive activation of JNK kinase activity or inhibition of PP2A activity by okadaic acid protected Sp1 from VES- and TS-1-induced degradation. From a mechanistic perspective, the ability of VES and TS-1 to activate PP2A activity underscores their broad spectrum of effects on multiple signaling mechanisms, including those mediated by Akt, mitogen-activated protein kinases, nuclear factor kappaB, Sp1 and AR. This pleiotropic effect in conjunction with low toxicity suggests the translational potential for developing TS-1 into potent PP2A-activating agents for cancer therapy.

  J. R Weng , C. H Tsai , H. A Omar , A. M Sargeant , D Wang , S. K Kulp , C. L Shapiro and C. S. Chen

The molecular heterogeneity of human tumors challenges the development of effective preventive and therapeutic strategies. To overcome this issue, a rational approach is the concomitant targeting of clinically relevant cellular abnormalities with combination therapy or a potent multi-targeted agent. OSU-A9 is a novel indole-3-carbinol derivative that retains the parent compound's ability to perturb multiple components of oncogenic signaling, but provides marked advantages in chemical stability and antitumor potency. Here, we show that OSU-A9 exhibits two orders of magnitude greater potency than indole-3-carbinol in inducing apoptosis in various breast cancer cell lines with distinct genetic abnormalities, including MCF-7, MDA-MB-231 and SKBR3, with the half maximal inhibitory concentration in the range of 1.2–1.8 µM vis-à-vis 200 µM for indole-3-carbinol. This differential potency was paralleled by OSU-A9’s superior activity against multiple components of the Akt–nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-B) and stress response signaling pathways. Notable among these were the increased estrogen receptor (ER)-β/ER expression ratio, reduced expression of HER2 and CXCR4 and the upregulation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor expression and its downstream target NF-E2 p45-regulated factor (Nrf2). Non-malignant MCF-10A cells were resistant to OSU-A9’s antiproliferative effects. Daily oral administration of OSU-A9 at 25 and 50 mg/kg for 49 days significantly inhibited MCF-7 tumor growth by 59 and 70%, respectively, without overt signs of toxicity or evidence of induced hepatic biotransformation enzymes. In summary, OSU-A9 is a potent, orally bioavailable inhibitor of the Akt–NF-B signaling network, targeting multiple aspects of breast tumor pathogenesis and progression. Thus, its translational potential for the treatment or prevention of breast cancer warrants further investigation.

  Z Han , Z Hong , C Chen , Q Gao , D Luo , Y Fang , Y Cao , T Zhu , X Jiang , Q Ma , W Li , L Han , D Wang , G Xu , S Wang , L Meng , J Zhou and D. Ma

Tumor cells acquire the ability to proliferate uncontrollably, resist apoptosis, sustain angiogenesis and evade immune surveillance. Signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3 regulates all of these processes in a surprisingly large number of human cancers. Consequently, the STAT3 protein is emerging as an ideal target for cancer therapy. This paper reports the generation of an oncolytic adenovirus (M4), which selectively blocks STAT3 signaling in tumor cells as a novel therapeutic strategy. M4 selectively replicated in tumor cells and expressed high levels of antisense STAT3 complementary DNA during the late phase of the viral infection in a replication-dependent manner. The viral progeny yield of M4 in tumor cells was much higher than that of the parent adenoviral mutants, Ad5/dE1A. M4 effectively silenced STAT3 and its target genes in tumor cells while sparing normal cells and exhibited potent antitumoral efficacy in vitro and in vivo. Systemic administration of M4 significantly inhibited tumor growth in an orthotopic gastric carcinoma mouse model, eliminated abdominal cavity metastases and prolonged survival time. In summary, M4 has low toxicity and great potential as a therapeutic agent for different types of cancers.

  A. L Beitelshees , H Navare , D Wang , Y Gong , J Wessel , J. I Moss , T. Y Langaee , R. M Cooper DeHoff , W Sadee , C. J Pepine , N. J Schork and J. A. Johnson

Background— The gene encoding the target of calcium channel blockers, the 1c-subunit of the L-type calcium channel (CACNA1C), has not been well characterized, and only small pharmacogenetic studies testing this gene have been published to date.

Methods and Results— Resequencing of CACNA1C was performed followed by a nested case-control study of the INternational VErapamil SR/trandolapril STudy (INVEST) GENEtic Substudy (INVEST-GENES). Of 46 polymorphisms identified, 8 were assessed in the INVEST-GENES. Rs1051375 was found to have a significant interaction with treatment strategy (P=0.0001). Rs1051375 A/A genotype was associated with a 46% reduction in the primary outcome among those randomized to verapamil SR treatment, when compared with atenolol treatment (odds ratio 0.54 95% CI 0.32 to 0.92). In heterozygous A/G individuals, there was no difference in the occurrence of the primary outcome when randomized to verapamil SR versus atenolol treatment (odds ratio 1.47 95% CI 0.86 to 2.53), whereas homozygous G/G individuals had a greater than 4-fold increased risk of the primary outcome with verapamil treatment compared with those randomized to atenolol treatment (odds ratio 4.59 95% CI 1.67 to 12.67). We did not identify allelic expression imbalance or differences in mRNA expression in heart tissue by rs1051375 genotype.

Conclusions— Variation in CACNA1C is associated with treatment response among hypertensive patients with stable coronary artery disease. Our data suggest a genetically defined group of patients that benefit most from calcium channel blocker therapy, a group that benefits most from β-blocker therapy, and a third group in which calcium channel blocker and β-blocker therapy are equivalent.

  R Bao , C. J Lai , H Qu , D Wang , L Yin , B Zifcak , R Atoyan , J Wang , M Samson , J Forrester , S DellaRocca , G. X Xu , X Tao , H. X Zhai , X Cai and C. Qian

Purpose: We designed and synthesized CUDC-305, an HSP90 inhibitor of the novel imidazopyridine class. Here, we report its unique pharmacologic properties and antitumor activities in a variety of tumor types.

Experimental Design: The potency of the compound was analyzed by fluorescence polarization competition binding assay. Its antiproliferative activities were assessed in 40 human cancer cell lines. Its pharmacologic properties and antitumor activities were evaluated in a variety of tumor xenograft models.

Results: CUDC-305 shows high affinity for HSP90/β (IC50, ~100 nmol/L) and HSP90 complex derived from cancer cells (IC50, 48.8 nmol/L). It displays potent antiproliferative activity against a broad range of cancer cell lines (mean IC50, 220 nmol/L). CUDC-305 exhibits high oral bioavailability (96.0%) and selective retention in tumor (half-life, 20.4 hours) compared with normal tissues. Furthermore, CUDC-305 can cross blood-brain barrier and reach therapeutic levels in brain tissue. CUDC-305 exhibits dose-dependent antitumor activity in an s.c. xenograft model of U87MG glioblastoma and significantly prolongs animal survival in U87MG orthotopic model. CUDC-305 also displays potent antitumor activity in animal models of erlotinib-resistant non–small cell lung cancer and induces tumor regression in animal models of MDA-MB-468 breast cancer and MV4-11 acute myelogenous leukemia. Correlating with its efficacy in these various tumor models, CUDC-305 robustly inhibits multiple signaling pathways, including PI3K/AKT and RAF/MEK/ERK, and induces apoptosis. In combination studies, CUDC-305 enhances the antitumor activity of standard-of-care agents in breast and colorectal tumor models.

Conclusion: CUDC-305 is a promising drug candidate for the treatment of a variety of cancers, including brain malignancies.

  J Huang , Z Xu , D Wang , C. M Ogata , K Palczewski , X Lee and N. M. Young

The Maclura pomifera agglutinin (MPA) recognizes the T-antigen disaccharide Galβ1,3GalNAc mainly through interaction of the -GalNAc moiety with its primary site, but the interactions of the two flanking subsites A and B with aglycones and substituents other than Gal, respectively, are not well understood. We therefore characterized the specificity of MPA in more detail by glycan microarray analysis and determined the crystal structures of MPA without ligand and in complexes with Galβ1,3GalNAc and p-nitrophenyl -GalNAc. In both sugar complexes, pairs of ligands created inter-tetramer hydrogen-bond bridging networks. While subsite A showed increased affinity for hydrophobic aglycones, it also accommodated several sugar substituents. Notably, a GalNAc-O-tripeptide, a Tn-antigen mimic, showed lower affinity than these compounds in surface plasmon resonance (SPR) experiments. The glycan array data that showed subsite B accepted compounds in which the O3 position of the GalNAc was substituted with various sugars other than Gal, but substitutions at O6 led to inactivity. Additions to the Gal moiety of the disaccharide also had only small effects on reactivity. These results are all compatible with the features seen in the crystal structures.

  J Zheng , G Wang , G. Y Yang , D Wang , X Luo , C Chen , Z Zhang , Q Li , W Xu , Z Li and D. Wang

This Phase II study was conducted to evaluate the activity and feasibility of a regimen of nedaplatin and 5-fluorouracil as induction chemotherapy, followed by intensity-modulated radiotherapy concurrent with chemotherapy in patients with locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma.


Patients received neoadjuvant chemotherapy comprised two cycles of 5-fluorouracil at 700 mg/m2/day administered on days 1–4 as continuous intravenous infusion and nedaplatin (100 mg/m2 administered i.v. over 2 h) given after the administration of 5-fluorouracil on day 1, repeated every 3 weeks, followed by intensity-modulated radiotherapy concurrent with nedaplatin. During intensity-modulated radiotherapy, nedaplatin was administered at a dose of 100 mg/m2 intravenous infusion on days 1, 22 and 43, given ~60 min before radiation.


Fifty-nine (95.8%) of the 60 patients were assessable for response. Thirty-eight cases of complete response and 14 cases of partial response were confirmed after completion of chemoradiation, with the objective response rate of 86.7% (95% CI, 78.1–95.3%). The median follow-up period was 48 months (range, 30–62 months). The 3-year progression-free survival and overall survival were 75.0% (95% CI, 63.0–87.0%) and 85.5% (95% CI, 75.9–95.1%). No patient showed Grade 3 or higher renal dysfunction. The most commonly observed late effect was xerostomia, but the severity diminished over time, and the detectable xerostomia at 24 months was 10.2%. There were no treatment-related deaths during this study.


Neoadjuvant chemotherapy with nedaplatin and 5-fluorouracil followed by concomitant nedaplatin and intensity-modulated radiotherapy is an effective and safe treatment for Southern China patients affected by locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

  L Kang , X Zhang , Y Xie , Y Tu , D Wang , Z Liu and Z. Y. Wang

Accumulating evidence suggested that an orphan G protein-coupled receptor (GPR)30, mediates nongenomic responses to estrogen. The present study was performed to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying GPR30 function. We found that knockdown of GPR30 expression in breast cancer SK-BR-3 cells down-regulated the expression levels of estrogen receptor (ER)-36, a variant of ER-. Introduction of a GPR30 expression vector into GPR30 nonexpressing cells induced endogenous ER-36 expression, and cotransfection assay demonstrated that GPR30 activated the promoter activity of ER-36 via an activator protein 1 binding site. Both 17β-estradiol (E2) and G1, a compound reported to be a selective GPR30 agonist, increased the phosphorylation levels of the MAPK/ERK1/2 in SK-BR-3 cells, which could be blocked by an anti-ER-36-specific antibody against its ligand-binding domain. G1 induced activities mediated by ER-36, such as transcription activation activity of a VP16-ER-36 fusion protein and activation of the MAPK/ERK1/2 in ER-36-expressing cells. ER-36-expressing cells, but not the nonexpressing cells, displayed high-affinity, specific E2 and G1 binding, and E2- and G1-induced intracellular Ca2+ mobilization only in ER-36 expressing cells. Taken together, our results demonstrated that previously reported activities of GPR30 in response to estrogen were through its ability to induce ER-36 expression. The selective G protein-coupled receptor (GPR)30 agonist G1 actually interacts with ER-36. Thus, the ER- variant ER-36, not GPR30, is involved in nongenomic estrogen signaling.

  B Peng , L Cao , X Ma , W Wang , D Wang and L. Yu

Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 2, MMP7 and MMP9 are important members of the MMP family. Four polymorphisms in the promoter region of these MMPs, which are MMP2 –1306 C>T, MMP2 –735 C>T, MMP7 –181 A>G and MMP9 –1562 C>T, have been reported to be functional and may contribute to genetic susceptibility to cancers. However, the associations between these polymorphisms and cancer risk remain inconclusive due to conflicting results from different case–control studies. To better evaluate the role of these polymorphisms in cancer development, we conducted a meta-analysis that included 51 studies, with more than 40 000 subjects. The results showed that under dominant genetic model, MMP2 –1306 T was associated with lower susceptibility to lung cancer [odds ratio (OR) = 0.50, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.43–0.59, Pheterogeneity = 0.147, I2 = 44.1%], head and neck cancer (OR = 0.53, 95% CI 0.41–0.69, Pheterogeneity = 0.974, I2 = 0.0%) and oesophageal cancer (OR = 0.67, 95% CI 0.55–0.80, Pheterogeneity = 0.593, I2 = 0.0%); MMP2-735T was associated with lower risk in lung cancer (OR = 0.65, 95%CI 0.53–0.79, Pheterogeneity = 0.42, I2 = 0.0%) and oesophageal cancer (OR = 0.84, 95% CI 0.70–0.99, Pheterogeneity = 0.206, I2 = 37.4%); MMP7 –181 AG and GG genotype carriers had an increased gastric cancer risk (OR = 1.90, 95% CI 1.43–2.51, Pheterogeneity = 0.992, I2 = 0.0%) and MMP9 –1562 C>T was not associated with cancer risk in the whole group analysis (OR = 0.99, 95% CI 0.91–1.08, Pheterogeneity = 0.419, I2 = 3.0%) and subgroup analyses. In all, our meta-analysis suggests that MMP2 –1306 C>T, MMP2 –735 C>T and MMP7 –181 A>G may play allele-specific roles in cancer development, while MMP9 –1562 C>T may not be a major risk factor for most cancer types. Large case–control studies should be performed to clarify the possible roles of these four polymorphisms in different kinds of cancer in more detail.

  S Priebe , C Katsakou , M Glockner , A Dembinskas , A Fiorillo , A Karastergiou , A Kiejna , L Kjellin , P Nawka , G Onchev , J Raboch , M Schuetzwohl , Z Solomon , F Torres Gonzalez , D Wang and T. Kallert


Legislation and practice of involuntary hospital admission vary substantially among European countries, but differences in outcomes have not been studied.


To explore patients’ views following involuntary hospitalisation in different European countries.


In a prospective study in 11 countries, 2326 consecutive involuntary patients admitted to psychiatric hospital departments were interviewed within 1 week of admission; 1809 were followed up 1 month and 1613 3 months later. Patients’ views as to whether the admission was right were the outcome criterion.


In the different countries, between 39 and 71% felt the admission was right after 1 month, and between 46 and 86% after 3 months. Females, those living alone and those with a diagnosis of schizophrenia had more negative views. Adjusting for confounding factors, differences between countries were significant.


International differences in legislation and practice may be relevant to outcomes and inform improvements in policies, particularly in countries with poorer outcomes.

  G Fu , Y Chen , M Yu , A Podd , J Schuman , Y He , L Di , M Yassai , D Haribhai , P. E North , J Gorski , C. B Williams , D Wang and R. Wen

Phospholipase C1 (PLC1) is an important signaling effector of T cell receptor (TCR). To investigate the role of PLC1 in T cell biology, we generated and examined mice with T cell–specific deletion of PLC1. We demonstrate that PLC1 deficiency affects positive and negative selection, significantly reduces single-positive thymocytes and peripheral T cells, and impairs TCR-induced proliferation and cytokine production, and the activation of ERK, JNK, AP-1, NFAT, and NF-B. Importantly, PLC1 deficiency impairs the development and function of FoxP3+ regulatory T cells, causing inflammatory/autoimmune symptoms. Therefore, PLC1 is essential for T cell development, activation, and tolerance.

  X Huang , X Bai , Y Cao , J Wu , M Huang , D Tang , S Tao , T Zhu , Y Liu , Y Yang , X Zhou , Y Zhao , M Wu , J Wei , D Wang , G Xu , S Wang , D Ma and J. Zhou

Angiogenesis is increasingly recognized as an important prognosticator associated with the progression of lymphoma and as an attractive target for novel modalities. We report a previously unrecognized mechanism by which lymphoma endothelium facilitates the growth and dissemination of lymphoma by interacting with circulated T cells and suppresses the activation of CD4+ T cells. Global gene expression profiles of microdissected endothelium from lymphoma and reactive lymph nodes revealed that T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain–containing molecule 3 (Tim-3) was preferentially expressed in lymphoma-derived endothelial cells (ECs). Clinically, the level of Tim-3 in B cell lymphoma endothelium was closely correlated to both dissemination and poor prognosis. In vitro, Tim-3+ ECs modulated T cell response to lymphoma surrogate antigens by suppressing activation of CD4+ T lymphocytes through the activation of the interleukin-6–STAT3 pathway, inhibiting Th1 polarization, and providing protective immunity. In a lymphoma mouse model, Tim-3–expressing ECs promoted the onset, growth, and dissemination of lymphoma by inhibiting activation of CD4+ T cells and Th1 polarization. Our findings strongly argue that the lymphoma endothelium is not only a vessel system but also a functional barrier facilitating the establishment of lymphoma immune tolerance. These findings highlight a novel molecular mechanism that is a potential target for enhancing the efficacy of tumor immunotherapy and controlling metastatic diseases.

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