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Articles by C.U. Igwe
Total Records ( 6 ) for C.U. Igwe
  C.U. Igwe , A.O. Ojiako , J.E. Okwara , A.A. Emejulu and R.N. Nwaoguikpe
  Twenty-four male albino rats, 4 weeks old were randomly distributed into 4 groups (A-D) and fed growers’ mash as the control diet and 25, 50 and 75% oven-dried, ground Macrotermes nigeriensis fortified diets respectively for a total period of 28 days. The effects of the diets on hepatic, renal and haematologic function indices of albino rats were studied. The animals fed the fortified diets had non-significantly (p>0.05) lesser body weight gains than the control animals. The fortified diets elicited dose-dependent increases in the levels of blood total protein, albumin, packed cell volume, hemoglobin and red blood cell counts as well as on the calculated red cell indices. The fortified diets did not significantly (p>0.05) alter the activities of plasma alanine and aspartate aminotransferases as well as the concentrations of total bilirubin, urea and creatinine. The results indicate that the fortified diets do not have detrimental hepatic, renal or haematologic effects but rather may be recommended for fortification of human and animal food, especially in weaning diets of growing children and nursing mothers to combat food insecurity and malnutrition.
  O.A. Ojiako and C.U. Igwe
  Ripe fruits of Trichosanthes anguina (snake tomato) were subjected to phytochemical and proximate analyses. Hepatotoxic effects of various feeds compounded with fruits and seeds of the plant were also investigated. Twenty-five male rabbits randomly distributed into 5 groups (A-E) of 5 animals each, were respectively fed grower`s mash as the control diet, and raw fruits, cooked fruits, cooked fruits without seeds and cooked seeds respectively for 4 weeks. The levels of serum total (TB) and conjugated (CB) bilirubin, as well as aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities were spectrophotometrically determined weekly. The presence of saponins, flavonoids, cyanogenic and cardiac glycosides as well as tannins was observed. The proximate and vitamin analyses yielded moisture (93.15±0.05%), carbohydrates (3.48±0.04%), proteins (1.85±0.04%), vitamins C (18.9±0.05 mg 100 mL-1) and A (347.0±0.02 ug 100 mL-1). At the end of the feeding period, groups B and E animals significantly lost 102.5±10.61 g and 47.5±17.59 g of their body weight (p<0.05), while groups C and D animals, non significantly gained 20.0±8.28 g and 25.0±6.12 g (p>0.05) respectively, in relation to the control group. The levels of serum TB, CB, AST, ALT and ALP were all significantly raised in groups B and E animals (p<0.01). However, in groups C and D, only ALP activity was significantly raised (p<0.05), with TB, AST and ALT levels remaining almost normal. The results indicate that T. anguina fruit contains important nutrients and will not be hepatotoxic unless consumed raw or unprocessed. The findings are of nutritional and industrial relevance since the fruit is currently being used in place of tomatoes in many homes in Nigeria.
  C.O. Ujowundu , C.U. Igwe , V.H.A. Enemor , L.A. Nwaogu and O.E. Okafor
  Aqueous leaf extracts of Boerhavia diffusa and Commelina nudiflora were evaluated for nutritional and anti-nutritional compositions. The results showed that both vegetables contained saponins, alkaloids and flavonoids. The proximate and vitamin compositions of B. diffusa and C. nudiflora included mainly moisture (82.22% and 88.63%), carbohydrate (10.56% and 5.67%), vitamin C (44.80 and 41.60mg/100g dry weight), vitamin B3 (97.00 and 66.20mg/100g) and vitamin B2 (22.00 and 8.70mg/100g) respectively. The mineral contents of the defatted leaf extracts were found to be Na (162.50 and 75.55mg/100g), Ca (174.09 and 240.00mg/100g) and Mg (8.68 and 6.63mg/100g) for B. diffusa and C. nudiflora respectively. Iodine was detected at 0.002mg/100g in B. diflusa leaf extract only. The proximate, vitamin and mineral compositions obtained suggest that the leaves, as cheap sources of vitamins C, B3 and B2, as well as other macro-and micro-nutrients, can be incorporated into human and animal diet to meet their recommended daily allowances. The content of flavonoids and vitamin C in the leaf extracts also suggests possible anti-oxidant effects of these leafy vegetables.
  O.A. Ojiako , C.U. Igwe , N.C. Agha , C.A. Ogbuji and V.A. Onwuliri
  Flours produced from raw, blanched and boiled seeds of Sphenostylis stenocarpa (African yam bean), Sesamum indicum (Sesame seed), Monodora myristica (Calabash nutmeg) and Afzelia africana (African oak) were evaluated for total protein and amino acid compositions. The results show that the seeds of S. indicum had the highest total protein content (24.74±0.56%) relative to those of S. stenocarpa (18.90±0.35%), M. myristica (12.83±0.40%) and A. africana (9.56±0.12%). The amino acid contents followed the pattern 0.030±0.010 mol/l for S. stenocarpa >0.025±0.005 mol/l for A. africana >0.014±0.003 mol/l for M. myristica >0.010±0.002 mol/l for S. indicum. The seeds were found to be rich in amino acids especially the essential amino acids which relative to the non-essential amino acids had high percentages of 81, 80, 77 and 70% for S. stenocarpa, M. myristica, S. indicum and A. Africana respectively. Boiling significantly (p<0.05) reduced the protein and amino acid contents of all the seeds, while blanching only significantly (p<0.05) reduced the amino acid contents of S. stenocarpa, S. indicum and A. Africana seeds. The results suggest that the seeds are potentially important plant sources of proteins and amino acids especially the essential amino acids necessary for human and livestock nutrition.
  O.A. Ojiako , C.O. Ujowundu , C.S. Alisi , C.U. Igwe and C.A. Ogbuji
  Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of some seafood diets on some important biochemical parameters with a view to recommending them for inclusion in the daily diets of resource-constrained persons who are hapless victims of the deadly collision of malnutrition and a flotilla of communicable diseases prevalent in a tropical country like Nigeria. Methodology: Adult rabbits were placed into six dietary groups with the positive control fed normal commercial rabbit diet while the diets of the five treated groups were supplemented with Cambarellus diminutus (crayfish) Cardisoma armatum (crab), Tympanotonus fuscatus (periwinkle), Ergeria radiata (clam) and a combination of the four, respectively. Serum lipids, proteins and electrolytes of the rabbits were estimated after 28 days of feeding. Results: The results showed that supplementation of normal feed with seafoods had positive health outcomes based on the biochemical parameters assesed. Conclusion: Seafoods could be utilized in dietary modifications to improve the nutritional need of the human and animals and to lower plasma cholesterol concentration.
  C.O. Ibegbulem , C.U. Igwe , E.U. Eyong , E.U. Essien , M.O. Wegwu and D. Akachukwu
  Traditional medicines are administered mostly as decoctions. The mechanism of the LDL-cholesterol lowering effect of Terminalia littoralis decoction used in ethno-medicine is hypothesized. The decoction prepared from fallen dry leaves of T. littoralis was screened for its relevant phytochemical contents. The pH, concentration and fibre content were of the decoction determined. A feeding study using the decoction as the only source of fluid was carried out for 35 days using albino rates of the Wistar strain. Anthropometric measurements and serological examinations were also carried out. Hypothetical deductions were based on the presence of phytochemical and biochemical constituents with reported pharmacological activities in relation to pharmacological outcome. The decoction did not significantly (p>0.05) affect the liver function indices. It however significantly (p<0.05) increased body weight and conversion of feed mass to body mass but reduced serum LDL cholesterol concentration and LDL-cholesterol/ HDL-cholesterol ratio. The hypothesized mechanisms were that decoction’s phytosterols competitively inhibited uptake of dietary cholesterol by intestinal cells and HMG-CoA reductase activity, the fibre content reduced enterohepatic bile acid cycle, the catechins increased LDL receptor activity and the tannin, flavonoid and saponin prevented the oxidation of LDL. In conclusion, the phytochemical and biochemical constituents of the Terminalia littoralis decoction lowered LDL-cholesterol through a combination of different biochemical mechanisms.
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