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Articles by C.Q. Zhang
Total Records ( 2 ) for C.Q. Zhang
  K.H. Wang , C.Q. Zhang and J.L. Xu
  Trellis Coded Modulation (TCM) technique offering good coding gain without sacrificing any bandwidth for transmitting digital sequences over bandlimited channels and Space-Time Block Codes (STBC) from Coordinate Interleaved Orthogonal Designs (CIOD) allowing single-complex symbol decoding and offering higher data rates than traditional orthogonal STBC (OSTBC) have attracted considerable attention. In this study, for the purpose of achieving more high spatial- and multipath diversity in multiple-input multiple-output orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (MIMO-OFDM) fading channels with low decoder complexity, a trellis code CIOD system combining an inner STBC, a coordinate interleaver and an outer trellis code is proposed to enhance the transmission performance. Upper bound expression of a pairwise codeword error probability is derived for the proposed trellis code CIOD system and high spatial- and multipath diversities are achieved from this upper bound analysis. By means of the jointly optimization of the rotation angle of constellation and trellis codes using exhaustive search approaches, the proposed trellis code CIOD achieves higher diversity than the best benchmark system at the cost of reasonable increased complexities of encoding and decoding. Simulation results shows that the proposed optimized {4, 8, 16, 32}-state rate--2/3 8-PSK trellis codes CIOD provides additional 2, 3, 2 and 1.5 dB gains in SNR at the CER of 10-3, when compared to their best counterparts, respectively.
  Y.S. Gao , H. Ding , X.W. Yu and C.Q. Zhang
  The aim of current prospective study was to investigate systemic changes in angiogenic factor VEGF and osteogenic factor IGF-1 and the local expression of BMP-2 and Runx-2 in femoral neck fractures of canines that were treated at different fracture-to-surgery intervals. About 24 dogs had surgically induced femoral neck fractures which were divided randomly and equally into three groups. In group A, the fractures were reduced and stabilized by paralleled pins immediately while they were managed 3 days later in group B and 3 weeks later in group C. Pre and post-operative peripheral serum was prepared for detection of systemic concentrations of VEGF and IGF-1 via ELISA Method. Postoperative radiological and histological examinations were employed to observe fracture union and occurrence of Osteonecrosis of the Femoral Head (ONFH). Local expressions of BMP-2 and Runx-2 were detected via immunohistochemical staining. Another 2 dogs had fractures untreated for negative control. Systemic changes in VEGF and IGF-1 were shown to share similarities when fractures were treated at different fracture-to-surgery intervals or left untreated. Moreover, the local expression of BMP-2 and Runx-2 were not statistically different in all treated and untreated animals. The manner of the response of systemic expression of VEGF and IGF-1 and local expression of BMP-2 and Runx-2 showed great similarity when femoral neck fractures were treated at different fracture-to-surgery intervals. Angiogenic and osteogenic responses might not be responsible for fracture-induced ONFH.
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