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Articles by C.O. Eleazu
Total Records ( 6 ) for C.O. Eleazu
  C.C. Onunogbo , O.C. Ohaeri and C.O. Eleazu
  The effect of aqueous extract of mistletoe on the blood glucose, electrolytes, transaminases and phosphatase activities of alloxan induced diabetic rats was investigated using their respective kits. Twenty male rats, weighing between 90 and 120 g kg-1 b.wt. were used. Alloxan was injected into the experimental animals at a dosage of 100 mg kg-1 b.wt. The rats were divided into 5 groups: Group 1: non-diabetic received normal rat feeds comprising of clean water and growers mash. Group 2: diabetic control received the same treatment as group 1. Group 3: diabetic received 20% of the extract, Group 4: diabetic, received 40% of the extract while group 5 diabetic rats received 60% of the extract. The duration of the experiment was four weeks. Results indicate that all concentrations of the extract administered reduced the elevated blood glucose levels of the diabetic animals although they could not statistically ameliorate it (p>0.05), administration of 20 and 40% of the extract was most effective in ameliorating the altered K+ concentration of the diabetic rats, while 40 and 60% of the extract proved to be statistically most effective in ameliorating the elevated bicarbonate levels of the diabetic rats (p<0.05). All concentrations administered also ameliorated the altered sodium and alanine transaminase activities of the diabetic animals while they slightly improved their chloride levels (p>0.05). In addition, 60% of the extract significantly ameliorated the altered phosphatase activities and body weights of the diabetic rats while 40 and 60% of the extract significantly ameliorated the altered aspartate transaminase activities of the diabetic animals (p<0.05). It can be deduced that mistletoe has anti-diabetic potentials, in addition to ameliorating the altered electrolyte balance arising from diabetes. Finally, the dietary supplement may protect liver cells from free radical damage and could be effective in treating hepatoctye damage in diabetics.
  C.O. Eleazu and K.C. Eleazu
  The physico-chemical composition and antioxidant potentials of 6 new varieties of Ginger was evaluated. Analysis of the percentage phenol, oleoresin, lipid, dry matter, crude fibre and ash contents of the ginger varieties using the Association of analytical chemists methods indicated that UGII7GY25 had the highest phenolic content (5.69±0.06) while UGII 7GY5 had the least (4.69±0.16) (p<0.05). In terms of ash content, while UGI5GY3 had the highest among the varieties studied (2.6±0.44), UGII5GY6 had the least (0.7±0.02). In addition, the ash contents of UGII5GY6 and UGII 11GY11 were higher than reported values for ginger unlike the values obtained for oleoresin, lipid and crude fibre that were lower than the reported values for ginger. The ginger varieties were also observed to possess strong antioxidant activities as seen from their scavenging activities on 2,2 diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical and reducing power tests. Correlation analysis carried out revealed that the total phenolic contents of the ginger varieties correlated negatively with their total oleoresin contents suggesting that the oleoresin contents of the ginger varieties may not have come from their phenolic constituents and that the oleoresins present could have little contribution to the antioxidant activities of the ginger varieties. In addition, the ginger varieties were observed to contain high quantities of phenols and this may be responsible for their high antioxidant activities. Finally, UGII5GY6 and UGII 11GY11 contains higher quantities of minerals than reported values for ginger.
  C.O. Eleazu and K.C. Eleazu
  The proximate composition, total carotenoid, reducing sugars and residual cyanide levels of flours of 6 new elite yellow and white cassava varieties: UMUCASS 38, UMUCASS 36, UMUCASS 37, TMS05/0473, TMS05/1636 and TMS98/0505 were determined using standard techniques. Results indicated that all the cassava varieties had low moisture contents with TMS98/0505 having the highest moisture contents (12.28±0.95%) than other varieties studied and TMS05/1636 having the least (8.40±0.00%) while the reverse was the case for their dry matter contents which was observed to be high with TMS05/1636 having the highest dry matter (91.60±0.00%) and TMS98/0505 having the least (87.73±0.95%). There were no observed significant differences (p>0.05) in the crude fibre and ash contents of all the cassava varieties investigated. UMUCASS 37 was observed to have significantly higher quantities of fats (p<0.05) among the cassava varieties studied (2.75±0.31%) while TMS05/1636 had the least (0.80±0.57%). The flours were observed to have low residual cyanide which was higher with the yellow varieties compared with the white varieties. The yellow varieties were also observed to have higher quantities of reducing sugar and carotenoid compared with the white varieties. Results indicate that the yellow varieties may have dual utility both for human consumption and for industrial purposes while the white variety may be confined to domestic use. In addition, their low moisture and high dry matter contents suggest longer storage lives and better cooking qualities for the cassava varieties.
  J.U. Amajor , C.O. Eleazu , E. Oti , A.I. Ikpeam and E.F. Udoh
  The effect of variety on the physico-chemical, carotenoid and microbial loads of flours of 5 varieties of sweet potato: TIS2532.OP.1.13, TIS8164, TIS87/0087, CIP1999024.02 and CIP440293 were determined. Proximate composition of the flours as determined using the AOAC methods showed that TIS8164 had the highest moisture content (9.43±0.03%) among other varieties studied while TIS5325OP.1.13 had the least (7.9±0.01%). CIP440293 had the highest ash content (0.52±0.02%) while CIP1999024.02 had the least (0.22±0.08%). The%crudefiber content of CIP440293 was the highest (0.36±0.05%) among other varieties while CIP1999024.2 had the least (0.21±0.02%). The processed flours contained higher starch contents than fresh samples with TIS5325OP.1.13 having the highest starch content (36.22±0.00%) for the processed flour and TIS87/0087 having the least (30.31±0.02%) as compared with the fresh samples in which TIS5325OP.1.13 gave the highest (28.22±0.00%) while TIS87/0087 gave the least (20.78±0.02%). In terms of carotenoid content, CIP440293 had the highest for the fresh sample (6.23x103 μg/100 g) while TIS87/0087 gave the least (0.54x103 μg/100 g). These values were reduced for the processed flours where CIP440293 again gave the highest (3.99x103 μg/100 g) while TIS87/0087 gave the least (0.02x103 μg/100 g). Sensory evaluation of the fufu samples made from the stored flours indicated that their quality and mouldability were accepted at the second month of storage unlike their colors. Results indicate the acceptability of these potato varieties and their applicability in alchoholic, food and sugar industries. With good microbial loads as evidenced at the 6th month of storage and antioxidant potentials, their shelf lives could be extended if packaged well and stored.
  C.O. Eleazu , K.C. Eleazu and A.I. Ikpeama
  The phenolic content, antioxidant activity and toxicity of three varieties of extracts of rizga flour on white albino male rats was evaluated. The antioxidant activities of the extracts as determined by the quantities of phenols present and scavenging activities on 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical indicated that all three varieties of rizga flour contained significant quantities of antioxidants and phenols. However, the total antioxidant capacity and polyphenolic contents of langaat was lower than that of beebot and riyom (p<0.05) with an IC50 of 90.16 μg mL-1 for langaat, 30.28 μg mL-1 for beebot and 60.27 μg mL-1 for riyom as compared with the standard (Quercetin) that had an IC50 of 23.17 μg mL-1. The phytochemical screening of the flours was determined using standard qualitative methods indicated the presence of cyanogenic glucosides, tannins and flavonoids in all the three varieties studied but beebot and riyom contained alkaloids in addition. The extracts of the 3 varieties of rizga had a low toxic effect on the rats studied in addition with an LD50 of 630.1 mg kg-1 for Riym, 398.1 mg kg-1 for Langaat and 446.7 mg kg-1 for Beebot. Correlation between the total antioxidant capacity and polyphenolic composition of the 3 varieties of rizga was found to be significant (R2 = 0.917). These findings suggest rizga to be a natural source of antioxidants and thus could be used in the treatment of ailments implicating free radicals. In addition, it is safe for consumption.
  C.O. Eleazu , P.N. Okafor and Ikpeama Ahamefuna
  The antioxidant composition of unripe plantain and its free radical scavenging activity on alloxan induced diabetic rabbits and on DPPH radical was investigated. 10 male rabbits weighing between 1.58 and 1.88 kg were used for this study. Diabetes was induced in the experimental rabbits with alloxan (35 mg/kg body weight. ip). Group 1 rabbits served as the control groups and they received normal rabbit feeds. Group 2 rabbits were the animals of group 1 which were made diabetic by the injection of alloxan and they also received normal rabbit feeds while group 3 rabbits (test groups) were the animals of group 2 which were later fed with unripe plantain at a dosage of 25 kg/kg body weight/day for 4 weeks. The duration of the experiment was 7 weeks and the weights of the animals in each group were recorded daily throughout the experiment while the blood glucose levels, malonaldehyde, catalase and glutathione were recorded on a 2 weeks interval. The results show that the diabetic rabbits placed on unripe plantain diet had an increase in their body weights, glutathione and catalase levels but a decrease in malonaldehyde and blood glucose levels after 4 weeks of unripe plantain intake when compared with the control (p<0.05). Correlation analysis carried out revealed that glutathione correlated negatively with malonaldehyde and glucose (r = -0.77 and -0.89), but positively with catalase and body weight (r = 0.60 and 0.70). Malonaldehyde correlated negatively with catalase and body weight (r = -0.44 and -0.72) but positively with glucose (r = 0.86). The antioxidant composition of the methanolic extracts of the unripe plantain flour as determined by the quantities of peroxidase and quercetin present was 52±0.00% peroxidase and 5.32 ug/ml quercetin while its free radical scavenging activity on DPPH radical was 78.57±0.00%. Analysis of the proximate and phytochemical composition of the unripe plantain flour showed that it contained 3.16±0.04% protein, 0.21±0.003% lipid, 52±2.82% moisture, 5.5±0.42% ash, 1.58±0.04% tannin, 1.82±0.05% saponin, 1.37±0.05% alkaloid and 0.98±0.00% flavonoid. These findings suggest that raised blood glucose level in diabetics could deplete cells of their antioxidant status by decreasing the glutathione and red cell catalase levels leading to an increased malonaldehyde level which is a marker of oxidative stress. In addition, unripe plantain intake by a diabetic could exert a free radical scavenging activity by restoring the altered antioxidant status since itself could serve as a natural source of antioxidants.
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