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Articles by C.M.F. Mbofung
Total Records ( 6 ) for C.M.F. Mbofung
  N.Y. Njintang , A.A. Bouba , C.M.F. Mbofung , Aboubakar , R.N. Bennett , M. Parker , C.M. Faulds , A. Smith and W.K. Waldron
  Achu is a thick porridge traditionally made in center Africa by boiling taro corms and cormels followed by peeling and pounding in a mortar. The present studies were performed with two key objectives in mind. Firstly to gain a better understanding of the basic processes of the browning reaction that can occur during preparation of Achu. Secondly to identify a variety that is much less susceptible to these browning reactions and especially during reconstitution of its flour into Achu. Traditional and reconstituted achu were prepared from six taro varieties and their organoleptic and biochemical characteristics were assessed. Mean values obtained in g/100 g dry weight were as follows: reducing sugars 1.3-2.3; total phenols 0.03-0.07; amino groups 0.05-0.1; phenolics and procyanidins 0.03-0.11. The browning reaction that occurred during the reconstitution was significantly correlated (R2 = 0.74; p<0.05) to the concentration of total phenolic compounds in the flours used. There was a high correlation (R2 = 0.89; p<0.05) between the reduction in phenolics and a reduction in browning reactions. Irrespective of variety, reconstituted Achu was less acceptable and browner than traditional Achu, but of all the flours tested, those derived from the taro varieties Ibo Ekona and Ibo Ngdere showed a lower susceptibility to browning reactions during reconstitution.
  B.A. Mohamadou , C.M.F. Mbofung and D. Thouvenot
  Twelve samples of Mbuja from four villages of Cameroon (Dzbam, Gouzda, Magoumaz and Midirey) were studied to determine their microbiological profile and sensory acceptability. The functional, faecal contaminant and pathogenic flora were screened and numbered using specific media. The results revealed the presence of Bacillus and lactic acid bacteria. However, coagulase-positive Staphylococcus, total coliforms, thermotolerant coliforms, spores of sulphite reducing anaerobes and yeast and moulds were not detected. Significant differences were observed within and between samples from villages. The pH values ranged from 4.73-6.53, while the water activity was between 0.58 and 0.72. Similar differences were noted for aerobic mesophilic flora, Bacillus, lactic acid bacteria. Enterococcus and Bacillus cereus were detected in only 4 and 3 samples, respectively. Gram staining and biochemical characterization revealed 8 Bacillus sp.: Subtilis, Pumilus, Brevis, Polymyxa, Licheniformis, Laterosporus, Cereus and Circulans. Three lactic acid bacteria species were identifie: Lactobacillus brevis, Pediococcus pentosaceus and Leuconostoc mesenteroides dextranicum. Five profiles (groups) were obtained on the basis of the functional flora of all samples (Aerobic mesophilic flora, Bacillus, lactic acid bacteria). The group 1, with the most important bacterial population and the highest pH was the most appreciated by tasters.
  K.G. Kaptso , Y.N. Njintang , M.M.G. Nguemtchouin , J. Scher , J. Hounhouigan and C.M.F. Mbofung
  Bambara groundnuts is an indigenous, underutilized African legume grown primarily for its seeds which are eaten fresh when semi ripe as a pulse when dry and mature or ground into a flour. In this study, the experimental dehydration behavior of two different varieties of of bambara groundnuts, Black variety (BB) of moisture content 0.88 g g-1 and White variety (WB) of moisture content 0.90 g g-1 was investigated and the experiments were carried out under isothermal conditions using convection air-forced dryer at 50, 60 and 70°C. The drying data were fitted to the different mathematical models such as Lewis, Henderson and Pabis, Logarithmic and two-term models. The performance of these models was investigated by comparing the determination of coefficient (R2), reduced Chi-square (χ2) and Standard Estimate Error (SEE) between the observed and predicted moisture ratios. The results obtained showed that the logarithmic and the two term models successfully described the drying behaviour of the seeds. Generally, the moisture diffusivity constants derived from the Fick’s law of diffusion increased with increase in temperature according to the Arrhenius type equation with BB variety exhibiting low values (5.97x10-11 to 8.51x10-11 m2 sec-1) and WB high values (1.44x10-11 to 2.78 x10-10 m2 sec-1).
  J.N. Bonglaisin , C.M.F. Mbofung and D.N. Lantum
  Clay-eating or kaolin-eating (geophagy or geophagia) is a global practice that exists among humans as well as numerous animal species. Geophagy has been studied by anthropologists, geologists, nutritionists and ecologists in present and traditional cultures from areas across continents, including present-day Arizona and California, Central and South America, Sweden and Sardinia, sub-Saharan Africa, Indonesia and Australia. In 2002, the European Union alerted the Cameroon Ministry of Public Health that kaolin carried from Cameroon to Europe had abnormally high amount of lead (Pb) at levels a 100 times higher than the maximum permissible level. This kaolin that is sold on the several markets is mined from different sources, some locally and others from Nigeria. To investigate this, markets of wholesale dealers in kaolin were visited in five districts selected in a manner as to represent the entire territory. Six samples of 1 kg each were then randomly selected and bought. A total of 30 kg was collected from all the districts. The sources of procurement were also visited and 24 samples of approximately 300 g each were collected from all the harvesting sites. Analytical methods for flame spectroscopy were used and statgraphic for data analysis. The results show that all kaolin is contaminated not only with Pb but Cd and Hg as well. The differences in Pb content at district levels is statistically significant p = 0.02 (p<0.05) while no significant difference exist as regards the origin of kaolin or source of procurement (p = 0.53).
  T. Atinmo , G. Elemo , C.M.F. Mbofung , T. Oguntona and O.L. Erukainure
  Protein requirement of Nigerian adult males aged 21-27 years from two different geographical locations in Nigeria was determined as a basis of comparison with previous studies. Eighteen young men from Northern and Southern Nigeria were recruited into the study and fed on a customary Nigerian mixed diet. The subjects were divided into dietary regimen groups of four protein levels (0.4, 0.7, 0.8 and 0.9 g protein/kg/day) at ordinary level of energy intake of 0.18 MJ/kg/day. The groups were assigned either an ascending or descending sequence of dietary changes. From regression analysis, the Nitrogen requirement for Nitrogen equilibrium was estimated to be 108.0±9.45 mg N/kg/day (0.68 g protein/kg/day) and 110.8±14.53 mg N/kg/day (0.69 g protein/kg/day) for the Northern and Southern groups respectively. Estimates for allowances to cover 97.5% of the population were 126.9 mg N/kg/day (0.79 g protein/kg/day) and 139.9 mg N/kg/day (0.87 g protein/kg/day) for the groups respectively. The mean Net Protein Utilization (NPU) for the diet was 64±1.29 with a true digestibility of 95.1±1.82. The requirement compared favorably and difference was not significant from previous studies. Thus, there is no need to set different requirements for any part of the country.
  C.M.G. Garba and C.M.F. Mbofung
  Malnutrition and parasitic infections are common public health problems of children in developing countries. The prevalence of malnutrition and parasitic infections in school children in the Adamawa region of Cameroon was carried out. Anthropometric measurements consisting of height and weight were measured according to WHO guide lines (WHO, 1983, 1987). Body Mass Index (BMI) which is weight/height2 for age was used as indicator to determine nutritional status. Examination of stool specimens was done using direct smear examination and concentration techniques and malaria parasitemia was determined microscopically from Giemsa stained blood films. The nutritional status and parasitosis was studied in 1200 (715 boys and 485 girls) school children aged 6 to 17 years. For malnutrition, severe acute malnutrition prevalence and moderate acute malnutrition was recorded respectively as 15.5% and 35.9%. 14.2% of which 64.3% were boys while 35.6% girls were found positive for various parasitic infections with malaria parasite accounting for the highest (64.9%) and hookworm the lowest (18.7%) prevalence rates. The difference in the level of parasitism was found to be statistically significant (p<0.05, chi square = 15.5) in the region. Severe and mild malnutrition was more prevalence in girls (12.9% and 46.7% respectively) than in boys (11% and 44.9% respectively). The relationship between the parasitic infection prevalence and nutritional status of the children showed that 98 (57.2%) of the infected children were malnourished (p<0.05) and there was no significant difference (p>0.05) of malnutrition between infected and non-infected children. The relationship between malnutrition and parasitic infection revealed that the correlation coefficient was 0.85, indicating a moderately strong relationship between the variables. The study confirmed that malnutrition and parasitosis were important child health problems. Therefore, it is recommended that lunch meals, nutrition education, sanitation education, treatment of parasitic infections be added to the school curriculum of school children in the Adamawa region of Cameroon.
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