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Articles by C.D. Tuleun
Total Records ( 9 ) for C.D. Tuleun
  C.D. Tuleun , S.Y. Igyem and A.Y. Adenkola
  A feeding trial was conducted with two hundred and twenty four one week old quail chicks to study the optimum inclusion level of toasted mucuna seed meal in a practical quail diet. Four isonitrogenous (24% crude protein) diets incorporating graded levels (0, 5, 10 and 15) of toasted mucuna seed meal were formulated and fed for 42 days in a completely randomized design. The chicks were divided into four treatment groups, each group replicated two times with 28 chicks per replicate. A group each was allotted to one of the four isonitrogenous diets. The performance, nutrient digestibility, carcass quality and visceral organs and haematological parameters were evaluated. Feed intake, weight gain, feed/gain ratio and nutrient digestibility did not differ significantly (P>0.05) across the treatments. The haematological parameters of quails fed the mucuna diets were not significantly different (P>0.05) compared to those on control diet. Likewise the inclusion of toasted mucuna seed meal in the diets did not cause significant disproportionate growth in carcass quality and visceral organs. It was concluded that toasted mucuna seed meal can be included up to 15% level in practical diets of growing Japanese quail.
  C.D. Tuleun , P.C. Njoku and A.I. Okwori
  A 2 x 2 factorial experiment was conducted to determine the performance of 400 Anak broiler chicks exposed to two lighting regimes viz. 12 h light:12 h darkness and 24 h light:0 h darkness and fed diets containing two levels of ascorbic acid (0 and 250 mg AA/kg of feed). Each treatment was replicated four times with 25 birds per replicate. Results showed that at the starter phase of growth, chicks on continuous lighting regime recorded significantly (p<0.05) higher weight gain than those on limited lighting regime. Addition of ascorbic acid in the diet of chicks in the starter phase significantly (p<0.05) improved weight gain. At the grower phase, lighting regime recorded no significant (p>0.05) effect on weight gain but addition of ascorbic acid in the diet significantly (p<0.05) improved weight gain. There was significant (p<0.05) interaction as chicks on continuous lighting regime with ascorbic acid in their diet recorded higher weight gain than other treatments i.e limited lighting with no ascorbic acid in the diet. At the starter phase there was no significant difference (p>0.05) between continuous and limited lighting on feed: gain ratio. However, chicks with ascorbic in their diet recorded significantly (p<0.05) better feed: gain ratio than those without ascorbic acid. Inclusion of ascorbic acid in the diet significantly (p<0.05) reduced feed cost per kilogram weight gain. Ascorbic acid inclusion significantly (p<0.05) increased femur weight but not femur ash and tibia length. Continuous lighting and inclusion of ascorbic acid from diets increased incidence of leg abnormality significantly. Inclusion of ascorbic acid significantly (p<0.05) reduced the severity of leg abnormality. In conclusion continuous lighting and ascorbic acid in the diet may improve weight gain, feed: gain ratio, reduced feed cost per kilogram weight gain and reduction in the severity of leg abnormality. It may be recommended that under continuous lighting, inclusion of ascorbic acid in the diet may be recommended for balanced growth of the chicks.
  P.N. Agu , O.I.A. Oluremi and C.D. Tuleun
  A study was conducted with broiler chicks to evaluate the nutritional potential of Sweet orange fruit (Citrus sinensis) peel as a feed resource. Sweet orange peels were sun dried, milled and used as a dietary substitute for maize. Six experimental diets coded as M100P0, M90P10, M80P20, M70P30, M60P40 and M50P50 were compounded such that Sweet Orange Peel Meal (SOPM) substituted maize at levels of 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50%, respectively in broiler starter and finisher diets. One hundred and eighty (180) day-old Anak titan chicks were randomly divided into six groups and one of each was allotted to a diet of three replicates. The birds which were raised in deep litter pens for sixty-three days were fed ad libitum and had access to fresh cool drinking water daily. Performance data: feed intake, water consumption, body weight, Body Weight Gain (BWG), Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) were collected during the feeding trial and carcass evaluation was done at the termination of the trial. In both starter and finisher phases, the diets had no effect (p>0.05) on feed intake, water consumption, body BWG and FCR but had significant effect (p<0.01) on the body weight of broilers as the level of the SOPM increased from 0-50%. There was a significant decrease in body weight at SOPM level higher than 20%. Experimental diets had highly significant effect (p<0.001) on dressing percent, drumstick and wing from 30% level of SOPM while other carcass cuts: thigh, breast, back, neck and shoulder were statistically the same (p>0.05) among the dietary groups. The diets had no effect (p>0.05) on kidney, liver, heart, spleen, gall bladder and lung but had significant effect (p<0.01) on proventriculus and gizzard as the SOPM level increased. The organs were normal and there were no observable adverse effects on the health of broilers. SOPM can be a dietary substitute for maize up to 20% level in the diet for broiler.
  C.D. Tuleun , B. Offia and I.D.I. Yaakugh
  The effects of raw and local processing methods on the nutritive value of Mucuna utilis seeds fed in diets to broiler performance were investigated. The processing methods were: seeds were soaked for 24 h in plain water, cooking of 24-h pre-soaked seeds for 60 min and cooking in a solution of potash (kanwa, trona) for 60 min. Five experimental diets were formulated such that diet 1 contained no mucuna (control), while raw, soaked, pre-soaked and cooked and cooked-in-potash mucuna seed meal were included at 20% dietary levels respectively. One hundred and fifty (150) 0ne-week old (Anak, 2000) broiler chicks were randomly assigned to the experimental diets in a completely randomized design. There were 3 replicates of the 5 treatments and 10 birds per replicate. 22% Crude Protein (CP) diets were fed during the starter phase and 20%CP diets during the finisher phase. Feed and water were supplied ad libitum throughout the 8-week trial period. At the end of the feeding trial, 3 birds were selected from replicates and slaughtered for carcass and blood evaluation. The different processing methods caused percentage reductions in Crude Protein (CP) and ether extract but increased the gross energy and ash content of the seeds. Cooking of pre-soaked beans and cooking in potash solution significantly (p<0.05) reduced most of the antinutrient factor contents of the seeds. During the starter phase, average fed intake and feed conversion efficiency f birds on cooked mucuna seed diets were similar to the control group. At the finisher phase better performance in terms of weight gain, feed conversion efficiency, protein efficiency ratio were significantly (p<0.05) achieved with a 25% reduction in cost of feed per kilogram gain in the group fed seeds cooked for 60 minutes diet. Birds on cooked mucuna seed diets had comparable dressing percentage, empty gizzard, liver, pancreas spleen and lungs weights with the birds fed the control diet. The packed cell volume, haemoglobin and white blood cell count values of the birds on the cooked mucuna diets were significantly similar to the control group.
  C.D. Tuleun and N.A. Dashe
  A 8 week feeding trial was conducted to determine the effect of dietary inclusion of Toasted Mucuna Seed Meal (TMSM) on the performance and egg qualities of Japanese quail layers. Four (4) isonitrogenous (20% cp) diets were formulated to contain toasted mucuna seed meal at 0, 5, 10 and 15%. Each of the dietary treatments was triplicated with 10 birds per replicate (making a total of 120 birds for the experiment) in a completely randomized design. The birds were offered feed and water ad libitum. The results showed that the quail layers fed up to 15% dietary levels of TMSM had percent hen-day and hen housed egg production, average feed intake, feed intake per egg production and feed intake per gram egg production values that were not statistically different (p>0.05) from those fed the 0% TMSM (control) diet. Albumen width and shell thickness were significantly (p<0.05) lowered by the increasing levels of TMSM, while egg circumference and all yolk parameters were not affected significantly (p>0.05). Dietary inclusion of TMSM at all levels reduced feed cost which was also reflected in feed cost per egg produced and feed cost per bird produced. Therefore the use of TMSM as a feed ingredient up to 15% level in quail layer diets is profitable, feasible and desirable.
  C.D. Tuleun , J.P. Patrick and L.O. Tiamiyu
  Chemical analysis and a performance trial were carried out to determine the effect of boiling Mucuna utilis seeds on their proximate composition, minerals assay and amino acid profile, level of antinutritional factors and blood seral and haematological parameters of finisher broiler chickens. Four types of mucuna seed meal were prepared. Type 1 was prepared from raw seeds, types 2, 3 and 4 were from seeds soaked in water for 24 h and then boiled in water for 20, 40 and 60 min respectively. The four dietary treatments had 20% inclusion of the four types of mucuna seed meal respectively. A four week feeding trial was conducted using one hundred and twenty, five week old, broiler birds averaging 590 gm live weight. Results of the study show that raw mucuna seeds are a good source of nutrients. Increase in boiling time significantly (p<0.05) reduced the crude protein content, phosphorus, iron, selenium, methionine, cystine, lysi, isoleucine, alanine, tyrosine and threonine content. Concentration of antinutritional factors in the seeds were significantly (p<0.05) reduced. Significant (p<0.05) improvements in feed: gain and protein efficiency ratios with a corresponding increase in mean daily weight gain were observed as the boiling time increased. At the end of the experiment, the haematological parameters revealed no significant differences among treatments in the levels of Packed Cell Volume (PCV), Haemoglobin (Hb), Red Blood Cell (RBC) counts, mean corpuscular volume (MHV) and Mean corpuscuscular Haemoglobin concentration (McHc). Similarly, albumin, globulin, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase estimated were found to be insignificantly varied with the exception of total protein.
  S.E. Alu , C.D. Tuleun , F.G. Kaankuka and S.N. Carew
  Four hundred 3 weeks old finisher Japanese quails (Cortunix cortunix japonica) were used to investigate the effect Maxigrain® enzyme supplementation on dressing percentage, carcass cut and percent organ weights fed sugarcane scrapping meal-based diets. The birds were randomly allotted to 6 experimental diets tagged T10, T10100, T10200, T15, T15100 and T15200 which were compounded to be isonitrogenous (23% crude protein) and isocaloric (2900Kcal/Kg ME). Treatments T10, T10100 and T10200 contained 10% crude fibre (low fibre level) while treatments T15, T15100 and T15200 contained 15% crude fibre level (high fibre level). The enzyme was included at 0, 100 and 200ppm thus, treatments T10 and T15 contained 0ppm, T10100 and T15100 contained 100ppm and T10200 and T15200 contained 200ppm of the enzyme such that treatments T10 and T15 served as the control for treatments T10100 and T10200 and T15100 and T15200 for low and high fibre diets, respectively. The birds were randomly allocated to the treatments at the rate of 80 birds per diet; each treatment was replicated 4 times in a 3x2 factorial arrangement. At the end of the 3 weeks feeding trial, 10 female birds per treatment were randomly selected according to average group weight, slaughtered and their carcasses evaluated. All the parameters evaluated were not at variance (P>0.05) across the dietary treatment groups except for back (22.52 vs. 24.32 and 21.62%), neck (7.78 vs. 10.24 and 7.49%) and gastrointestinal tract (8.44 vs. 10.84 and 12.22%) which was significantly (P<0.05) heavier in percent weight due to enzyme supplementation. Raising dietary fibre from low to high level significantly (P<0.05) reduced the percent weight of fasted weight (144.20 and 124.70 g/bird), dressed weight (87.52 and 83.79 g/bird), back (24.80 and 20.84%), neck (9.41 and 7.59%) and liver (3.06 and 2.92%) but increased that of legs (2.54 and 2.92%) and heart (0.69 and 0.82%) while the interactive effects of enzyme and dietary fibre affected the percent weights of legs, drumstick, back, neck, heart and liver. From the findings of this study, sugarcane scrapping can replace conventional energy sources to a level that is economically beneficial and nutritionally safe in quail production if arabinoxylanase is supplemented at 100ppm.
  C.D. Tuleun , A.Y. Adenkola and M.M. Okenyi
  A study was conducted to examine the comparative inclusion of graded levels (0, 10, 15 and 20%) of cooked and toasted mucuna seed meal in the diets of broiler chickens. Maize-soybean diet served as the control. About 147 unsexed Anak strain 7 days old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to the seven dietary treatments and each treatment was replicated 3 times. The experiment lasted 9 weeks. Feed and water were supplied ad libitum throughout the experimental period. At the end of the experiment, three birds were randomly selected from each dietary replicate and slaughtered for carcass and haematology evaluation. Results showed no significant difference in all performance parameters studied. Carcass weights of birds fed the control diet and the diets with cooked or toasted mucuna seed meal were similar. The total red blood cell count, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration of broiler on the dietary cooked or toasted mucuna seed meal levels were statistically comparable (p>0.05) with the corresponding diet in the control diet. However, broiler on 15 and 20% inclusion levels of toasted mucuna seed meal had significantly higher packed cell volume and haemoglobin values while the lowest value (p<0.05) was recorded in the group placed on 10% cooked mucuna seed meal. Broilers on dietary toasted mucuna seed meal had similar total protein values with the birds on control diet. It was therefore, concluded that dietary inclusion level of 20% processed mucuna seed meal adequately supported the acceptable growth performance and normal haematology indices of broiler chickens.
  C.D. Tuleun , A.Y. Adenkola and K.T. Orayaga
  A 35 days feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of the fermentation of mucuna seed meal on broiler performance, carcass characteristics and haematology. One hundred and fifty 4 weeks old Anak 2000 broiler chicks were randomly assigned to four treatments, replicated 3 times with 10 birds each. Mucuna seeds were purchased from International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan, Nigeria. They were cleaned of dirt, cooked in water for 5 h, drained of water, packed hot in jute bags and covered with polythene films to naturally ferment for 48 h, thereafter sun-dried and milled for the feeding trial. Five isonitrogenous and isocalolic diets were formulated such that diet 1 (0%) contained no mucuna and served as the control while 2, 3, 4 and 5 contained 5, 10, 15 and 20% Fermented Mucuna Seed Meal (FMSM), respectively. The results showed that final body weight, daily weight gain, daily feed intake, protein intake, feed conversion and protein efficiency ratios were not significant (p>0.05) affected by the level of dietary inclusion of FMSM. There were significantly (p<0.05) differences in the protein conversion ratio but with no definite pattern. Percentage bled weight and relative weight of spleen of the broilers were significantly (p<0.05) higher in birds on FMSM diets compared with the control treatment. However, the carcass characteristics and other visceral organs did not differ significantly (p>0.05) across the dietary treatments. Packed cell volume and haemoglobin values were significantly (p<0.05) higher in broilers on 20% FMSM diets but the values fell within the acceptable range for healthy chickens. Dietary inclusion of FMSM at 20% produced a comparable performance with the control diet and had no adverse effect on organ and haematological parameters.
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