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Articles by C.A. Echendu
Total Records ( 6 ) for C.A. Echendu
  J.U. Anyika and C.A. Echendu
  The need to determine the effect of family size on body weight and Packed Cell Volume (PCV) of adolescent female secondary and university students in Abia State, Nigeria, is very important for this study. One hundred and sixty adolescent girls aged 10-19 years were used for the study. Data for this report was obtained from a cross-sectional survey of two boarding secondary schools [one school from Umuahia North Local Government Area (LGA) and the other from Ikwuano LGA] and two tertiary institutions (one school from Umuahia North LGA and the other from Ikwuano LGA) in Abia State, Nigeria. A structured self-administered questionnaire designed to collect information on socio-economic status of adolescent girls was given to the respondents in their schools. A sample of 160 adolescent girls was used for body weight and iron status of the blood. Forty adolescent girls were systematically selected from each school. Pearson’s correlation was used to determine the interrelationship between variables. Results showed that the secondary school girls had larger family size than their university counterparts (41.75% vs 40.0%) respectively. The secondary school adolescents also had lower mean body weight which differed significantly from those of the university students (p<0.05). The mean PCV of both the secondary school and university students were low and comparable (p>0.05). For the secondary school students, Pearson’s correlation showed that family size had negative but significant relationship with PCV (r = -0.362, p<0.05). Body weight had negative but significant relationship with PCV (r = -0.164, p<0.05). For the university students, family size had negative but significant association with body weight and PCV (r = -0.380, p<0.05 and r = -0.008, p<0.05) respectively. This study showed that family size had an effect on body weight and PCV of both secondary school and University adolescent girls in Abia State.
  C.A. Echendu , I.C. Obizoba , J.U. Anyika and P.C. Ojimelukwe
  This study focused on the changes in the chemical composition of treated and untreated hungry rice “Acha”. Nutrient composition and antinutritional factors were studied using standard methods of analysis. The results of analyses revealed that hungry rice fermented for 108 h (FHR108) had significantly higher Crude Protein (CP) (9.94%), True Protein (TP) (9.34%), True Nitrogen (TN) (1.49%), Non-Protein Nitrogen (NPN) (0.10%) and fat (3.08%) (p<0.05). Fermentation for 48 h (FHR48) had the highest copper (Cu) (3.26 mg), manganese (Mn) (1.38 mg), zinc (Zn) (1.62 mg), phosphorus (Ph) (160.89 mg) and iodine (I2) (103.33 mcg) than others (p<0.05). Untreated Hungry Rice (UTHR) had the highest tannins (0.13 mg), phytate (1.22 mg) and Trypsin Inhibitors (TI) (38.45 mg). Based on this study, cooking and fermentation increased both proximate and mineral composition in treated samples but decreased antinutritional factors in most parameters tested. Cooking and fermentation could be used by most rural and poor urban dwellers to increase nutrient content of their diets.
  C.A. Echendu , I.C. Obizoba , E.K. Ngwu and J.U. Anyika
  Chemical composition of pottage dishes based on Groundbean (GB) and roasted GB as eaten were investigated using standard methods. Results showed that cocoyam-GB pottage had higher protein value (3.70%) than yam (2.10%) and plantain-GB dishes (2.82%).The ash, fat and fibre levels in yam-GB pottage were more (0.99, 27.23 and 4.70%, respectively) than other dishes and the roasted GB (p<0.05). The plantain-GB pottage contained more carbohydrate (46.49%) than other pottage dishes and higher energy than all others. Roasted GB however, contained comparatively higher protein (14.00%), carbohydrate (68.68%) and most mineral element values than the pottage dishes (p<0.05). However, cocoyam-GB pottage had higher values for zinc and iodine (p<0.05) and relatively more antinutrients than all others with the exception of oxalate which was present in only roasted GB. The findings suggest that these dishes would greatly contribute to total daily nutrient intake of consumers and add to local food composition table data bank.
  C.A. Echendu , I.C. Obizoba and J.U. Anyika
  This study evaluated the effects of germination on the chemical composition of groundbean seeds. The seeds were cleaned, soaked for 8h and germinated for 0-4 days. The samples were separately dried and milled to fine flours. The flour samples were analyzed for proximate, mineral and antinutrient composition using standard methods. Results showed that groundbean germinated for 72h (GGB72) had the highest proximate composition which was significantly different from the rest (p<0.05) except for groundbean germinated for 96h (GGB96) in fibre (1.22%) and CHO (67.40%) in groundbean germinated for 0h (ungerminated). Groundbean germinated for 48h (GGB48) proved to be more beneficial in most mineral content than the rest of the germination periods (p<0.05). Antinutrient content was highest in groundbean germinated for 48h (GGB48) except for tannin. The study showed that 72h of germination of groundbean (GGB72) proved to be the best for highest nutrient content while germination for 48h increased antinutrient content.
  C.A. Echendu , I.C. Obizoba and J.U. Anyika
  This study evaluates the effects of heat treatments on chemical composition of Groundbean (GB). Groundbean seeds were cleaned, soaked, dehulled and cooked for varying periods. The samples were separately dried and milled into fine flours. The flour samples were analyzed for proximate, minerals and antinutrients composition using standard methods. Results showed that proximate composition of all samples varied. The Untreated Groundbean (UTGB) had the highest proximate composition which was significantly different from all nutrients tested (p<0.05) except for fibre (3.65%) in Undehulled Cooked Groundbean (UDCGB) and Carbohydrate (CHO) content (63.63%) in Soaked Dehulled Cooked Groundbean (SODCGB). SOGB had the highest iron (Fe) (6.80 mg), calcium (Ca) (52.53 mg), sodium (Na) (1.48 mg), manganese (Mn) (20.78 mg) and zinc (Zn) (2.34 mg) content which were significantly different from others (p<0.05). UTGB had the highest Copper (Cu) (3.89 mg), magnesium (Mg) (1.46 mg), Phosphorus (Ph) (345.45 mg), Potassiun (K) (263.80 mg) and Iodine (I2) (102.18 mcg/g) which was significantly different from others (p<0.05). The antinutrient composition of all samples was low except for Trypsin Inhibitor (TI) where UTGB had the highest TI (29.45 mg) which was significantly different from the rest. The result indicates that groundbean is safe for human consumption and could be used in the formulation of diets for children and adults.
  J.U. Anyika , A.C. Uwaegbute , I.A. Onimawo and C.A. Echendu
  This cross-sectional survey evaluated the effect of contraceptives on menstrual cycle, menstrual flow and weight gain of adolescent female secondary and university students in Abia State, Nigeria. One thousand, six hundred (1600) adolescents aged 10 to 19 years were used for the study. Two secondary schools and two universities [(one secondary school/university from each Local Government Area (LGA)] were randomly selected. A structured self-administered questionnaire designed to collect information on health habits of adolescent girls was given to respondents in their schools. Information gathered from the questionnaires was coded and analyzed using the computer program Statistical Software package (SAS). Descriptive statistics such as frequencies and percentages were used. Results showed that majority (70.5% vs 58.75%) of adolescent university and secondary school girls, respectively described their menstrual cycle as regular (every month). A wide variety of contraceptives namely abstinence, safe period, intrauterine devices, vaginal jellies and creams and oral contraceptives were used by the students. Majority (60.97% vs 48.74%) of the subjects in the university and secondary school respectively reported that the contraceptives they used had no effect on their menstrual flow. Almost equal percentage of respondents (33.92% vs 33.49%) of the secondary school and university adolescents respectively reported that their menstrual cycle was regular every time. The study showed that abstinence and safe period were the most commonly used birth control methods by both secondary and university adolescent girls in Abia State, Nigeria.
 
 
 
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