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Articles by C. Wang
Total Records ( 16 ) for C. Wang
  C. Wang , J. X. Liu , S. W. Zhai , J. L. Lai and Y. M. Wu
  Fifteen multiparous dairy cows were used in a five replicated 3times3 Latin square design to study the effects of ratio of rumendegradable-protein (RDP) and rumen-undegradable-protein (RUP) on nitrogen (N) conversion in Chinese Holstein dairy cows. Three diets were formulated isonitrogenously with varying ratio of RDP/RUP. High ratio of RDP/RUP resulted in high urinary N excretion and total N excretion, but no significant dietary effects were observed on milk yield, milk composition, and nitrogen excretion in faeces. Different protein degradability changed the partitioning of the N excretion between urine and faeces. Results indicated that reduction in ratio of RDP/RUP could improve the efficiency of N utilization in lactating dairy cows by reduced N excretion in urine and faeces without impairing milk production.
  J. A. Ye , C. Wang , H. F. Wang , H. W. Ye , B. X. Wang , H. Y. Liu , Y. M. Wang , Z. Q. Yang and J. X. Liu
  The objective of the study was to investigate the effects of oil sources in the diet on milk yield, milk composition, and fatty acid (FA) profiles in mid-lactating dairy cows. Forty-eight Chinese Holstein dairy cows averaging 150 days in milk (DIM) at the start of the experiment (body weight = 596±19 kg; milk yield = 29.7±3.00 kg/d) were used in a completely randomized block design. The animals were assigned into four dietary treatments according to DIM and milk yield, and supplemented with no oil (control), 2% flaxseed oil (FSO), 2% soybean oil (SBO), and 2% oil from extruded soybeans (ESB). The experiment lasted nine weeks including the first week for adaptation. Milk yields, milk compositions (fat, protein, and lactose), and milk FA profiles were measured. Daily milk yield from cows fed with FSO, SBO, and ESB were higher than milk yield of the control cows (27.0, 27.0, and 26.5 vs. 25.4 kg/d). Milk fat percentage of the control cows was greater than those cows fed with oil-supplemented diets. However, increasing dietary fat content resulted with no change in fat-corrected milk yield. The FA profile of milk was changed by fat supplementation. Feeding oil reduced the proportion of both short-chain (C8:0 to C12:0) and medium-chain (C14:0 to C16:1) FAs, and increased the proportion of long-chain (≥C18:0) FAs in milk fat. Cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in milk fat was increased from 0.38% for the control to 0.79, 1.51, and 1.56% of fat for the cows supplemented with FSO, SBO, and ESB, respectively. Feeding oils rich in linoleic acid (SBO and ESB) was more effective in enhancing cis-9, trans-11 CLA in milk fat than oils containing linolenic acid (FSO). There was a linear relationship between transvaccenic acid and cis-9, trans-11 CLA content in milk. Overall, feeding the FSO, SBO, and ESB diets increased monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids and decreased the saturated fatty acid in milk fat.
  C Peng , W Chen , Y Han , T Sanders , G Chew , J Liu , E Hawrot , C Chi and C. Wang

As part of continuing studies of the identification of gene organization and cloning of novel -conotoxins, the first 4/4-conotoxin identified in a vermivorous Conus species, designated Qc1.2, was originally obtained by cDNA and genomic DNA cloning from Conus quercinus collected in the South China Sea. The predicted mature toxin of Qc1.2 contains 14 amino acid residues with two disulfide bonds (I-III, II-IV connectivity) in a native globular configuration. The mature peptide of Qc1.2 is supposed to contain an N-terminal post-translationally processed pyroglutamate residue and a free carboxyl C-terminus. This peptide was chemically synthesized and refolded for further characterization of its functional properties. The synthetic Qc1.2 has two interconvertible conformations in aqueous solution, which may be due to the cis-trans isomerization of the two successive Pro residues in its first Cys loop. Using the Xenopus oocyte heterologous expression system, Qc1.2 was shown to selectively inhibit both rat neuronal 3β2 and 3β4 subtypes of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors with low potency. A block of ~63% and 37% of the ACh-evoked currents was observed, respectively, and the toxin dissociated rapidly from the receptors. Compared with other characterized -conotoxin members, the unusual structural features in Qc1.2 that confer to its receptor recognition profile are addressed.

  C. Wang , P. Xie , L.L. Liu , X.Y. Dong , J.J. Lu and X.T. Zou
  Pharmacological level of zinc oxide is a common recommendation of swine industries, but that could produce metal toxicity to plants and soil microorganisms. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of lower level of capsulated zinc oxide as an alternative to pharmacological level of zinc oxide for weaned piglets. In this study, 90 weaned piglets were randomly assigned into 3 groups (each group with 3 replicates, 10 piglets per replicate) and were fed with the basal diet supplemented with 0 (the control group), 3000 mg kg-1 zinc from zinc oxide (the zinc oxide group) and 1500 mg kg-1 zinc from capsulated zinc oxide (the capsulated zinc oxide group) for 7 days. Results indicated that lower level of capsulated zinc oxide tended to increase the average daily gain (p = 0.062), significantly decreased diarrhea ratio (p<0.01) and significantly increased the serum concentrations of immunoglobulins and zinc (p<0.01) compared to the control group. Serum concentration of insulin-like factor-I (IGF-I), mRNA levels for IGF-I in liver, jejunum and mRNA level for zonula occludens protein-1 (ZO-1) in jejunum were markedly improved by capsulated zinc oxide. There was no difference between zinc oxide group and capsulated zinc oxide group, except for the fecal zinc concentration. Lower level of capsulated zinc oxide significantly decreased the fecal zinc concentration compared to the zinc oxide group (p<0.01). These results showed that lower level of capsulated zinc oxide exhibited beneficial effects on weaned piglets and could be an alternative to pharmacological level of zinc oxide in weaned piglets.
  C. Wang , P. Xie , L.L. Liu , J.J. Lu and X.T. Zou
  The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of various dietary concentrations of capsulated zinc oxide (C-ZnO) on growth performance, blood metabolism and mineral concentrations in weaning piglets. In this study, a total of 144 crossbred piglets (DurocxLandrancexYorkshire) were randomly assigned into 6 groups. One of six treatments was fed the basal diet supplemented with 0 (the control), 281.25, 562.5, 1125 and 2250 mg kg-1 zinc as C-ZnO and 2250 mg kg-1 zinc as zinc oxide (ZnO) for 21 days. Results indicated that compared to the control, dietary supplementation of C-ZnO (≥562.5 mg kg-1 zinc) and ZnO (2250 mg kg-1 zinc) increased (p<0.05) the average daily gain, decreased (p<0.05) the feed: gain ratio as well as serum urea nitrogen concentration. Lower levels of zinc as C-ZnO (281.25-1125 mg kg-1 zinc) decreased (p<0.05) the zinc concentrations in liver, kidney and feces compared with 2250 mg kg-1 zinc as ZnO. These results showed that lower levels (281.25-1125 mg kg-1) of zinc as C-ZnO enhanced growth performance, altered blood metabolism and decreased fecal zinc excretion in weaning piglets compared to pharmacological concentration of zinc as ZnO.
  T Chen , Z Huang , L Wang , Y Wang , F Wu , S Meng and C. Wang

The inflammatory responses of monocytes/macrophages and the stimulation of lipid uptake into these cells by oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL) are critical to the initiation and development of atherosclerosis. Increasing evidence has demonstrated that many microRNAs play important roles in the cell proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation that accompany inflammatory responses. However, whether microRNAs are associated with monocyte/macrophage inflammatory responses or oxLDL stimulation is not yet known. The aim of the present study is to investigate microRNAs in monocytes/macrophages and their potential role in oxLDL-stimulation of lipid uptake and other atherosclerotic responses.

Methods and results

Microarrays were used to analyse the global expression of microRNAs in oxLDL-stimulated human primary peripheral blood monocytes. Expression profiles of the microRNAs were verified using TaqMan real-time PCR. Five microRNAs (microRNA-125a-5p, microRNA-9, microRNA-146a, microRNA-146b-5p, and microRNA-155) were aberrantly expressed after oxLDL treatment of human primary monocytes. Bioinformatics analysis suggested that microRNA-125a-5p is related to a protein similar to ORP9 (oxysterol binding protein-like 9) and this was confirmed by a luciferase reporter assay. MicroRNA-125a-5p was found to mediate lipid uptake and to decrease the secretion of some inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-2, interleukin-6, tumour necrosis factor-, transforming growth factor-beta) in oxLDL-stimulated monocyte-derived macrophages.


MicroRNA-125a-5p may partly provide post-transcriptional regulation of the proinflammatory response, lipid uptake, and expression of ORP9 in oxLDL-stimulated monocyte/macrophages.

  C. Wang , L. Lv , X. Wen , D. Chen , S. Cen , H. Huang , X. Li and X. Ran
  Aims The aim of the study was to explore the prevalence and clinical characteristics of hand ulcer in hospitalized patients with diabetes.
Methods We analysed 17 subjects with hand ulcer among diabetic inpatients, who were admitted to the Diabetic Foot Care Center, Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism at the West China Hospital of Sichuan University from April 2003 to December 2008.
Results The prevalence of diabetic hand ulcer among hospitalized patients (0.37%) was significantly lower than that of diabetic foot ulcers (9.7%, = 0.000). The mean age was 62.1 ± 9.4 years. The average known durations of diabetes and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) were 5.3 ± 4.9 years and 10.9 ± 2.4%, respectively. All patients lived in the subtropical zone. Fifteen patients (88.2%) were diagnosed with diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Ten patients had hand infection. After therapy, the ulcers healed in 13 patients (76.5%) and none of them experienced amputation. The average hospital stay for patients with local infection was characteristically longer than that for patients without infection (= 0.012). The prognosis of the hand ulcer was poorer in the patients who had diabetes for > 3 years compared with those who had diabetes for < 3 years (= 0.009).
Conclusions Diabetic hand ulcer is a relatively rare complication of diabetes in South-West China. Long duration of diabetes, poorly controlled blood glucose, minor trauma and delayed treatment are the risk factors. Diabetic peripheral neuropathy may play an important role in the pathogenesis of hand ulcer. Early control of blood glucose with insulin and early anti-microbial therapy with appropriate antibiotics are crucial. Debridement and drainage are necessary for hand abscesses.
  Q. Wan , F. Wang , Q. Guan , Y. Liu , C. Wang , L. Feng , L. Feng , L. Gao and J. Zhao
  Aims Lipotoxicity has recently been shown to be an important risk factor underlying the pathogenesis of pre-diabetes. However, clinical evidence supporting the treatment of pre-diabetes by improving lipotoxicity is lacking. Here, we conducted an open-label, randomized, controlled trial to investigate whether fenofibrate, the widely used hypolipidaemic agent, might benefit pre-diabetes, with metfomin and diet control, the recommended intervention methods, as positive controls. Methods Newly diagnosed pre-diabetes patients (n = 120) with hypertriglyceridaemia (plasma triglyceride levels between 1.8 and 4.5 mmol/l) were randomly assigned by computer-generated randomization sequence to either control group (no intervention), fenofibrate group (200 mg once a day), metformin group (500 mg three times a day) or diet-controlled group (diet recommendation). Plasma biochemistry examination was performed every 2 months. The primary endpoint was the outcome of the natural course of pre-diabetes, evaluated by oral glucose tolerance test after 6-month follow-up. Results Twenty subjects in the fenofibrate group, 24 subjects in the metformin group and 25 subjects in both the diet-controlled group and the control group finished the trial. Fenofibrate, metformin and diet control had protective effects on hypertriglyceridaemic pre-diabetes, evidenced by 53.3, 70 and 30% participants regressed to normoglycaemia, respectively. The effects of fenofibrate and metformin were comparable (P > 0.05), while diet control was less effective (P < 0.05). Liver damage occurred in six subjects in the fenofibrate group and gastrointestinal symptoms occurred in four subjects in the metformin group. No serious adverse events occurred. Conclusion Controlling lipotoxicity by fenofibrate could effectively ameliorate the natural course of hypertriglyceridaemic pre-diabetes.
  C. Hu , W. Jia , R. Zhang , C. Wang , J. Lu , H. Wu , Q. Fang , X. Ma and K. Xiang


Aims  Retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) is a newly discovered adipokine, which plays a role in insulin resistance and obesity. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between genetic variants of the RBP4 gene, circulating RBP4 concentrations and phenotypes related to glucose and lipid metabolism in the Chinese population.

Methods  We sequenced exons and the putative promoter region to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the RBP4 gene in 32 Chinese subjects. Additional SNPs were selected from a public database to increase marker density. Taking account of the pairwise linkage disequilibrium and minor allele frequencies, a subset of SNPs was further genotyped in 255 Type 2 diabetic patients and 372 normal control subjects. Circulating RBP4 concentrations and phenotypes related to glucose and lipid metabolism were measured.

Results  Ten SNPs were identified and five were further genotyped in the full sample. No individual SNP was significantly associated with Type 2 diabetes, but a rare haplotype CAA formed by +5388 C>T, +8201 T>A and +8204 T>A was more frequent in diabetic patients (P = 0.0343, empirical P = 0.0659 on 10 000 permutations). In both groups, non-coding SNPs were associated with circulating RBP4 concentrations (P < 0.05). In the normal control subjects, the SNP +5388 C>T was associated with serum C-peptide levels both fasting and 2 h after an oral glucose tolerance test (P = 0.0162 and P = 0.0075, respectively).

Conclusion  Our findings suggest that genetic variants in the RBP4 gene may be associated with circulating RBP4 concentration and phenotypes related to glucose metabolism.

  J. Lu , C. Hu , W. Hu , R. Zhang , C. Wang , W. Qin , W. Yu and K. Xiang
  Aims  Electrocardiographic ventricular repolarization QT parameters are independent risk factors for cardiovascular events and sudden cardiac death in diabetic patients. The aim of the study was to investigate the association of polymorphisms of the nitric oxide synthase 1 adaptor protein (NOS1AP) gene with QT interval in Chinese subjects with or without Type 2 diabetes.

Methods  Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs10494366, rs12143842 and rs12029454) were genotyped in 1240 Type 2 diabetic patients (631 men and 609 women) and 1196 normal controls (433 men and 763 women). Individuals with overt diseases other than diabetes were excluded. Heart-rate corrected QT interval (QTc) was determined by standard 12-lead ECG and Bazett formula. Sex-pooled analysis and sex-specific analysis for genotype-phenotype association were both conducted.

Results  In the diabetic group, the rs12143842 T allele was associated with a 3.87-ms (= 0.014, empirical = 0.039) increase in QTc duration for each additional allele copy, while rs10494366 and rs12029454 exhibited no significant association with QTc. We found no evidence of association for the three SNPs in subjects with normal glucose regulation. No significant SNP-gender and -diabetes affection interaction was observed.

Conclusions  The genetic variant rs12143842 in NOS1AP is associated with QT interval duration in a Chinese population with Type 2 diabetes. Future studies in different populations are needed to validate this finding and to evaluate the impact of NOS1AP variants on cardiovascular events and sudden cardiac death in diabetic patients.

  Q. Fang , S. Chen , Y. Wang , S. Jiang , R. Zhang , C. Hu , C. Wang , F. Liu , K. Xiang and W. Jia
  Aims  Hepatocyte nuclear factor-1α (HNF-1α) regulates the expression of genes encoding proteins involved in glucose metabolism and insulin secretion. Mutations in the HNF-1α gene cause maturity-onset diabetes of the young Type 3. However, the mechanism leading to this disease has not been completely ascertained. Previously, we found a novel mutation in the regulatory element of the human HNF-1α gene in two Chinese diabetes pedigrees. The nucleotide at position -128 T was substituted by G (nt-128 T[RIGHTWARDS ARROW]G). In this study, we analysed the functional defect of nt-128 T[RIGHTWARDS ARROW]G in HNF-1α transcription activity.

Methods  Luciferase reporter gene assays were carried out to examine the functional characteristics of this mutant. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation were performed to confirm the binding of nuclear proteins to oligonucleotides.

Results  The variant construct (nt-128 T[RIGHTWARDS ARROW]G) had a 1.65-fold increase in promoter activity compared with that of the wild-type construct in HepG2 cells and a 1.33-fold increase in MIN6 cells, respectively. The variant resided at a FOXA/HNF-3 binding site identified by a series of competitive electrophoretic mobility shift assays and antibody supershift analyses. The assays showed a differential binding affinity in the wild-type and the nt-128 T[RIGHTWARDS ARROW]G mutant fragments by FOXA/HNF-3. Chromatin immunoprecipitation indicated that FOXA/HNF-3 bound to this region in vivo. One nucleotide substitution in the FOXA/HNF-3 site in the human HNF-1α regulatory element caused an increase of HNF-1α transcriptional activity.

Conclusions  Our data suggested that this substitution in the promoter region affects DNA-protein interaction and HNF-1α gene transcription. The mutant may contribute to the development of diabetes in these two nt-128 T[RIGHTWARDS ARROW]G pedigrees of Chinese.

  R. Zhang , F. Jiang , C. Hu , W. Yu , J. Wang , C. Wang , X. Ma , S. Tang , Y. Bao , K. Xiang and W. Jia
  Aims  Metabolic disorders are independent risk factors for the development of Type 2 diabetes. The aim of the study is to test the association of LPIN1 variants with Type 2 diabetes and clinical characteristics in large samples of the Chinese population.

Methods  In the first stage, 15 single nucleotide polymorphisms within the LPIN1 region were selected and genotyped in 3700 Chinese Han participants. In the second stage, the single nucleotide polymorphisms showing significant association or trends towards association were genotyped in an additional 3122 samples for replication. Meta-analyses and genotype-phenotype association studies were performed after combining the data from the two stages.

Results  In the first stage, we detected that rs16857876 was significantly associated with Type 2 diabetes with an odds ratio of 0.806 (95% CI 0.677-0.958, P = 0.015), while rs11695610 showed a trend with Type 2 diabetes (odds ratio 0.846, 95% CI 0.709-1.009, P = 0.062). In the second stage, a similar effect of rs11695610 on Type 2 diabetes was observed (odds ratio 0.849, 95% CI 0.700-1.030, P = 0.096). The meta-analyses combining the information from the two stages showed a significant effect of rs11695610 on Type 2 diabetes with an odds ratio of 0.847 (95% CI 0.744-0.965, P = 0.012). Finally, the phenotype-genotype association analyses showed that rs11695610 was associated with 2-h plasma glucose (P = 0.040) and triglyceride levels (P = 0.034).

Conclusions  Our data implied that common single nucleotide polymorphisms within the LPIN1 region were associated with Type 2 diabetes and metabolic traits in the Chinese population.

  W. Yu , F. Zhang , W. Hu , R. Zhang , C. Wang , J. Lu , F. Jiang , S. Tang , D. Peng , M. Chen , Y. Bao , K. Xiang , C. Hu and W. Jia


There is a close link between electrocardiographic ventricular repolarization QT parameters and Type 2 diabetes. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of QT-related and diabetes-related variants in KCNQ1 on QT interval in a Chinese population.


We recruited 2415 patients with Type 2 diabetes and 1163 subjects with normal glucose regulation in the present study. QT interval was obtained and the heart rate-corrected QT interval (QTc) was calculated using Bazett's formula. Four single nucleotide polymorphisms in KCNQ1 were selected (rs12296050, rs12576239, rs2237892 and rs2237895) and genotyped.


 In participants with normal glucose regulation, the minor allele T of rs12296050 was associated with a 3.46-ms QTc prolongation under an additive model (P = 0.0109, empirical P = 0.0498). In patients with Type 2 diabetes, we did not find any association for the single nucleotide polymorphisms.


Our findings indicate that KCNQ1 is associated with QT interval in a Chinese population with normal glucose regulation.

  P. Xie , C.Y. Zhou , J.Y. Zhu and C. Wang
  Rain-wind-induced Vibration (RWIV) appearing on cable stayed bridges involves complicated fluid and structure interactions and its mechanism is not fully understood. It is believed that the upper-rivulet which is often seen when the RWIV occurs plays an important role. In this study, the effects of the upper rivulet to the aerodynamic forces on the cable and flow pattern around it were numerically investigated. Different azimuths of the attached upper rivulet ranged from 0 to 60° were involved. The result showed that as the rivulet located at different position the boundary layer changed a lot and the forces on the cable and the flow patterns of the wake behind the cable were so that changed.
  E.D. Peebles , K.O. Willeford , R.W. Keirs , K.E. Nestor , Y.M. Saif , C. Wang , C.J. Matyi , J.W. Anderson , M.T. Kidd and R. Pulikanti
  The effectiveness of an injected caprine serum fraction-immunomodulator (CSF-I2) as an immunostimulant in male and female F-line and commercial turkey poults infected with fowl cholera (Pasteurella multocida) was examined in separate trials. In the first 2 of 3 controlled trials, the effects of an i.m. injection of CSF-I2 given 24 h prior to a P. multocida challenge, administered by s.c. injection, on mortality and days to death in F-line turkeys was determined. The CSF-I2 reduced mortality but did not affect average number of days to death of F-line turkeys across trials and sexes when administered 24h prior to a P. multocida challenge. In the third trial, the effects of an i.m. injection of CSF-I2 given to a commercial line of turkeys 24h prior to an s.c. injection of P. multocida on mortality and days to death were determined. While positive control commercial turkey poults experienced an 85% level of mortality across sex, the administration of CSF-I2 did not significantly reduce percentage mortality or average number of days to death. The difference in the effects of CSF-I2 on mortality in F-line and commercial turkey poults challenged with P. multocida suggests that CSF-I2 did not impart immunostimulation to commercial turkeys as it did in F-line turkeys that were infected with P. multocida. Therefore, genetic variation in turkeys may be an important consideration before using CSF-I2 as an immunomodulator to protect juvenile turkeys against fowl cholera.
  A. Kapoor , J. Victoria , P. Simmonds , C. Wang , R. W. Shafer , R. Nims , O. Nielsen and E. Delwart
  Nucleic acids from an unidentified virus from ringed seals (Phoca hispida) were amplified using sequence-independent PCR, subcloned, and then sequenced. The full genome of a novel RNA virus was derived, identifying the first sequence-confirmed picornavirus in a marine mammal. The phylogenetic position of the tentatively named seal picornavirus 1 (SePV-1) as an outlier to the grouping of parechoviruses was found consistently in alignable regions of the genome. A mean protein sequence identity of only 19.3 to 30.0% was found between the 3D polymerase gene sequence of SePV-1 and those of other picornaviruses. The predicted secondary structure of the short 506-base 5`-untranslated region showed some attributes of a type IVB internal ribosome entry site, and the polyprotein lacked an apparent L peptide, both properties associated with the Parechovirus genus. The presence of two SePV-1 2A genes and of the canonical sequence required for cotranslational cleavage resembled the genetic organization of Ljungan virus. Minor genetic variants were detected in culture supernatants derived from 8 of 108 (7.4%) seals collected in 2000 to 2002, indicating a high prevalence of SePV-1 in this hunted seal population. The high level of genetic divergence of SePV-1 compared to other picornaviruses and its mix of characteristics relative to its closest relatives support the provisional classification of SePV-1 as the prototype for a new genus in the family Picornaviridae.
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