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Articles by C. Y Chen
Total Records ( 7 ) for C. Y Chen
  C. Y Chen , C. H Tai , W Tsay , P. Y Chen and H. F. Tien

Background: Intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) is the second leading cause of mortality in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, the prognostic factors for ICH in AML patients are still under investigation.

Patients and methods: A total of 841 AML patients admitted to the Department of Internal Medicine from January 1995 to December 2007 were enrolled in this study.

Results: There were 51 patients with ICH, median age of 51 (range 17–86), including 12 patients diagnosed as acute promyelocytic leukemia. Forty-three patients were refractory/relapsed status. ICH was localized in the supratentorium (44 cases), basal ganglion (9), cerebellum (5), and brainstem (4). Twenty-one patients had multiple sites. Thirty-eight patients had intraparenchymal hemorrhage, 16 subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), 10 subdural hemorrhage, and one epidural hemorrhage (EDH). Hemorrhage ruptured into the ventricles in 13 patients. Thirty-four patients (67%) died of ICH within 30 days of diagnosis. Multivariate analysis revealed four independent prognostic factors, prolonged prothrombin time international normalized ratio >1.5 (P < 0.001), brainstem hemorrhage (P = 0.001), SAH (P = 0.017), and EDH (P = 0.014). Other clinico-laboratory data had no impact on 30-day survival.

Conclusions: ICH has high morbidity and mortality in AML. Early detection and aggressive correction coagulopathy may prevent the catastrophic event. Prompt image study for locations and types of ICH can predict outcomes.

  K. Y Lu , L. C Ching , K. H Su , Y. B Yu , Y. R Kou , S. H Hsiao , Y. C Huang , C. Y Chen , L. C Cheng , C. C Pan and T. S. Lee

Background— In addition to the hematopoietic effect of erythropoietin, increasing evidence suggests that erythropoietin also exerts protective effects for cardiovascular diseases. However, the role of erythropoietin and its underlying mechanism in macrophage foam cell formation are poorly understood.

Methods and Results— Compared with wild-type specimens, erythropoietin was increased in atherosclerotic aortas of apolipoprotein E–deficient (apoE–/–) mice, mainly in the macrophage foam cells of the lesions. Erythropoietin levels in culture medium and macrophages were significantly elevated in response to oxidized low-density lipoprotein in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, erythropoietin markedly attenuated lipid accumulation in oxidized low-density lipoprotein–treated macrophages, a result that was due to an increase in cholesterol efflux. Erythropoietin treatment significantly increased ATP-binding cassette transporters (ABC) A1 and ABCG1 mRNA and protein levels without affecting protein expression of scavenger receptors, including scavenger receptor-A, CD36, and scavenger receptor-BI. The upregulation of ABCA1 and ABCG1 by erythropoietin resulted from liver X receptor activation, which was confirmed by its prevention on expression of ABCA1 and ABCG1 after pharmacological or small interfering RNA inhibition of liver X receptor . Moreover, the erythropoietin-mediated attenuation on lipid accumulation was abolished by such inhibition. Finally, reduced lipid accumulation and marked increase in ABCA1 and ABCG1 were demonstrated in erythropoietin-overexpressed macrophages.

Conclusion— Our data suggest that erythropoietin suppresses foam cell formation via the liver X receptor –dependent upregulation of ABCA1 and ABCG1.

  H. J Kimura , R Rocchi , M. A Landek Salgado , K Suzuki , C. Y Chen , M Kimura , N. R Rose and P. Caturegli

Interferon (IFN)- has been involved in the pathogenesis of Hashimoto thyroiditis. It is a cytokine released by infiltrating mononuclear cells that mediates its actions mainly through signal transducer and activator of transcription-1 (STAT1) but also through other transcription factors. To dissect the effect of IFN on thyroid morphology and function, we crossed transgenic mice that express IFN specifically in the thyroid gland to mice deficient in STAT1. Lack of STAT1 ameliorated the abnormal thyroid morphology and the primary hypothyroidism typical of IFN transgenic mice but not the suppressed iodine accumulation. Interestingly, lack of STAT1 alone decreased iodine accumulation, seemingly through expression of TGFβ. These results indicate that STAT1 is required to mediate some but not all of the phenotypic changes induced by IFN and that it also regulates iodine accumulation via TGFβ signaling.

  J. K Peng , W. Y Hu , S. H Hung , C. A Yao , C. Y Chen and T. Y. Chiu

Background. Family physicians in Taiwan have expressed low willingness to provide palliative home care.

Objective. To explore the medical needs of terminal cancer patients in home care and thus clarify the role and tasks of family physicians in providing palliative home care.

Methods. Seventy-seven terminal cancer patients discharged from a palliative care unit from July 2003 to July 2004 who had received family physician home visits were enrolled. A structured assessment form was applied to each visit.

Results. Under the collaboration by the palliative home care team and family physicians, the average interval from discharge to the first physician visit was 20.3 days and the average interval between physician visits was 37.9 days. The patients had an average of 5.9 active medical problems: the most frequent problem was pain (58.4%), followed by anorexia (42.9%) and constipation (42.9%). Forty-four patients (58.7%) died at home, while 31 patients (41.3%) eventually died in the hospital. Through multiple logistic regression analysis, patients who had never been rehospitalized [odds ratio (OR) = 12.95, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 3.41–49.19], who preferred to die at home (OR = 4.68, 95% CI = 1.21–18.09) and who were most functionally dependent with an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group scale = 4 (OR = 4.36, 95% CI = 1.02–18.64) were found to be most likely to die at home under this care model.

Conclusion. Through palliative home care with the participation of family physicians, patients’ preference could be a significant determinant of home death. Our finding can be helpful to the establishment of an ethical care model for terminal cancer patients.

  M. S Kumar , R. E Pester , C. Y Chen , K Lane , C Chin , J Lu , D. G Kirsch , T. R Golub and T. Jacks

While the global down-regulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) is a common feature of human tumors, its genetic basis is largely undefined. To explore this question, we analyzed the consequences of conditional Dicer1 mutation (Dicer1 "floxed" or Dicer1fl) on several mouse models of cancer. Here we show Dicer1 functions as a haploinsufficient tumor suppressor gene. Deletion of a single copy of Dicer1 in tumors from Dicer1fl/+ animals led to reduced survival compared with controls. These tumors exhibited impaired miRNA processing but failed to lose the wild-type Dicer1 allele. Moreover, tumors from Dicer1fl/fl animals always maintained one functional Dicer1 allele. Consistent with selection against full loss of Dicer1 expression, enforced Dicer1 deletion caused inhibition of tumorigenesis. Analysis of human cancer genome copy number data reveals frequent deletion of DICER1. Importantly, however, the gene has not been reported to undergo homozygous deletion, suggesting that DICER1 is haploinsufficient in human cancer. These findings suggest Dicer1 may be an important haploinsufficient tumor suppressor gene and, furthermore, that other factors controlling miRNA biogenesis may also function in this manner.

  V. C. H Chen , H. K. L Tan , A. T. A Cheng , C. Y Chen , L. R Liao , R Stewart , M Dewey and M. Prince


Repeated self-harm is relatively common and is linked with an elevated risk of eventual suicide. There has been no study of this involving a large sample from the Far East.


To estimate the risk over the medium term of non-fatal repetition of self-harm and identify predictive factors in those carrying out self-harm.


A total of 970 individuals who had self-harmed were recruited from a community-based suicide behaviour register system in Nantou, Taiwan from July 2000 to February 2003. Information regarding demography and suicide methods was collected. Individuals were followed-up until December 2005 to examine the risk of repeated self-harm and independent predictive factors.


Ninety cohort members had repeated self-harm during the follow-up period (accounting for 131 repeated self-harm episodes in all). The cumulative risks were 5.7% for the first year, 7.8% for the second year and 9.5% for the fourth year. The risk was highest within the first year after the self-harm event. Independent risk factors included female gender and self-cutting as well as self-poisoning with drugs. Effect of younger age was mediated through the choice of methods.


Individuals with self-harm have a high risk of repetition, especially within the first year. Suicide prevention strategies need to focus on intervening with this population to reduce their repetition.

  C Esk , C. Y Chen , L Johannes and F. M. Brodsky

CHC22 is needed for retrograde trafficking from endosomes to the trans-Golgi, unlike its clathrin sibling CHC17, and in a manner distinct from retromer.

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