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Articles by C. Balachandran
Total Records ( 3 ) for C. Balachandran
  P. Krishnamoorthy , S. Vairamuthu , C. Balachandran and B. Muralimanohar
  The present work was undertaken to study the haematobiochemical changes in chlorpyriphos and T-2 toxin fed broiler chicken. Known amounts of chlorpyriphos and T-2 toxin containing powdered wheat substrates were incorporated into the toxin free broiler starter mash, singly and in combination to yield 45 ppm chlorpyriphos and 0.5 ppm T-2 toxin. Forty eight day-old broiler chicks were randomly allotted into four groups of 12 each i.e., control, chlorpyriphos, T-2 and chlorpyriphos+T-2 groups and fed with toxin mixed diets from 0 to 4 weeks of age and studied various haematobiochemical parameters on 14th and 28th day of age. PCV and Hb levels decreased significantly (P< 0.01) in toxin fed birds indicating anaemia. Serum total protein, albumin, globulin and albumin/globulin ratio decreased significantly (P< 0.01) in T-2 fed group. Serum glucose and cholesterol values decreased significantly (P< 0.01) in chlorpyriphos group. AST, ALT and ALP values increased significantly (P< 0.01) in T-2 and chlorpyriphos+T-2 groups. Chlorpyriphos fed birds showed increased ALT. Chlorpyriphos and chlorpyriphos+T-2 fed groups showed significant (P< 0.01) increase in serum amylase values. Decreased serum lipase values were observed in T-2 and chlorpyriphos+T-2 groups. No significant differences were observed in values of blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, uric acid and GGT between the control and toxin treated groups. Chlorpyriphos and T-2 toxins affected functions of various organs in broiler chicken, the effect being less than additive.
  P. Krishnamoorthy , S. Vairamuthu , C. Balachandran and B. Muralimanohar
  Forty-eight, newly hatched, unsexed broiler chicks were fed diets containing 45 mg/kg chlorpyriphos, an organophosphorus compound and 0.5 mg/kg T-2, a mycotoxin singly and in combination for 28 days from day of hatch to study the pathology of lymphoid organs. A system for scoring microscopic lesions was developed in bursa of Fabricius, caecal tonsil and spleen. Lesion scores for bursa ranged from 0 for normal, 2 for chlorpyriphos toxicosis and 4 for T-2 and chlorpyriphos+T-2 fed birds on 14th and 28th day of study. Less severe lesions occurred in caecal tonsils with score 1 in all the toxin fed birds. The lesion score for spleen ranged from 0 for normal to 3 for severely affected spleen in combined toxin fed birds on 14th and 28th day of trial. In T-2 fed group, thymus showed mild medullary lymphocytolysis on 14th day of trial. Harderian gland of all the toxin fed birds showed depletion of plasma cells and necrosis of the gland on 14th and 28th day of age. This lesion scoring system was useful in determining the severity of these two toxins singly and in combination on lymphoid organs in different age group of broilers. The present study revealed the individual and combined toxic effects of these toxins on the lymphoid organs and affecting the health status in broiler chicken.
  V. Mrudula , Titus, V. , George , C. Balachandran and B. Murali Manohar
  The study on canine nephritis was carried out over a period of one year on sixty dogs (60) presented at the Small Animal Clinics, Madras Veterinary College, with clinical signs suggestive of renal insufficiency and 30 dogs with gross nephritis lesions submitted to the department of Veterinary Pathology. The mean age of affected animals was 7.8 ? 0.34 years. Sixty percent of the animals affected were males and 40 % were females. Aged dogs (mean - 7.8 ? 0.34 years) were more susceptible for nephritis. German shepherd (26.66 %) and Spitz (21.66 %) showed a higher incidence of nephritis. E.coli was the principal organism isolated from urine samples. In this study, out of 56 cases studied histopathologically, majority of the animals showed subacute and chronic type of nephritis. The increased incidence of subacute and chronic type of nephritis suggested that renal diseases were not diagnosed in the early stages because of the less sensitivity of routinely used screening tests like BUN and serum creatinine.
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