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Articles by C Jiang
Total Records ( 2 ) for C Jiang
  J Karman , J. L Tedstone , N. K Gumlaw , Y Zhu , N Yew , C Siegel , S Guo , A Siwkowski , M Ruzek , C Jiang and S. H. Cheng

Lipid rafts reportedly play an important role in modulating the activation of mast cells and granulocytes, the primary effector cells of airway hyperresponsiveness and asthma. Activation is mediated through resident signaling molecules whose activity, in part, may be modulated by the composition of glycosphingolipids (GSLs) in membrane rafts. In this study, we evaluated the impact of inhibiting GSL biosynthesis in mast cells and in the ovalbumin (OVA)-induced mouse model of asthma using either a small molecule inhibitor or anti-sense oligonucleotides (ASOs) directed against specific enzymes in the GSL pathway. Lowering GSL levels in mast cells through inhibition of glucosylceramide synthase (GCS) reduced phosphorylation of Syk tyrosine kinase and phospholipase C gamma 2 (PLC-2) as well as cytoplasmic Ca2+ levels. Modulating these intracellular signaling events also resulted in a significant decrease in mast cell degranulation. Primary mast cells isolated from a GM3 synthase (GM3S) knockout mouse exhibited suppressed activation-induced degranulation activity further supporting a role of GSLs in this process. In previously OVA-sensitized mice, intra-nasal administration of ASOs to GCS, GM3S or lactosylceramide synthase (LCS) significantly suppressed metacholine-induced airway hyperresponsiveness and pulmonary inflammation to a subsequent local challenge with OVA. However, administration of the ASOs into mice that had been sensitized and locally challenged with the allergen did not abate the consequent pulmonary inflammatory sequelae. These results suggest that GSLs contribute to the initiation phase of the pathogenesis of airway hyperreactivity and asthma and lowering GSL levels may offer a novel strategy to modulate these manifestations.

  C Jiang , H Zhang , W Zhang , W Kong , Y Zhu , Q Xu , Y Li and X. Wang

Adipokines may represent a mechanism linking insulin resistance to cardiovascular disease. We showed previously that homocysteine (Hcy), an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease, can induce the expression and secretion of resistin, a novel adipokine, in vivo and in vitro. Since vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration is a key event in vascular disease, we hypothesized that adipocyte-derived resistin is involved in Hcy-induced VSMC migration. To confirm our hypothesis, Sprague-Dawley rat aortic SMCs were cocultured with Hcy-stimulated primary rat epididymal adipocytes or treated directly with increasing concentrations of resistin for up to 24 h. Migration of VSMCs was investigated. Cytoskeletal structure and cytoskeleton-related proteins were also detected. The results showed that Hcy (300–500 µM) increased migration significantly in VSMCs cocultured with adipocytes but not in VSMC cultured alone. Resistin alone also significantly increased VSMC migration in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Resistin small interfering RNA (siRNA) significantly attenuated VSMC migration in the coculture system, which indicated that adipocyte-derived resistin mediates Hcy-induced VSMC migration. On cell spreading assay, resistin induced the formation of focal adhesions near the plasma membrane, which suggests cytoskeletal rearrangement via an 5β1-integrin-focal adhesion kinase/paxillin-Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1) pathway. Our data demonstrate that Hcy promotes VSMC migration through a paracrine or endocrine effect of adipocyte-derived resistin, which provides further evidence of the adipose-vascular interaction in metabolic disorders. The migratory action exerted by resistin on VSMCs may account in part for the increased incidence of restenosis in diabetic patients.

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