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Articles by Bin Li
Total Records ( 7 ) for Bin Li
  Soad A.E. Algam , Ahmed A. Mahdi , Bin Li and Guan Lin Xie
  Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is one of the world's most widely cultivated vegetable crops. Among the tomato-inflicting diseases, wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum (Smith) is a major yield-limiting factor. Management of the disease has been hampered by use of ineffective pesticides and lack of resistant varieties. This study aimed at using two antagonistic bacteria and three chemical inducers to inhibit the disease. The dual-culture technique was used to test the in vitro inhibition of R. solanacearum by two antagonistic bacteria (Paenibacillus polymyxa MB02-1007 and Paenibacillus macerans MB02-992) and three chemical inducers (sodium benzoate, ascorbic acid and isonicotinic acid). The effects of the two antagonistic bacteria and three chemical inducers on control of Ralstonia wilt and promotion of tomato growth were evaluated in pots in a randomized block design under greenhouse conditions. The antagonistic bacteria significantly improved seed germination and seedling vigour of tomato plants. Disease incidence and the population of Ralstonia solanacearum in tomato plants were considerably reduced by the two antagonistic bacteria and the three chemical inducers, singly or in combination, compared to the control. In particular, the combination of antagonistic bacteria with isonicotinic acid at 3 mg mL-1 increased height, fresh and dry weight of tomato plants by more than 89%, while the combination of antagonistic bacteria with sodium benzoate at 40 mg mL-1 or ascorbic acid at 8 mg mL-1 or isonicotinic acid at 3 mg mL-1 inhibited tomato bacterial wilt by more than 72% compared to the control. Overall, this study revealed that chemical inducers, in combination with antagonistic bacteria, have a powerful effect on tomato growth promotion and control of tomato bacterial wilt.
  Arne Schneidewind , Mark A. Brockman , John Sidney , Yaoyu E. Wang , Huabiao Chen , Todd J. Suscovich , Bin Li , Rahma I. Adam , Rachel L. Allgaier , Bianca R. Mothe , Thomas Kuntzen , Cesar Oniangue-Ndza , Alicja Trocha , Xu G. Yu , Christian Brander , Alessandro Sette , Bruce D. Walker and Todd M. Allen
  Control of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) by HLA-B27-positive subjects has been linked to an immunodominant CD8+ cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response targeting the conserved KK10 epitope (KRWIILGLNK263-272) in p24/Gag. Viral escape in KK10 typically occurs through development of an R264K substitution in conjunction with the upstream compensatory mutation S173A, and the difficulty of the virus to escape from the immune response against the KK10 epitope until late in infection has been associated with slower clinical progression. Rare alternative escape mutations at R264 have been observed, but factors dictating the preferential selection of R264K remain unclear. Here we illustrate that while all observed R264 mutations (K, G, Q, and T) reduced peptide binding to HLA-B27 and impaired viral replication, the replicative defects of the alternative mutants were actually less pronounced than those for R264K. Importantly, however, none of these mutants replicated as well as an R264K variant containing the compensatory mutation S173A. In assessing the combined effects of viral replication and CTL escape using an in vitro coculture assay, we further observed that the compensated R264K mutant also displayed the highest replication capacity in the presence of KK10-specific CTLs. Comparisons of codon usage for the respective variants indicated that generation of the R264K mutation may also be favored due to a G-to-A bias in nucleotide substitutions during HIV-1 replication. Together, these data suggest that the preference for R264K is due primarily to the ability of the S173A-compensated virus to replicate better than alternative variants in the presence of CTLs, suggesting that viral fitness is a key contributor for the selection of immune escape variants.
  Toshiyuki Miura , Mark A. Brockman , Chanson J. Brumme , Zabrina L. Brumme , Jonathan M. Carlson , Florencia Pereyra , Alicja Trocha , Marylyn M. Addo , Brian L. Block , Alissa C. Rothchild , Brett M. Baker , Theresa Flynn , Arne Schneidewind , Bin Li , Yaoyu E. Wang , David Heckerman , Todd M. Allen and Bruce D. Walker
  Despite reports of viral genetic defects in persons who control human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in the absence of antiviral therapy, the extent to which such defects contribute to the long-term containment of viremia is not known. Most previous studies examining for such defects have involved small numbers of subjects, primarily focused on subjects expressing HLA-B57, or have examined single viral genes, and they have focused on cellular proviral DNA rather than plasma viral RNA sequences. Here, we attempted viral sequencing from 95 HIV-1 elite controllers (EC) who maintained plasma viral loads of <50 RNA copies/ml in the absence of therapy, the majority of whom did not express HLA-B57. HIV-1 gene fragments were obtained from 94% (89/95) of the EC, and plasma viral sequences were obtained from 78% (61/78), the latter indicating the presence of replicating virus in the majority of EC. Of 63 persons for whom nef was sequenced, only three cases of nef deletions were identified, and gross genetic defects were rarely observed in other HIV-1 coding genes. In a codon-by-codon comparison between EC and persons with progressive infection, correcting for HLA bias and coevolving secondary mutations, a significant difference was observed at only three codons in Gag, all three of which represented the historic population consensus amino acid at the time of infection. These results indicate that the spontaneous control of HIV replication is not attributable to shared viral genetic defects or shared viral polymorphisms.
  Yuanyuan Yang , Yongxin Chai , Bin Li and Fanglin Du
  The controllable synthesis of hexagonal pine-like Zn-doped CdSe (Cd1−xZnxSe, x = 0.1–0.3) nanotrees from the self-prepared mixed-metal precursors has been achieved by two facile steps: first, mixed-metal precursors (x = 0.1–0.3) were prepared directly through precipitation reactions of stoichiometric cadmium acetate, zinc acetate and sodium selenite in distilled water under ambient condition; second, pure hexagonal phase pine-like Cd1−xZnxSe (x = 0.1–0.3) nanotrees with different ratios were produced via solvothermal treatment of the precursor compounds in hydrazine hydrate at 180 °C for 12 h. The products were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy dispersive spectrum (EDS) and UV–vis absorption spectroscopy. It was observed that the optical band gap energies of the as-synthesized Cd1−xZnxSe (x = 0.1–0.3) nanotrees shift systematically toward shorter wavelengths with an increase of the Zn content.
  Binfeng Yang , Bin Li and Yunjiang Wang
  Pulsed eddy current (PEC) nondestructive testing (NDT), as for most of EC techniques, is prone to lift-off effect, which influences the interpretation and quantification of flaw. A new technique for reducing the lift-off effect and quantifying flaw based on sensor design and frequency spectrum analysis is proposed. The technique exploits the self-differential feature of the sensor and the broadband frequency spectral content of pulsed excitation. Results show that the lift-off has been significantly reduced and the precision of quantification of flaw has been improved.
  She Chen , Bin Li , Inge Grundke-Iqbal and Khalid Iqbal
  In Alzheimer disease (AD) brain, the level of I PP2A1, a 249-amino acid long endogenous inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), is increased, the activity of the phosphatase is decreased, and the microtubule-associated protein Tau is abnormally hyperphosphorylated. However, little is known about the detailed regulatory mechanism by which PP2A activity is inhibited by I PP2A1 and the consequent events in mammalian cells. In this study, we found that both I PP2A1 and its N-terminal half I PP2A(1–120)1, but neither I PP2A(1–163)1 nor I PP2A(164–249)1, inhibited PP2A activity in vitro, suggesting an autoinhibition by amino acid residues 121–163 and its neutralization by the C-terminal region. Furthermore, transfection of NIH3T3 cells produced a dose-dependent inhibition of PP2A activity by I PP2A1. I PP2A1 and PP2A were found to colocalize in PC12 cells. I PP2A1 could only interact with the catalytic subunit of PP2A (PP2Ac) and had no interaction with the regulatory subunits of PP2A (PP2A-A or PP2A-B) using a glutathione S-transferase-pulldown assay. The interaction was further confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation of I PP2A1 and PP2Ac from lysates of transiently transfected NIH3T3 cells. The N-terminal isotype specific region of I PP2A1 was required for its association with PP2Ac as well as PP2A inhibition. In addition, the phosphorylation of Tau was significantly increased in PC12/Tau441 cells transiently transfected with full-length I PP2A1 and with PP2Ac-interacting I PP2A1 deletion mutant 1–120 (I PP2A1ΔC2). Double immunofluorescence staining showed that I PP2A1 and I PP2A1ΔC2 increased Tau phosphorylation and impaired the microtubule network and neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells treated with nerve growth factor.
  Chengqing Wang , Wei-En Fu , Bin Li , Huai Huang , Christopher Soles , Eric K. Lin , Wen-li Wu , Paul S. Ho and Michael W. Cresswell
  Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) was used to characterize the cross section of nanoline gratings fabricated with electron beam lithography (EBL) patterning followed by anisotropic wet etching into a single crystal silicon substrate. SAXS results at normal incidence clearly bear the signature of positional dependent linewidth within the gratings; such non-uniformity is subsequently confirmed with scanning electron microscopy. The proximity effect of EBL is believed to be the cause of the spatial variations of linewidth. To quantitatively fit the SAXS results the linewidth near the periphery of the patterned field needs to be 80% greater than that in the central region, whereas the cross section of nanolines can be modeled as a simple rectangular shape, as expected from the anisotropic wet etching process.
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