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Articles by Bernard Gagnon
Total Records ( 2 ) for Bernard Gagnon
  Cynthia Grant , Noura Ziadi , Bernard Gagnon , Don Flaten and Jeff Schoenau
   Régis Simard and his colleagues developed a research program focussing on the agronomic and environmental impacts of nutrients in agricultural systems. The success of this program resulted from an integrated approach, linking assessment of nutrient availability to an understanding of nutrient dynamics in the soil, and applying this understanding to development of improved management practices for a variety of nutrient sources. Research into nutrient availability conducted by Régis and his co-workers led to improvements in quantification of nutrient supply, using traditional soil analysis with batch chemical extraction as well as ionic exchange membranes (IEMs) and electro-ultrafiltration (EUF). Ion exchange membranes are now used as a tool in routine soil fertility assessments and in agronomic and environmental research to study nutrient ion release rates. Additionally, intensive analytical techniques, such as sequential extraction and X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) were developed and used to characterize the forms and relative availability of soil nutrients for plant uptake or environmental effects. Characterization of nutrient pools improved understanding of nutrient dynamics in the soil, allowing a more accurate assessment of the agronomic value and environmental risk of nutrients applied to agricultural systems. Building on this knowledge, Régis and his colleagues developed improved methods of utilizing manures, composts, paper mill sludge (PMS) and liming by-products, effectively diverting nutrients from the waste stream into a resource for crop production. This paper describes the contributions of Régis and his colleagues to the improvement of agronomically and environmentally sustainable nutrient management practices, based on an integrated research approach that provided a clear understanding nutrient availability and soil nutrient dynamics.
  Roger Lalande , Bernard Gagnon and Isabelle Royer
  Soil acidity is a major problem in agriculture because it limits plant growth and reduces crop productivity. The neutralizing potential of industrial by-products and their impact on soil properties were evaluated in two acidic soils characterized by contrasting textures, and submitted to intensive agriculture practices. Soil pH, microbial (dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase) activity, and Mehlich-3 extractable P, K, Ca and Mg were monitored in the year of soil incorporation of eight liming products and in the following 2 yr. In the sandy loam, liming products did not result in significant increases in soil pH in the 0- to 7.5-cm soil layer. Lime mud (LM) significantly increased soil pH by 0.4 units in the 7.5- to 20-cm layer compared with cement kiln dust (CKD). In the silty clay, calcium-phosphate-magnesium (CalPoMag) significantly raised pH by 0.65 units over both natural calcitic lime (NCa) and the magnesium dissolution product (MgD) in the first soil layer, and by 0.5 units over carbide lime (CL) treatment in the second soil layer. Activities of dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase were increased to various degrees by all liming materials, especially on the silty clay; LM and CalPoMag were the most beneficial materials. The exception was MgD, which did not result in any impact on microbial activity relative to the control. Both enzymatic activities were related to the increase in soil pH, particularly the alkaline phosphatase. Ion leaching was more pronounced in the sandy loam than in the silty clay soil, where large differences in the Ca and Mg ion levels were still detected in the 20- to 40-cm layer of the sandy loam. In this study, LM and CalPoMag are interesting liming products, particularly in the silty clay soil.
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