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Articles by Beckley Ikhajiagbe
Total Records ( 6 ) for Beckley Ikhajiagbe
  Edokpolor Osazee Ohanmu and Beckley Ikhajiagbe
  Background and Objective: Weeds reduced cowpea yield and quality by competing for light, water and nutrients. Hence identifying a cowpea cultivar that completes well against weeds will go a long way in increasing food sustain ability and security. Therefore, this study investigated the competition between cowpea (TVU-180) and selected weeds prominent in a typical ultisol. Materials and Methods: The study involved 10 treatments and a control. Each treatment included three seeds of the cowpea sowed alongside the selected weeds, Chrysopogon aciculatus (WA), Eleusine indica (WB), Cynodon dactylon (WC), Axonopus compressus (WD), Panicumn maximum (WE), Setaria bartata (WF), Sporobolus pyramidalis (WG), Commelina benghalensis (WH), Paspalum vaginatum (WI), a combination of the weeds (WJ) and the control arranged in a randomized block design (RBD) and replicated thrice. Results: The result of the study showed that there were significant weed competitive effect on the cowpea parameters examined. The plant height and number of leaflet of cowpea in WE, WA and WJ treatments were significantly increased over the control. No yield parameters were recorded in the associated weed treatments except in WA, WI and the control. However, weed competitiveness significantly reduced the bean yield of the cowpea in the WI and WA treatments. Weed competitiveness resulted in the lowest plant dry weight of the TVu-180 in WB when compared with control. There was variation in the light harvesting pigments with WH, WI and WB having a higher chlorophyll-a/b, carotenoid and lycopene content than the control. The WA and the control had the highest soil total N, P and K content. Conclusion: The cowpea TVu-180 variety was more promising for cultivation in a farm infested with Chrysopogon aciculatus and Paspalum vaginatum weeds without significant effects in the yield and quality of the plant.
  Edokpolor Osazee Ohanmu and Beckley Ikhajiagbe
  Background and Objective: Environmental stress such as heavy metal is a major factor affecting reduction in agricultural productivity. Heavy metals at toxic levels hamper normal plant functioning and act as an impediment of metabolic processes by the production of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS). Plant has evolved various enzymatic and non-enzymatic mechanism to cope against the ROS produced. This study investigated the biochemical response of S. stenocarpa to cadmium stress. Materials and Methods: S. stenocarpa (Fabaceae) seeds were sown in the control (0 ESV) and the different concentrations (2.5, 5 ESV) of cadmium chloride (CdCl2). The soil samples were collected from 10 different points at a depth of 0-30 cm using a soil auger, pooled together, air-dried and grind to pass through a 2 mm sieve before subjecting to physico-chemical analysis. The five accessions consisted of 3 blocks, 15 treatments per block, two plant per polythene bag arranged in a RBD. Enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), malondialdehyde (MDA), proline as well as non-enzymes such as tocopherol, ascorbate were determined. Results: Increased cadmium concentration resulted in increased translocation of the metal in the plant leaves and decreased chlorophyll a/b content of TSs-accessions. Increase in cadmium concentration results to variability in enzymatic and non-enzymatic response of the studied accessions. Take for instance overall MDA, SOD and proline activities were significantly increased in the Cd-5ESV as compared to the control. However, the accessions varied in their response to cadmium. For instance, the SOD of TSs-95 was reduced with increased cadmium concentration. Similarly, the ascorbate and tocopherol content decreased in TSs-92 and TSs-95, respectively with increased Cd concentration. Individual plants showed different antioxidant responses either between the plants or among the accessions. The MDA activity significantly increased in leaves with metal increase while SOD activity was heighten in TSs-91 whereas in TSs-95 there were no significant difference in SOD activity between control and Cd-exposed plant. Conclusion: The increase in antioxidant activities of the metal exposed plants compared to their control counterpart suggested possibility of free radicals instigated by metal presence. This further gave trendies to plants’ resistance capacities with SOD been the first line of defense.
  Edokpolor Osazee Ohanmu and Beckley Ikhajiagbe
  Background and Objective: With the increased soil pollution caused by heavy metals, identifying accessions that are high nitrogen assimilators has a potential in improving soil fertility and increase crop yield. Therefore, the current study aimed at determining the variation in nitrogen assimilation and biomass accumulation of cowpea accessions to cadmium pollution. Materials and Methods: A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the plant nitrogen assimilation and dry weight matter of cowpea accessions in response to cadmium pollution in Benin city located in southern Nigeria. Five cowpea accessions (TVu-91, TVu-92, TVu-93, TVu-95 and TVu-96) were sown in the control (0ESV) and two treatments of cadmium chloride (Cd-2.5ESV and Cd-5ESV), laid out in a randomized block design (RBD) and replicated thrice. The leaves and roots were assessed at 6 and 18 weeks after sowing and (WAS) for total nitrogen, nitrogen assimilated as nitrate-N or ammonia-N form and their percentage. The plants’ biomass accumulation was also determined 20 WAS. Results: From the result, 6 WAS cadmium pollution significantly reduced foliar TN% irrespective of cowpea accession except in TVu-95. Cowpea accessions distributed nitrogen mainly as nitrate-N with the highest values observed in TVu-91 while TVu-96 recorded the highest N% assimilated as nitrate irrespectively of treatment. In addition to this, cadmium pollution reduced the overall foliar yield and plant dry weight of TVu-accessions with increased metal concentration. TVu-92 and TVu-96 in the Cd-2.5ESV and Cd-5ESV were more closely related in their mode of response to cadmium incidence compared to the other accessions. Conclusion: Nitrogen was significantly assimilated more as nitrate-N than ammonium-N and readily distributed to the leaves.
  Beckley Ikhajiagbe , Edokpolor Osazee Ohanmu and Mary Osasere Iguobaro
  Background and Objective: The problem caused by weeds are enormous and constitute a major constraint to crop production globally. Over the years, weed has contributed to the reducing in cowpea productivity either by releasing allelopathic compounds, providing a conducive environment for pest or competing for available soil nutrients. Therefore, the study examined the competition between the cowpea variety (TVu-180) and selected local weeds abundant in a typical ultisol in Benin city, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: There were 10 treatments and a control, namely; Chrysopogon aciculatus (WA), Eleusine indica (WB), Cynodon dactylon (WC), Axonopus compressus (WD), Panicumn maximum (WE), Setaria bartata (WF), Sporobolus pyramidalis (WG), Commelina benghalensis (WH), Paspalum vaginatum (WI), while WJ was a combination of all the weeds and control (CTR). Three seeds of TVu-180 was sown into each bowl per-treatments, laid out in a Randomized Block Design (RBD) with three replications. Results: From the results, the associated weeds delayed the first day of emergence in TVu-180 variety, however, there was no significant difference between the treatments and control. The emergent height of TVu-180 in WC, WE and WF were significantly higher than the TVu-180 variety in control. Weeds competitiveness with the TVu-180 variety resulted in a highly significant decrease in the plants’ dry weight either singly or holistically when compared with the control. The shoot length, stem width and leaflet area of the TVu-180 variety in WA were higher than those in the control. However, the no. of leaves were reduced in all treatments, there was no significant difference in between the TVu-180 variety in the WA treatment and control. Weed competitiveness resulted in the highest percentage of foliar foraging, chlorosis and necrosis in TVu-180 variety of WG and WC, respectively. From the regression plot, there was an inverse relationship between foliar chlorosis and percentage N, P and K in the soil while the correlation showed a significant positive relationship between foliar foraging and foliar chlorosis and necrosis respectively. Conclusion: Weed competitiveness did not affect the emergence performance of the Tvu-180 variety, however, the variety was morphologically susceptible with a significant reduction in dry weight matter.
  Josiah Eseoghene Ifie , Anoliefo, Geoffrey Obinna and Beckley Ikhajiagbe
  Background and Objective: The screening of iron-tolerant cultivar is imperative to sustain and improve overall cowpea production. This study investigated the growth and yield responses of selected cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) accession to iron toxicity in a ferruginous ultisol. Materials and Methods: Top soil (a ferruginous ultisol) was obtained from an undisturbed garden and sun-dried to constant weight. The soils were divided into 2 groups. One group was the selected ferruginous garden ultisol, whereas the iron level in the other group was elevated by twice the ecological screening benchmark of iron in agricultural soils (400 mg kg–1). One week later, 15 accessions of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (TVu-3742, TVu-3769, TVu-5348, TVu-5760, TVu-5768, TVu-5782, TVu-5883, TVu-6102, TVu-6193, TVu-6219, TVu-6290, TVu-10600, TVu-10881, TVu-11114 and TVu-11214) were sown in both iron-amended and control soils. Results: Twenty weeks later, results showed differential responses in carotenoids, lycopenes, NAR and DWP across accessions exposed to elevated iron levels. There was general growth suppression accessions planted in Fe-elevated soils (p<0.05) with TVu-3742, 3769 and 6290 were the worst hit while elevated Fe-enhanced rooting parameters in TVu-3769 and 6219 were observed. Per plant yield in TVu-5760, 5768, 6102, 10600, 11114 and 11214 were significantly reduced by over 35%. However, no significant yield changes were reported for TVu-3742, 5768, 5782, 5883, 6193, 6219, 6290 and 10881 under elevated soil iron condition. Conclusion: Given the fact that the control soil was ferruginous, with iron levels higher than 1 g kg–1, the reported capacities for selected accessions to maintain yield levels under further elevated iron conditions suggest possible iron tolerance for those tolerant accessions.
  Beckley Ikhajiagbe and Geoffery Obinna Anoliefo
  The documentation of the frequency of occurrence of weed species that are prevalent in oil polluted areas is necessary to assess their capacity for tolerance and potential for phytoremediation of such polluted sites. The present study therefore investigated the impact of substrate amendment on the weed biodiversity of Waste Engine Oil (WEO)-polluted soil. Top soil (0-10 cm) was collected from an area of known soil seed bank on a farmland and measured into perforated bowls. The soil was then contaminated with WEO at 4 levels of pollution: 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0% w/w WEO in soil. The unpolluted soil was the control. The entire set up was divided into two and then left for 5 months without mechanically disturbing the soil. The first set was amended with sawdust, whereas the second set left unamended for the remaining period of the experiment. After 10 months, there was general reduction in heavy metal composition of soil. Euphorbia heterophylla was the most prevalent weed, present in both amended and unamended soil treatments. Weed biodiversity studies showed that dominance indices ranged from 0.137-0.284 in the unamended soil treatments and 0.160-0.500 in the substrate-amended soil treatment levels. Substrate amendment of WEO-polluted soil therefore enhanced development of soil seed bank thereby improving weed diversity in the polluted soil probably necessitated by biodegradation of the soil contaminant.
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