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Articles by B.A. Usman
Total Records ( 8 ) for B.A. Usman
  S.S. Diarra and B.A. Usman
  In a 12 week experiment the effect of graded levels of soaked sesame seed meal (SSM) as a source of methionine on the performance of laying hens was investigated. In a completely randomized design, 200 black Australorp pullets aged 20 weeks were allotted to 5 isonitrogenous diets with 4 replicates of 10 birds per diet. Sesame seed meal (SSM) replaced soyabean meal (SBM) weight for weight at 0.00, 12.50, 37.50 and 50.00% in diet 1 (control), 2, 3, 4 and 5 respectively. The control diet contained synthetic methionine which was removed with the introduction of SSM in the other diets. The results showed a significant (P< 0.05) reduction in the hen-day egg production above 25.00% and egg weight above 12.50% levels of replacement. Shell quality was not affected by dietary treatment. Feed cost (N/egg) was significantly (P < 0.05) reduced on the 12.50% replacement compared to the 37.50%. There was no treatment effect (P> 0.05) on the while blood cell count, but packed cell volume was significantly (P< 0.05) lowered on the 50.00% and haemoglobin concentration, serum protein, albumin and globulin above 12.50% levels of replacement. These results suggest that replacing SBM with SSM at 12.50% in the diet of laying hens will meet their methionine requirement without adverse effects on performance and health status.
  B.A. Usman , A.U. Mani , A.D. El - Yuguda and S.S. Diarra
  In order to study the development of Newcastle Disease (ND) in Japanese quail subjected to high ambient temperature with or without supplementation with ascorbic acid (AA), eighty 3 week-old Japanese quails were randomly allotted to four equal groups. Two of the groups were kept at room temperature (26 ±0.5 °C) with one supplemented with AA (RA) and the other receiving no AA (RO). The other two groups were kept at a continuous temperature of 41.8 ±0.6 °C with one of them supplemented with AA (HA) and other receiving no AA (HO). The group RO served as the control. Ascorbic acid was supplemented at the rate of 1000mg/kg feed. Twelve birds in each of four groups were challenged oculonsally with a pigeon isolate of velogenic ND virus and the rest left as in contact. Morbidity rate was 100% in all challenged and in contact birds except in the incontact of the group supplemented with AA which recorded 50%. One hundred percent mortality was recorded in heat stressed groups irrespective of AA supplementation while 0% and 50% mortality was recorded in those kept at room temperature with or without AA supplementation respectively. None of the unchallenged in contact birds died in any of the groups. Lesions of ND in the experimentally infected quails were characterized by pathological lesions. The results of haemagglutination inhibition test performed on blood samples of all birds on days 0, 7, 14 and 21 post inoculations indicated no effect of heat treatment or AA supplementation on the humoral immune response of the Japanese quail. It was concluded that prolonged high ambient temperature has detrimental effects on the survival of Japanese quail with AA supplementation having some ameliorating effects. High ambient temperature may not adversely affect the humoral immune response of Japanese quail to Newcastle disease and AA may not be an important factor in the resistance of quails exposed to prolonged high ambient temperature to ND virus infection.
  S.S. Diarra and B.A. Usman
  In a 63-day experiment the effect of replacing maize with raw or cooked mango kennel meal on the growth and blood parameters of broiler chickens was investigated. One hundred and eighty (180) day-old Anak, 2000 broiler chicks (mixed sex) were randomly allotted to 3 dietary treatments containing 4 replicates of 15 chicks each. The diets consisted of a maize - based (control) diet and 2 other diets containing 20% of either raw (RMK) or boiled mango kernel (BMK) meal as a replacement for maize. Boiling reduced the toxic factor (tannin) content of mango kernel by up to 75.00%. During the starter phase (0-28 days) birds fed the RMK- based diet ate significantly less feed, gained less weight and recorded a poorer feed conversion ratio (FCR) than the control and the BMK - based diets, but there were no significant dietary effects on these parameters during the finisher period (28-63 days). There were no significant dietary effects on the haematological values but serum total protein and globin were markedly reduced on the RMK fed group. From these results it is concluded that 20% of the maize can be replaced with boiled mango kernel meal in the diet of broilers without adverse effects on growth and blood parameters.
  B.A. Usman and S.S. Diarra
  Mortality plays a major role in determining profitability of egg type layers, as it is a function of culled and dead birds. Negative association between mortality and net profit has been reported. Higher mortality and culling were reported to be due to severe outbreaks of infectious/non-infectious diseases, accidental deaths, substandard health and management practices and poor quality of chicks and feed. Newcastle (ND), Infectious bursal disease (IBD), yolk sac infections and coccidiosis were found to cause maximum mortality (over 30%) in egg type layers. Infectious laryngotracheitis (IL) caused mortality within the range of 0.81 - 20% in layers. Cannibalism was also reported to be a major cause of death in egg type layers. A drop of 10-40% in egg production was found with the incidence of infectious coryza, E. coli, mycoplasmosis, coccidiosis, egg prolapse and aflatoxicosis. Salmonellae were abundantly found in bedding material of chicken (42%), drinkers (36%), feed (28%) and water tanks (17%) of the poultry farm. Maintenance of a healthy environment in a poultry shed, protection of birds from extreme climatic conditions, maintenance of standard hygiene measures and antibiotic therapy, were reported as key factors in the reduction of losses due to diseases and mortality in egg type layers.
  B.A. Usman , A.U. Mani and O.B. Muyiwa
  A study to determine the effects of dietary supplementation with ascorbic acid on blood parameters, egg production and quality in quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica)subjected to heat stress was conducted. Forty eight adult female quail were divided into 6 equal groups (A to F) and fed ad-libitum on either commercial layers mash ration (Groups A and D), layers mash supplemented with 200mg (Groups B and E) or 1000mg per kilogram ascorbic acid (Groups C and F). From the day treatment with Ascorbic acid started, Groups A, B and C were exposed to high temperature of about 38 °C for about 8 hours a day for two weeks. Daily feed and water consumption, egg production and quality and blood parameters were measured. By the end of the second week, feed consumption was higher in groups that were not subjected to heat stress (Groups D, E and F) than in those subjected to heat stress (Groups A, B and C). There was however no significant difference in feed consumption between birds treated with the two levels of ascorbic acid (AA) and those that were not, in both heat stressed and non stressed groups. Birds in heat stressed groups given ascorbic acid supplementation consumed more water than those not given any ascorbic acid. There was also no significant difference in weight of birds, egg production and egg weight between the groups except in birds that were not heat stressed and treated with 1000g ascorbic acid whose eggs were significantly heavier (P < 0.05). No significant difference was also observed in the mean egg weight between quail that were neither exposed to high temperatures nor treated with AA (Group D) and those that were exposed to high temperatures only (Group A), treated with AA only (Groups E and F) and exposed to high temperatures and treated with AA (Groups B and C). Following one week of the experiment, birds that were not exposed to heat stress but treated with 1000mg of AA (Group F) had heavier eggs (P< 0.05) than those that were heat stressed and given no AA (Group A) (P< 0.05) and those that were heat stressed and given 200mg AA (Group B) (P< 0.05). After 2 weeks of experiment however, eggs from birds in Groups E and F were significantly heavier (P< 0.01; P< 0.001) than those from Group A. Birds exposed to heat stress and given 1000mg AA (Group C) had heavier eggs (P< 0.05) than those also exposed to heat stress but were not given AA (Group A). The eggs of birds exposed to heat stress and not given AA (Group A) were also significantly lighter (P< 0.05) than those also not given AA but not expose to heat stress (Group D). Birds on heat stress given 200mg AA similarly had lighter eggs(P< 0.05) than those given the same level of AA but not heat stressed (Group E). There were no significant differences in the length and width of quail eggs between any of the six groups. Mean shell weight and thickness of quail eggs were however higher in birds given AA than in those not given but the differences were not significant except between birds in Group F and those in Group A (P< 0.01) and Group B (P< 0.01), respectively. No significant difference in internal egg quality as measured by Haugh unit was observed between any of the groups of the six groups. There was also no significant difference between any of the six groups in RBC count, Hb concentration, PCV%, MCV MCH, MCHC and WBC count except for a higher WBC count in Group F compared to Group A (P< 0.05). It was concluded that the quail appear to exhibit some level of heat resistance compared with other species of birds and also to benefit from ascorbic acid supplementation under hot environments; however, further studies would need to be undertaken.
  B.A. Usman , A.U. Mani and I.I. Garndawa
  A study to determine the effect of pre-incubation storage of the eggs of the Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) was conducted during the cool harmattan season in the north-east arid region (Sahel) of Nigeria. Eggs were collected daily from six-months-old quail and stored at room temperature (25-29 °C) for 0 to 20 days before incubation in an electric incubator. Eggs that failed to hatch were opened for determination of fertility and estimation of time of death of embryos. A total of 196 (29.3 %) eggs out of 668 incubated hatched successfully. The length of pre-incubation storage was negatively correlated (r = -0.91; P < 0.0001) with hatchability. The highest hatchability (72.3%) was obtained from eggs that were not stored (Day 0 of storage). Hatchability dropped sharply after storage for 9 days. No egg hatched following pre-incubation storage of over 11 days. Among the unhatched eggs, there were significantly more apparently infertile than fertile eggs (P < 0.0002). There was no relationship between pre-incubation length of storage and the proportion of embryos that died in early, middle or late incubation period. However, the proportion of the apparently infertile eggs increased with increasing length of pre-incubation storage (r = 0.95; P < 0.0001). No egg stored for 18 days or more was found to be apparently fertile. It was concluded that the length of pre-incubation storage has detrimental effect on hatchability of quail eggs in the Sahel area and that quail eggs for incubation should not be stored at room temperature for more than 9 days, even in the coolest season.
  S.S. Diarra , B.A. Usman , J.U. Igwebuike and A.G. Yisa
  The ban of meat meal in poultry feed in most countries of the world and the high cost of fish meal have resulted in the increased use of plant products in poultry diets. However, phytate, which is the main storage form of phosphorus in plants, exerts antinutritional effects in poultry due to its ability to form insoluble complexes with essential minerals and proteins. In addition to these effects, the excretion of excess phosphorus into the environment is a serious cause of environmental pollution. Deactivation techniques such as boiling, fermentation, soaking and enzyme treatment have been used to reduce the level of phytate in plant materials. However, these techniques add to the cost and reduce the nutritional quality of the finished feed through the loss of nutrients. The modes of action of phytate in poultry, its distribution in plants, some common deactivation techniques and their limitations and certain intrinsic qualities of plants that can minimize the effects of phytate in the consuming animal are reviewed. The use of plant and animal breeding as an alternative to deactivation by physical and chemical methods and the use of enzymes are also highlighted.
  O.R. Oguntade , O.T. Oketoki , E.A. Ukenye , B.A. Usman and M.T. Adeleke
  Fisheries resources are on the decline in Nigeria due to over exploitation and inadequate management of the coastal waters. For sustainability of these resources, an adequate knowledge of species composition, diversity and relative abundance of its water bodies must be understood and vigorously pursued. A survey was conducted to determine fish species diversity in Brass and Nun River, Niger delta, Nigeria and the socioeconomic studies carried out to determine the status of endanger or level of disappearance of fish species within study area. The survey identified 53 species from 18 families caught from Brass and Nun stations, respectively. The fish diversity ranged from typically freshwater fishes such as Tilapia and Clarias to brackish species such as Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus and Penaeus species. The most abundant family within catch were the Scianidae, Cichlidae and Clariidae. A checklist of economically important fast disappearing fish species along the two water bodies was generated. Oil spillage, discharges from industries (industrialization) and the domestic wastes from boundaries settlements (urbanization) and farming activities along the tributaries were among the factors identified to have contributed to low species diversity and fast disappearance of certain species. Data generated from this study would serve as baseline information for fisheries resource management.
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