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Articles by B. Suriharn
Total Records ( 8 ) for B. Suriharn
  B. Suriharn , A. Patanothai and S. Jogloy
  Breeding for drought resistance in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) has been done primarily based on empirical selection for yield under drought stress conditions, but progress has been slow. Selection for physiological traits that can contribute to superior performance of the crop under drought stress conditions may complement conventional approach and hasten the progress. Specific leaf area (SLA) and Harvest index (HI) are physiological traits that could be used for this purpose. For the choice of an efficient breeding procedure, a good knowledge on the types of gene action controlling the expression of these two traits is needed. This study was conducted to examine the various gene effects for SLA and HI in three crosses of peanut (ICGV 86388 x IC 10, ICGV 86388 x KK 60-1 and IC 10 x KK 60-1). Seven generations of individual crosses (parents, F1, F2, F3, BC11S and BC12S) were grown in a group balance block experiment with six replications. Data were analyzed following a generation means analysis. The results showed that additive gene effects were predominant in determining the expression of SLA and HI in all the three crosses, accounting for 80-95% of total genetic variability for SLA and 63-73% for HI. Dominant gene effect for SLA was significant in one cross but its contribution was very small. Significant additive x dominant epistatic effects were also observed for SLA in all crosses, but additive x additive and dominant x dominant gene effects were significant in one cross each. Significant epistatic gene effects for HI were also detected in two crosses but largely being additively x additive which is fixable. The predominance of additive gene effects for SLA and HI suggested that selection for the two traits in these crosses would be effective even in early segregating generations.
  P. Kesornkeaw , K. Lertrat and B. Suriharn
  Four cycles of modified mass selection for prolificacy in Tein Luang Nong Bua population of small ear waxy corn at low and high population densities (62,500 and 125,000 plants ha-1) were completed in 2006. The initial population and eight improved populations were evaluated at two planting densities. The objectives were to evaluate the responses of these populations to population density and to estimate selection responses of improved populations for agronomic characters and ear traits. Number of ears per plant increased from 1.75 at cycle 0 to 1.84 at cycle 4 with average rates of gain per cycle of 0.03 ears per plants at low planting density. At high planting density, the average ears per plant increased from 1.75 at cycle 0 to 1.99 at cycles 4 with average rates of gain per cycle of 0.05 ears per plants. Mass selection at high population density resulted in higher response than the one at low population density (increased by 0.07 vs. 0.05 and 0.03 vs. 0.02 ears per plant cycle-1 for low and high planting densities, respectively). Correlated response to selection was observed in both low and high planting densities for plant high (2.9** and 2.8**), ear height (b = 2.3 * and 2.5*), days to tasseling (b = 0.48* and 0.53*) and days to silking (0.53* and 0.41*). It could be concluded that mass selection under both high and low plant densities could increase number of ears and selection under high plant density was more effective than under low plant density.
  S. Simla , K. Lertrat and B. Suriharn
  To supplement the selection for qualitative traits, the quantitative study by generation means analysis was carried out. The aim of this study was to determine gene effects for sugar contents (sucrose, glucose, fructose and total sugar) in two waxy corns crosses (101sux101bt and 101sux216sh2-crosses). Three inbred lines (101su, 101bt and 216sh2) homozygous in waxy gene were used as parents to generate six basic populations (P1, P2, F1, F2, BC11 and BC12). Eleven entries were planted in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The sugar contents were evaluated en masse from immature kernels at 21 days after pollination. The data were used in generation means analysis to understand gene effects. Dominance and epistatic gene effects explained most of genetic variation for sucrose and total sugar in both crosses. Negative dominance gene effect indicated that sugar content in the F1 hybrids were not as high as that of their parents. Significant additive gene effect also indicated the synergistic effect of the sweet gene combinations. Based on the results, backcross or three-way cross is the best choice to increase sweetness in waxy corn and the use of gene combinations is better than single gene. This information is useful for planning breeding strategies for improving sweetness in waxy corn.
  W. Pimsaen , S. Jogloy , B. Suriharn , T. Kesmala , V. Pensuk and A. Patanothai
  Inulin containing tubers of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) can be used as raw material for healthy products, sweeteners, bio-ethanol and animal feed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of cultivar, environment and cultivarxenvironment interaction on fresh tuber yield tuber number and tuber size of Jerusalem artichoke. Fifteen cultivars were evaluated in a randomized complete block design with four replications at nine environments in the Northeast of Thailand. Differences among cultivars were observed for fresh tuber yield, tuber number and weight of individual tubers (tuber size). Environment effect contributed to a larger portion of variations in fresh tuber yield, tuber number and tuber size. Although, genotypex environment interactions were also significant, their values were much smaller than genotype main effects for all characters. Stability parameters indicated that exploitation of superior cultivars with adaptation to a wide range of environments and the cultivars with specific adaptation to specific environments would be possible. Low correlation but significant was found for fresh tuber yield and tuber number, indicating that tuber yield in some cultivars was dependent on high tuber number. Strong correlation between fresh tuber yield and tuber size indicated that bigger tuber is necessary to obtain higher tuber yield. Negative but significant correlation between tuber number and tuber size indicated that increased tuber size is on the expense of tuber number. JA 89 was the most promising cultivar for wide adaptation and high tuber yield, whereas HEL 65 was the most promising cultivar for its bigger tubers and acceptable yield.
  S. Simla , K. Lertrat and B. Suriharn
  Six varieties of vegetable waxy corn (Zea mays var. ceratina) popular among growers and consumers in Thailand were analyzed for their carbohydrate compositions at different harvest times from 15 days after Pollination (DAP) to maturity and a corn variety was stored at different durations. All sugar compositions increased with Days after Pollination (DAP) to the peak and then declined, whereas total starch, amylopectin and phytoglycogen compositions increased with DAP and were highest in mature kernels. The accumulation timings of carbohydrate compositions were different among varieties and compositions. Suitable harvest times can vary between 17 and 25 DAP. The highest harvest durations were observed in Tien Baan Kao and Big White 852 being 9 and 7 days, respectively. Storage of waxy corn under ambient conditions resulted in rapid loss of sugar contents, whereas total starch, amylopectin and phytoglycogen were increased. Low storage temperature is required to maintain shelf-life of waxy corn products. These varieties are highly recommended for commercial production and can be used as germplasm sources for waxy corn improvement.
  B. Suriharn , J. Sanitchon , P. Songsri and T. Kesmala
  Appropriate canopy management and proper application of fertilizer under different growing conditions and agronomic practices can obtain reliable yield of physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.). The objective of this study was to determine the effects of pruning level in first year and fertilizer rate of combined NPK in the first and second years on growth and yield of three-year old physic. A split plot design with four replications was used. Three pruning levels of 50, 75 and 90 cm from the ground were assigned in main plots and combinations of NPK fertilizers at the rates of 0, 312.5 and 625 kg ha-1 were arranged randomly in subplots. All pruning levels from the ground did not have significant effects on branch number and branch length (cm), whereas application of fertilizer did increase branch number and branch length especially at the rate of 312.5 kg ha-1. Harvest in the second year gave higher yield (1,559 kg ha-1) than did in the first year (1,180 kg ha-1) for all treatments, suggesting that it is not necessary to prune physic nut every year in commercial plantations. It is recommended to prune the three-year old physic nut at 70 cm from the ground. Pruning at 90 cm from the ground is possible but not at 50 cm. it is also recommended to apply fertilizer to the three-year old physic nut under rainfed conditions at the rate not exceeding 312.5 kg ha-1 and this should be based on soil analysis. Application of higher rates depressed yield.
  B. Suriharn , A. Patanothai , K. Pannangpetch , S. Jogloy and G. Hoogenboom
  Multienvironment trials of crop breeding lines consume many resources. Crop models have a potential to assist in this process. The goal of this study was to evaluate the potential of the CSM-CROPGRO-Peanut model in assisting with yield performance and stability evaluation of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) breeding lines. Seventeen peanut lines were tested in 11 environments in Thailand during both the rainy and the dry seasons of 2002 to 2004. Yields of these lines were also simulated with the CSM-CROPGRO-Peanut model for the same 11 test sites. The cultivar coefficients of the peanut lines used for model simulation were derived from a separate experiment conducted in two seasons and were evaluated against an independent data set from another experiment. Yield performance and stability of the peanut lines were evaluated on the basis of observed and simulated data using the genotype and genotype x environment interaction biplot method. The results showed that the model predicted the relative performances and yield stability for pod yield of the test peanut lines for the 11 actual test sites reasonably well. Out of the nine highest yielding lines, that is, the upper 52%, identified by observed data, six were identified by model simulation. Similarly, out of the nine stable lines identified by observed data, six were common with those identified by simulated data. We conclude that the CSM-CROPGRO-Peanut model could be used in assisting yield performance and stability evaluation of peanut breeding lines.
  P. Songsri , B. Suriharn , J. Sanitchon , S. Srisawangwong and T. Kesmala
  Narrow genetic base is a main problem hindering the progress of physic nut breeding. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of different levels of gamma radiation on germination percentage, survival percentage and growth of five physic nut genotypes. The seeds were treated with six levels of gamma radiation (0, 200, 400, 600, 800 and 1000 Gy) and the 5x6 treatment combinations were arranged in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Data were recorded for germination percentage, survival percentage at 15 Days After Germination (DAG) (GR50(15)) and survival percentage at 30 DAG (LD50(30)). As the seedlings did not survive at 600, 800 and 1000 Gy, these treatments were deleted from the successive evaluations of plant height, stem diameter and leaf number. Higher doses of gamma radiation resulted in the significant reductions in germination percentage, survival percentage and plant height. The germination percentages were from 4.0% for 1000 Gy to 82.5% for 0 Gy. The seeds treated with gamma radiation higher than 600 Gy resulted in complete mortality. Difference among genotypes was not significant for these characters. The dosages of gamma radiation to obtain LD50 based on survival percentage 30 DAG was 425 Gy and was not dependent on genotypes. The information is useful for gamma radiation induction of mutation breeding for physic nut.
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