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Articles by Audil Rashid
Total Records ( 8 ) for Audil Rashid
  Maria Ali , Tahira Ahmad and Audil Rashid
  This study was done in few areas of the Punjab where vegetation analysis and evaluation of stand structure was carried out to establish plant communities. The stands were located both in control area and in the sites contaminated with industrial effluents. Data collected in the field using quadrats were subjected to two-way indicator species analysis (TWINSPAN) on the basis of which two major distinct groups were formed. (1) Cynodon dactylon group, the dominating species of the control area and (2) Desmostachya bipinnata group, the dominating species of the contaminated area indicating its tolerance and ability to withstand metal contaminants. Furthermore, the quadrat information was processed to determine the importance value of species and results of soil analysis were used for causal interpretation of prevailing plant communities. It appears that edaphic characteristics were not posing a detrimental threat to natural flora, however ground cover was on decline in various stands of contaminated sites.
  Mian Nazish Adnan and Audil Rashid
  The distribution and abundance of major plant taxa along Balakot to Shogran road was examined. The sampling was carried out at places where rocky slopes were exposed due to road expansion and adjacent undisturbed plots. Frequency of most of the herbaceous species was lower in disturbed sites although the differences were not significant. Total plant cover however, was significantly lower in all sites disturbed due to road construction. The microtopography of rock substrate revealed a significant impact on amount of vegetation present and type of rock plus time of revegetation after being disturbed. Crustose lichens were particularly sensitive and their distribution was restricted to sites that were least altered or otherwise representing the early stages of succession. We found disturbance regime a major factor that decreased vegetation frequency and cover along road sites but a careful assessment of the geological and environmental factors must also be considered on vegetation dynamics.
  Audil Rashid , Mian N. Adnan , Irfan Z. Qureshi and Muahammad Arshad
  Classical bacterial indicators and organic matter contents were analyzed for sediment samples and the suspended particles collected from the sewage waste of Islamabad city. The suspended particles were most affected by proximity of point source and sewage overflows, which were associated with significant increases in the concentration of faecal coliforms, faecal streptococci and Clostridium perfringens spores. In contrast, only faecal coliform counts significantly increased in sediments with increasing distance from the point source. Sewage overflow again resulted in increased concentrations of faecal coliforms, faecal streptococci and Clostridium perfringens spores in suspended particulate matter. Faecal coliforms were identified as the most useful indicator of faecal pollution as only this indicator correlated significantly to the organic matter contents (r = 0.88, rs = 0.93) for sediment samples. The amount of organic matter in suspended particulate matter was not significantly different but a gradual increase in the organic matter with an average value of 2 to 3% was detected in the sediment samples with increasing distance from the point source. Our findings indicate a high level of faecal pollution in Nullah Leh, particularly coliforms, in amounts several magnitudes higher than the standards permit. It is concluded that minimization of hazards lies only in the treatment of sewage waste prior to its discharge in open environment.
  Audil Rashid and Hina Hashmi
  With the therapeutic concept of using the defensive ability of plants against microbial infection, root extracts of Acacia modesta were tested for their potent antimicrobial action. Root extracts exhibited considerable bacteriostatic activity against two gram positive and two gram negative strains. The antibacterial action was compared with the effect of streptomycin. The maximum zone of inhibition of 11 mm diameter was observed in -Streptococcus while a minimum 3mm zone of inhibition was found in Escherichia coli. Among the fungal species tested, yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) exhibited maximum sensitivity action of the extracts. It is also concluded that by improving extraction method antimicrobial potential of the extracts can be further enhanced.
  Audil Rashid and Muhammad Asad Ghufran
  Edaphic conditions are largely responsible for arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) spore density in soil. The soil characteristics of Margalla hills were analyzed for AM root colonization and spore density. Root colonization and spore number were least in the soil collected from most erosive positions. Topsoil eroded from surface showed relatively low AM inoculum potential whereas that of captured soil collected from the foot-hills revealed high potential. The numbers of spores recovered by wet sieving technique were significantly greater in captured soil. Spots that trap eroded surface soils moving down slope may act as an important reservoir of AM inoculum. It seems that the soil environment of Margalla hills will change as soon as annuals colonize the hills and this will improve conditions for mycorrhizal fungi to increase.
  Jamshaid Gul , Audil Rashid and Najma Ayub
  Medicinally important wild plants (17) of Margalla hills Islamabad and Salt range of Pothowar were compared based on their vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) status. Statistical interpretation of the data indicated a significant difference between the results of vesicles, arbuscules and hyphal infection in plants of Margalla hills and Salt range area. The number of VAM spores recovered from the rhizospheric soils of both the areas was also significantly different. Soils analyses further revealed a significant difference for values of sand, silt, phosphorus, potassium, calcium carbonate and soil pH while clay and nitrogen contents were non-significant. The study concludes that wild plant have enormous ability to establish mycorrhizal association under stressed conditions particularly in the saline environment of Salt range, VAM root colonization emphatically reflects an adaptive mechanism of plants.
  Muhammad Arshad and Audil Rashid
  A greenhouse study was conducted on tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill var. Roma) to monitor the effects of salt (NaCl) stress on dry matter yield and nitrogen (total and 15N) uptake. The significant difference in the dry matter production, total-N, and 15N content of plants, was first noted on day 15 of the 15N treatment, and this difference continued to the end of the study period. Moreover, differences in both the parameters i.e., dry matter production and 15N uptake, also appeared in the last (30 days) harvest between the two saline treatments.
  Muhammad Arshad and Audil Rashid
  Two varieties of tomato were sown to determine the effect of NPK on tomato plants by using them independently under normal field conditions. Application of urea delayed flowering and fruit setting in both the varieties, but increased the number of fruit set, weight of fruits harvested per plant, weight of individual fruits and fruit yield/ha. Muriate of potash and controlled treatments did not have significant influence on yield components. Super phosphate treatment, however, gave better results then potash and controlled treatments for number of fruits set, and harvested fruit weight/plant and average weight/fruit and yield/ha. The average yield of Roma was significantly higher than that of Moneymaker in urea and super phosphate plots.
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