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Articles by Asmah Rahmat
Total Records ( 8 ) for Asmah Rahmat
  Asmah Rahmat , Susi Edrini , Abdah Md. Akim , Patimah Ismail , Taufiq Yap Yun Hin and Mohd Fadzelly Abu Bakar
  The antiproliferative activities of Strobilanthes crispus was evaluated using (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromide) (MTT) assay against several cancer cell lines and Chang liver (normal) cell lines. The methanolic extracts of Strobilanthes crispus displayed the strongest cytotoxic effect on colon cancer (Caco-2) followed by human breast cancer hormone non-dependent (MDA-MB-231) and liver cancer (HepG-2) with IC50 values of 22.3, 27.2 and 29.3 μg mL-1, respectively. The chloroform extract of this plant was shown to also have cytotoxic effect against Caco-2 and HepG-2 with IC50 values of 25.1 and 28.0 μg mL-1, respectively. β-sitosterol and stigmasterol were isolated from the leaves of Strobilanthes crispus. β-sitosterol displayed cytotoxic properties against Caco-2, HepG-2 and MCF-7 with IC50 values of 20.0, 53.0 and 71.2 μM, respectively. Whereas, stigmasterol inhibited the proliferation of Caco2, HepG2, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 with IC50 values of 132.5, 182.5, 156.0 and 185.9 μM, respectively. There was no cytotoxic effect observed on normal cell lines (Chang liver) in all samples tested.
  Mohd Fadzelly Abu Bakar , Arnida Hani Teh , Asmah Rahmat , Fauziah Othman , Normah Hashim and Sharida Fakurazi
  Regarding to the promising pharmacotherapeutic properties of Strobilanthes crispus (Acanthaceae) plant, we report here, the development of nutraceutical herbal tea from S. crispus young and old leaves and evaluate the potential antiproliferative properties and antioxidant activity in vitro. Unfermented and fermented tea (Camellia sinensis) preparation was applied for development of S. crispus tea. Antiproliferative properties of S. crispus tea extracts were determined by the microculture tetrazolium salt (MTT) assay against human breast cancer cell lines (hormone dependent, MCF-7; non-hormone dependent, MDA-MB-231). The results showed that S. crispus tea only inhibit the proliferation of human hormone dependent breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7) but not the non-hormone dependent breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231). The antioxidant activity was determined using FRAP (Ferric Reducing/Antioxidant Power) and DPPH free radical scavenging assay. The results showed that the hot water extract of S. crispus tea showed high antioxidant activity especially S. crispus unfermented tea from old leaves. But the tea from the leaves of C. sinensis displayed better antioxidant activity.
  Adel S. Al-Zubairi , Patimah Ismail , Chong Pei Pei , Ahmad B. Abdul , Reyadh Saif Ali , Siddig I. Abdel Wahab and Asmah Rahmat
  The leaves of khat (Catha edulis) are reported to have stimulating and pleasurable effects and are chewed habitually by people of East Africa and Arabian Peninsula. Due to various effects of khat the present study was undertaken to evaluate the short-term repeated dose effects of freeze dried khat leaves crude extract administration to male Sprague-Dawley rats. In this study, the effects of catha edulis leaves extract oral administration on plasma concentration of Malonyldialdehyde (MDA), triglycerides, cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, uric acid, albumin and testosterone and liver enzymes activities were examined. Four groups of rats were exposed to 0, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg kg 1 body weight/day for 6 consecutive weeks. Our results demonstrated that food consumption and body weights changes were non-significantly different relative to the control. There were no significant effects observed on the levels of plasma MDA, cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, uric acid, albumin, liver enzymes or Acid Phosphatase (ACP) in the treatment groups relative to the control. Administration of freeze dried crude catha edulis leaves extract for 6 weeks was found to increase plasma testosterone levels in the two high doses treatment groups (1000 and 2000 mg kg 1 body weight) in more than 2 folds, while it was non-significantly increased in the 500 mg kg 1 body weight treatment group, as compared to control. The data indicated that at the doses and time period tested, catha edulis freeze dried crude extract could be considered as aphrodisiac. Moreover, it did not produce any significant effect on the normal biological markers of liver toxicity or prostatic adverse effects.
  Asmah Rahmat , Bibi Rohaniza Baharudin and Mohd Fadzelly Abu Bakar
  The antidiabetic effect of crude extract of Andrographis paniculata leaves were studied on normal and alloxan induced hyperglycaemic rats. Oral administration of Andrographis paniculata leaf extract (10 mg kg-1 body weight) for 8 weeks resulted in significant reduction in glucose level as well as increased in body weight in alloxan induced hyperglycaemic rats but not in normal rats, which clearly shows the antidiabetic properties of Andrographis paniculata crude extract. The effect of the extract at dose 10 mg kg-1 body weights was more effective than tested hypoglycaemic agent (glibenclamide) at dose 10 mg kg-1 body weights in restoring the values of these parameters.
  Asmah Rahmat , Susi Edrini , Patimah Ismail , Taufiq Yap Yun Hin and Mohd Fadzelly Abu Bakar
  The aimed of this study is to extract the essential oil from Strobilanthes crispus (Acanthaceae) and Lawsonia inermis Linn (Lythraceae) and to investigate the chemical constituents, antioxidant activity and cytotoxicity effects of these oils on several cancer cell lines and normal cell lines. From GC-MS analysis revealed that the presence of at least 28 components for Strobilanthes crispus and 23 components in Lawsonia inermis. The total antioxidant activity from (FTC) and (TBA) methods showed that the essential oils of both plants have higher antioxidant activity compared to α-tocopherol. The essential oil from Lawsonia inermis displayed the strongest cytotoxic effect on liver cancer cell lines (HepG2) with IC50 (concentration that inhibit 50% of cell proliferation) value of 24 μg mL-1. However, the essential oil from Strobilanthes crispus did not give any cytotoxic value against all the cell lines tested. No cytotoxic effects of both oils in normal cell lines. The essential oils from both plants can be used as nutraceutical supplement to increase antioxidant needed in body to enhance defence systems, especially towards the incidence of degenerative diseases. The essential oil from Lawsonia inermis can be used as supplement in cancer patients especially in liver cancer patients.
  Susi Endrini , Asmah Rahmat , Patimah Ismail and Taufiq-Yap Yun Hin
  The research was conducted to examines the anticarcinogenic properties of henna (Lawsonia inermis) extract (using chloroform as a solvent) by the microculture tetrazolium salt (MTT) assay on the human breast (dependent-hormone, MCF-7; non-dependent hormone, MDA-MB-231), colon (Caco-2), liver (HepG2) carcinoma cell lines and normal human liver cell lines (Chang Liver). The preliminary results showed that the henna extract displayed the cytotoxic effects against HepG2 and MCF-7 with IC50-value of 0.3 and 24.85 μg ml-1, respectively. However, no IC50 values were obtained from Caco-2 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines at the concentration studied. This extract also did not show the IC50 value against normal human liver cell lines, Chang Liver, indicated the selectivity of its cytotoxic properties. The antioxidative activities of this extract which could contribute to its cytotoxic properties were also studied. Antioxidant activity in henna was found to be the highest as compared to vitamin E or α -tocopherol. The strong cytotoxic properties of this extract could be due to its high antioxidant activities.
  Suherman Jaksa , Asmah Rahmat , Fauziah Othman , Patimah Ismail and Siti Muskinah Hj. Mansor
  The administration effect of Strobilanthes crispus extract (SC) during hepatocarcinogenesis was studied to investigate the possible cancer suppressive effect of the component existed in the leaves. The rats (84 male Sprague Dawley) were divided into 14 groups N (Normal), C (Cancer), NS 1 (Normal+ SC 1%), NS 2.5 (Normal+SC 2.5%), NS 5 (Normal+SC 5%), NS 7.5 (Normal+SC 7.5%), CS 1 (Cancer+SC 1%), CS 2.5 (Cancer+SC 2.5%), CS 5 (Cancer+SC 5%), CS 7.5 (Cancer+SC 7.5%), CG 1 (Cancer+Glycyrrhizin 1%), CG 2.5 (Cancer+Glycyrrhizin 2.5%), CG 5 (Cancer+Glycyrrhizin 5%), and CG 7.5 (Cancer+Glycyrrhizin 7.5%). 1, 2.5, 5 and 7.5% (w/v) of S. crispus extract were used, compared with Glycyrrhizin, the commercial anticancer drug used mainly for liver. Administration effect during liver cancer in rats that have been induced with cancer by diethylnitrosamine (DEN) and 2-acetyl-aminoflourence (AAF) was studied by estimation of glutathione S-transferase (GST) and uranyl diphosphate glucoronyl transferase (UDPGT) in liver. The severity of neoplasia in induced liver cancer was also evaluated by histological examination. Treatment with DEN/AAF caused increase in all enzyme activities measured when compared to control. Significant differences were observed among all the treatment groups for GST and UDPGT activities. Histological evaluations showed the loss of normal morphology and organizations of hepatocytes when carcinogens were introduced into the rats. The severity of liver cell dysplasia was evidently decreased by SC extract treatment group as compared to glycyrrhizin. Furthermore SC did not affect the normal organization in the liver. The findings suggest that supplementation of SC on DEN/AAF rats reduced the severity of hepatocarcinogenesis.
  Susi Endrini , Asmah Rahmat , Patimah Ismail and Y.H. Taufiq-Yap
  This research was conducted to study and compare the cytotoxic effect of the extracts of two plants, henna (Lawsonia inermis) and kejibeling (Strobilanthes crispus) on several kinds of cancer cell lines. The mechanism of the effect was also studied through the expression of cancer-caused gene, c-myc. This research was done in vitro using several kinds of cancer cell lines such as human colon cancer cell lines (Caco-2), liver cancer cell lines (HepG2), hormone-dependent breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7) and hormone-independent breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231) and Chang Liver cell lines. The cytotoxic effect was measured through MTT assay and the potential cytotoxic value was calculated by determining the toxic concentration which may kill up to 50% of the total cell used (IC50). Meanwhile, the cytotoxic mechanism was studied by determining the effect of adding both extracts to the c-myc gene expression. The methods for determination were RT-PCR and sequencing process. The results showed that chloroform extract from henna can be used against human colon cancer cell lines (Caco-2) and liver cancer cell lines (HepG2) with an IC50-value of 25.1 and 28 μg mL–1, respectively. Kejibeling was also found to be cytotoxic against human liver cancer cell lines (HepG2) and hormone-dependent breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7) with an IC50-value of 0.3 and 24.8 μg mL–1, respectively. However, the extract was not cytotoxic against human colon cancer cell lines (Caco-2). The smallest value of IC50 was seen when the kejibeling extract was compared with henna. The cytotoxic effect of both plant extracts may be mediated by the down-regulation of c-myc expression.
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