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Articles by Arshad JAVAID
Total Records ( 10 ) for Arshad JAVAID
  Arshad Javaid and Huma Adrees
  In the present study, herbicidal activity of culture filtrates of nine phytopathogenic fungi, namely, Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissl., Drechslera australiensis (Bugnicourt) Subramanian & Jain, Drechslera hawaiiensis (Curtis and Cooke) Shoemaker, Drechslera biseptata (Saccardo & Roumeguere) Richardson & Fraser., Drechslera rostrata (Drechsler) Ricardson & Fraser, Fusarium oxysporum (Massey) Synd. & Hans., Fusarium solani (Martius) Saccardo., Monilia stophila (Montagne) and Cladosporium sp. (Grey) de Hoff, was evaluated against parthenium weed (Parthenium hysterophorus L.). In laboratory bioassays, the effect of original (100%) as well as lower concentrations (75, 50 and 25%) of these cultural filtrates was studied on germination and early seedling growth of parthenium. Cultural filtrates of different concentrations of A. alternata, Cladosporium sp. and D. rostrata significantly suppressed the germination of parthenium seeds by 70-90, 13-73 and 27-50%, respectively. Cultural filtrates of these fungi also exhibited pronounced adverse effects on the seedling root and shoot growth. Among other fungal species, cultural filtrates of D. australiensis, D. hawaiiensis, F. oxysprium and F. solani significantly reduced the root and shoot length of parthenium seedlings. Foliar spray bioassay was performed using cultural filtrates of three fungal species, namely A. alternata, F. solani and D. rostrata. In this bioassay, three sprays of fungal cultural filtrates, with 4 day intervals each, were carried out on 1 and 2 week-old pot-grown seedlings of parthenium. Cultural filtrates of all the three fungal species markedly suppressed root and shoot growth of parthenium weed.
  Qudsia Kanwal , Ishtiaq Hussain , Hamid Latif Siddiqui and Arshad Javaid
  Five flavonoids, namely (-)-epicatechin-3-O-β-glucopyranoside (1), 5-hydroxy-3-(4-hydroxylphenyl)pyrano[3,2-g]chromene-4(8H)-one (2), 6-(p-hydroxybenzyl)taxifolin-7-O-β-D-glucoside (tricuspid) (3), quercetin-3-O-agr-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-D-glucopyranoside (4) and (-)-epicatechin(2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-3,4-dihydro-2H-chromene-3,5,7-triol (5), were isolated from the leaves of mango (Mangifera indica L.). Antifungal activity of these compounds was evaluated against five fungal species, namely Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler, Aspergillus fumigatus Fresenius, Aspergillus niger van Tieghem, Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid. and Penicillium citrii. Six concentrations, namely 100, 300, 500, 700, 900 and 1000 ppm of each of the five flavonoids were employed by means of the poisoned medium technique. All concentrations of the five test flavonoids significantly suppressed fungal growth. However, the specificity of different test compounds was evident against different fungal species. In general, antifungal activity of the flavonoids was gradually increased by increasing their concentrations. The highest concentration (of 1000 ppm) of compounds 1-5 reduced the growth of different target fungal species by 63-97%, 56-96%, 76-99%, 76-98% and 82-96%, respectively.
  Arshad Javaid , Samina Ashraf and Rukhsana Bajwa
  Shoot growth and pod yield was decreased while root growth was stimulated when Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek was grown in Tannery Effluent Contaminated Soil (TECS). Nodulation in V. radiata was also adversely affected in TECS. In maize (Zea mays L.) root length was increased significantly while shoot length and root/shoot biomass were non significantly affected in TECS. VA mycorrhizal colonization was suppressed in TECS in both the test species. Arbuscular infection was severely arrested in TECS.
  Arshad Javaid , Rukhsana Bajwa and Iffat Siddiqi
  A field experiment was conducted to observe the VA mycorrhizal colonization and subsequent growth and yield of EM (Effective Microorganisms) treated and non-treated sunflower plants, at two growth stages viz., 40 and 70 days after sowing (DAS). In 40-day old plants, EM supported mycorrhizal association, which resulted in a parallel increase in number and biomass of leaves as well as stem length while stem biomass remained almost unaffected. Root growth was, however, slightly suppressed by EM application at this growth stage. EM failed to induce any remarkable change in extent of mycorrhizal infection 70 DAS. However, the arbuscular infection was enhanced by EM application that resulted in a parallel increase in vegetative and reproductive growth of the plant.
  Rukhsana Bajwa , Bushra Haneef and Arshad Javaid
  Aqueous leaf extract of Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels significantly reduced the root and shoot growth, pod yield and up of nitrogen and phosphorus in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). Effective Micro-organisms (EM) application provided sufficient relief to chickpea against allelopathic stress due to aqueous leaf extract. Consequently the root and shoot growth, pod and shoot nitrogen content of EM inoculated plants were significantly enhanced as compared to non-inoculated plants However, adverse impact of extract on shoot phosphorus content remained unchanged by EM application.
  Rukhsana Bajwa , Bushra Afzal and Arshad Javaid
  Under allelopathic stress of Imperata cylindrica two VAM species viz. Glomus mosseae and G. fasciculatum enhanced shoot growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) at 75 days growth stage. Response of shoot length to VAM was different with different VAM species. Maximum increase in shoot length was recorded in co-inoculated plants followed by G. fasciculatum and G. mosseae inoculation respectively. The response of shoot biomass was similar to both VAM species. Root fresh weight was reduced by VAM inoculation at this growth stage. Adverse effect was significant in G. mosseae and co-inoculated plants. However, root dry weight showed an insignificant response to either species of VAM. At 105 days growth stage response of root, shoot and spike growth to either VAM species was insignificant.
  Arshad Javaid , Rukhsana Bajwa , Nusrat Rabbani and Malika Uzma
  A variable response of crop growth, nodulation and VAM colonization to EM (effective microorganisms) application was observed when Vigna radiate (L) Wilczek was grown in farmyard manure (FYM) and Trifolium green manure (GM) amended soils with different histories of EM application. In soil 1 EM application was started six months prior to soil 2. Shoot growth was enhanced due to EM application in GM amended soil 1 but suppressed in soil 2 with either organic amendment. Root biomass was increased by EM application in FYM but reduced in GM amended soils, EM reduced pod dry biomass in soil 1 but enhanced in FYM amended soli 2. Irrespective of the soil type and organic amendment, nodulation was enhanced by EM application at vegetative growth stage. VAM colonization showed a positive response to EM application in both the soils. The response of crop growth was independent of the response of nodulation and VAM colonization to EM.
  Iffat Siddiqi , Arshad Javaid and Rukhsana Bajwa
  Sewage irrigation enhanced nodulation but adversely affected VA mycorrhizal colonization in pea (Pisum sativum L.). Effect of sewage irrigation on root and shoot growth and pod yield was insignificant.
  Bushra Afzal , Rukhsana Bajwa and Arshad Javaid
  Tolerance of Vigna radiate (L.) Wilczek and Phaseolus vulgaris L. to allelopathic stress caused by aqueous shoot extract of Imperata cylindrica was studied. Both the test species were found to be susceptible to the aqueous extract. Root and shoot growth, yield, nodulation and VA mycorrhizal colonization in both the test species were significantly reduced under the allelopathic stress.
  Arshad JAVAID and Rukhsana BAJWA
  Effective microorganisms (EM) is a commercial biofertilizer that contains a mixture of co-existing beneficial microorganisms collected from natural environments. Predominantly it consists of species of photosynthetic and lactic acid bacteria, yeast, and actinomycetes. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of EM application on growth, nodulation, yield, and nutrient uptake in mung bean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek] var. NIAB Mung 98 under field conditions. Field soil was amended with farmyard manure at 20 t ha-1, Trifolium alexandrinum green manure at 20 t ha-1, and recommended (NPK) and half (1/2 NPK) doses of chemical fertilizers. EM was applied in the form of a dilute solution in water (1:1000) at fortnight intervals throughout the experiment. EM application significantly enhanced shoot biomass in farmyard manure, 1/2 NPK and NPK amendments. Similarly, EM significantly increased grain yield by 24% and 46% in farmyard manure and NPK fertilizers amendments, respectively. By contrast, in green manure amendment, EM application resulted in a significant decline of 23% in grain yield. In 1/2 NPK amendment, the effect of EM application on grain yield was insignificant. Nodulation in terms of number and biomass of nodules was significantly suppressed by EM application in farmyard manure and green manure amendments. In NPK amendment, a significant increase in nodule biomass was recorded due to EM application. EM significantly enhanced nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium nutrition of the test plant in farmyard manure amendment both at flowering stage and maturity. However, in NPK amended soil, EM application markedly enhanced plant nutrition at later growth stage only.
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