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Articles by Arshad Javaid
Total Records ( 5 ) for Arshad Javaid
  Rukhsana Bajwa , Nazma Aslam and Arshad Javaid
  The influence of three leguminous green manures viz. Trifolium alexandrianum, Medicago polymorpha and Melilotus parviflora on growth, yield and vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) colonization in maize (Zea mays L.) was examined and compared with recommended NPK fertilizers. The three green manuring plants contained 4.44, 2.45 and 3.17% nitrogen; 0.065, 0.089 and -0.122% phosphorus and 1.24, 1.89 and 0.8% potassium, respectively. NPK fertilizers suppressed VAM colonization whereas green manures generally favoured it. The study of correlation coefficient revealed that there was a variable pattern of correlation between N, P and K contents of green manures and various parameters of VAM colonization, at different growth stages. All the soil amendments enhanced shoot growth in terms of length and biomass, at all the three growth stages. Effect of Trifolium was similar to that of NPK fertilizers while Medicago and Melilotus were proved significantly superior than NPK fertilizers in increasing shoot biomass. Negative and significant correlation of shoot length and biomass with N contents of green manures was observed whereas with P content the correlation was positive and highly significant. Root length and biomass was increased by NPK fertilizers and either of the green manure amendment. Pattern of correlation of root length and biomass with N and P contents of green manures was similar to that of shoot. Highest cob biomass was recorded in mixed green manure followed by Medicago and Melilotus, respectively. Difference was significant as compared with control, NPK fertilizers and Trifolium. A highly significant and negative correlation was recorded between cob biomass and N content of the green manures. Pattern of correlation of root and shoot growth and cob biomass with various parameters of VAM colonization was variable and insignificant at different growth stages.
  Rukhsana Bajwa , Abida Yaqoob and Arshad Javaid
  Seasonal variation in vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizae (VAM) of eight aquatic and subaquatic vascular plant species viz.Thelypteris dentata,Marsilea minuta and Adiantum sp (pteridophytes), polygonum barbatumand Oenanthe javanica (dicotyledonous), Paspalum paspalodes, Saccharum sponitaneum and Vetiveria zizanioides( monocotyledonous) was studied. Pteridophytes in general showed maximum VAM colonization during spring with gradual reduction in the following seasons. VAM colonizaton in species of dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous showed a variable response to different seasons. A total of six mycorrhiza forming species belonging to a single genus, Glomus, were found to be associated with the test species. Among these G. fasciculatum and G. mosseae were the most common species and showed a marked variation and typical pattern of seasonal distribution i.e. maximum in spring with the gradual reduction in the following seasons. The other four species were rather inconsistent and lack any seasonal response.
  Rukhsana Bajwa , Naureen Akhtar and Arshad Javaid
  Effect of aqueous root and shoot extract of three allelopathic plants of family Asteraceae viz., Helianthus annuus L., Ageratum conyzoides L. and Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop., on growth of three pathogenic fungi namely Aspergillus niger Van Tieghem, A. fumigatus Fresenius and A. nidulans Eidam was studied in Hagem`s liquid nutrient medium. Root extract of H. annuus suppressed the growth of A. niger and A. fumigatus very effectively, A. conyzoides reduced the growth of A. fumigatus to a certain extent while the aqueous extracts of C. arvense induced lowest toxicity against the fungal species. A. nidulans exhibited complete resistance against all allelopathic extracts tested.
  Naureen Akhtar , Arshad Javaid and Rukhsana Bajwa
  Aqueous root, stem and leaf extracts of 0, 5, 10 and 15 % w/v of an allelopathic plant species viz. Cirsium arvense were evaluated for their potential to control germination and seedling growth of two weed species, Phalaris minor and Poa annua. All the aqueous extracts reduced germination in two test weeds. However, effect was insignificant statistically. Shoot length in P. minor was reduced significantly by 10 % stem extract while shoot length in P. annua remained unaffected by all the extracts. Root length was more susceptible to allelopathy and was reduced significantly in both the test weed species. In a similar experiment germination of P. minor and Medicago polymorpha was significantly reduced by 15 % leaf extract of Ageratum conyzoides. In both the test weeds, response of root and shoot length to aqueous extracts of A. conyzoides was similar to the response of test weeds to aqueous extracts of C. arvense in first experiment.
  Rukhsana Bajwa , Arshad Javaid and Nusrat Rabbani
  A pot experiment was conducted to observe the effect of effective microorganisms (EM) on vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) colonization, nodulation and crop growth in Trifolium alexandrianum L., in soils amended with farmyard manure (FYM) and green manure (GM). EM significantly enhanced mycorrhizal colonization in 60-day old plants in both types of soil. EM failed to induce any remarkable change in nodulation at this growth stage while it exhibited an inhibitory effect on root and shoot biomass production. After 80 days growth, EM treated plants exhibited no significant variation in mycorrhizal colonization than non-treated plants. EM application caused a significant reduction in nodule number while increased the size and biomass of nodules in both types of soils. EM application supported root growth in FYM amended soil, however, shoot growth was adversely affected at this growth stage. In GM amended soil EM inhibited both the root and shoot growth. EM failed to induce any relationship between VAM colonization, nodulation and plant growth.
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