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Articles by Arifin Abdu
Total Records ( 8 ) for Arifin Abdu
  Yetti Heryati , Arifin Abdu , Mohd Noor Mahat , Hazandy Abdul-Hamid , Shamshuddin Jusop , Nik Muhamad Majid , Ika Heriansyah and Khairulmazmi Ahmad
  Problem statement: There is general agreement that human activities such as deforestation and land use change to other land use types have contributed to degraded secondary forests or forestland and increases the emission of greenhouse gases which ultimately led to global climate change. An establishment of forest plantation in particular is regarded as an important approach for sequestering carbon. However, limited information exists on productivity and potential of fast growth exotic and indigenous tree plantations for sequestering CO2 from the atmosphere through photosynthesis. This study aimed at assessing the productivity and biomass accumulation along with the potential for sequestering CO2 of planted exotic and indigenous species on degraded forestland. Approach: This study was conducted at Khaya ivorensis and Hopea odorata plantations, which was planted at the Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM) Research Station in Sega mat Johor, Malaysia five years ago. In order, to evaluate the forest productivity and biomass accumulation of both species, we established plots with a size of 40x30 m in three replications in each stand, followed by measuring all trees in the plots in terms of height and Diameter at Breast Height (DBH). To develop allometric equation, five representative trees at each stand were chosen for destructive sampling. Results: The growth performance in terms of mean height, DBH, annual increment of height and diameter and basal area of exotic species (K. ivorensis) was significantly higher than that of the indigenous species (H. odorata). We used the diameter alone as independent variable to estimate stem volume and biomass production of both species. The stem volume of K. ivorensis stand was 43.13 m3ha-1 and was significantly higher than H. odorata stands (33.66 m3 ha-1). The results also showed that the K. ivorensis and H. odorata stands have the potential to absorb CO2 from the atmosphere which was stored in aboveground biomass with value 15.90 Mg C ha-1 and 13.62 Mg C ha-1, respectively. In addition, the carbon content in root biomass of H. odorata stand was higher than that in K. ivorensis stand with value 7.67 Mg C ha-1 and 4.58 Mg C ha-1, respectively. Conclusion/Recommendation: The exotic (K. ivorensis) and indigenous (H. odorata) species which was planted on degraded forestland exhibited different growth rate, biomass production and ability to absorb CO2 from the atmosphere in each part of the tree. In general, forest productivity and ability to absorb CO2 from the atmosphere of exotics species (K. ivorensis) was higher than that indigenous species (H. odorata). These findings suggest that forest plantation productivity has been affected by species characteristics and suitability of species to site condition. Thus, to sustain high productivity with suitable species selection for carbon sequestration, these factors should be considered for future forest establishment.
  M.H. Akbar , O.H. Ahmed , A.S. Jamaluddin , N.M. Nik Ab. Majid , H. Abdul-Hamid , S. Jusop , A. Hassan , K.H. Yusof and Arifin Abdu
  Problem statement: The soil properties of tropical rain forest in Southeast Asia have been characterized by several researchers; however empirical data on soil characteristics under rehabilitation program are still limited or even lacking. This research is important to determine the soil physical and chemical properties of a rehabilitated degraded forest land 19 years after planting with various indigenous species in comparison with adjacent secondary forests and to elucidate the soil fertility status in rehabilitated and secondary forests by using Soil Fertility Index (SFI) and Soil Evaluation Factor (SEF). Approach: Soil samples were collected from both locations which were rehabilitated forest and secondary forest (Nirwana forest) at University Putra Malaysia, Bintulu Sarawak Campus. The plot size of each experimental site was 20x20 m. An auger was used to take soil samples from two depths, namely 0-10 and 10-20 cm. For soil profile, the soil samples were collected from different depths up to 100 cm according to the soil horizons. The samples were air-dried, homogenized and sieved to pass a 2 mm mesh sieve for further analysis. The physical analysis consisted of bulk density and soil moisture content. For chemical analysis, soil acidity, soil organic matter, total organic carbon, available P, exchangeable Al, exchangeable ammonium and nitrate, exchangeable cations (Ca, Mg, K) and Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) were determined. The soil fertility status was determined based on SFI and SEF values for both rehabilitated and secondary forests. Results: The bulk density of the rehabilitated forest ranged between 0.70 and 1.29 g cm-3 and that of the secondary forest was 0.64-0.76 g cm-3. The soil moisture content of the rehabilitated forest was 23.31-51.03% while that of secondary forest was 41.06-41.49%. The range pH (water) of the rehabilitated forest was 4.5-5.0 and that of the secondary forest range was 4.2-4.3. Furthermore, the content of SOM in the rehabilitated forest was 2.5-5.8%. On other hand, the range for the secondary was 4.1-4.6%. The exchangeable Al of the rehabilitated forest was 0.8-2.5 cmolckg-1 and that of the secondary forest was 1.6-1.7 cmolckg-1. The CEC of the rehabilitated forest was 1.4-11.8 cmolckg-1, while that of the secondary forest was 4.3-4.5 cmolckg-1. Based on SFI and SEF values, the secondary forest had a lower fertility status compared to the rehabilitated forest. Moreover, the SEF value of the secondary forest was below 5, while some of the plots of rehabilitated forest had the SEF values greater than 5. Conclusion: It can be concluded that both rehabilitated and secondary forests have significant differences based on selected physical and chemical properties. Moreover, the soil fertility status at rehabilitated plots was comparatively higher than secondary forest indicating a good potential of ‘Miyawaki’ forest rehabilitation technique in rehabilitating and replenishing soil fertility status of degraded forest land.
  Parisa Ahmadpour , Azmi Mat Nawi , Arifin Abdu , Hazandy Abdul-Hamid , Daljit Karam Singh , Affendy Hassan , Nik Muhamad Majid and Shamshuddin Jusop
  Problem statement: The chemical pollution of soil has become a major source of concern and has posed serious health problems within the last few years in many developed nations. A variety of organic and inorganic pollutants, including heavy metals, are being mixed in with the cultivated soil and water. Sewage sludge was one of the major sources of enrichment of heavy metals. These pollutants are eventually transported to the natural vegetation and cultivated crops and concentrated in food chains, with possible detrimental effects on human health and wild-life. Thus, soil contaminants need to be cleaned up to improve environmental safety. Approach: Research was conducted to elucidate the potential of Jatropha curcas L. to clean toxic heavy metals derived from sewage sludge. J. curcas seedlings were planted on six different planting media T0 (100% soil-control), T1 (80% soil and 20% sewage sludge), T2 (60% soil and 40% sewage sludge), T3 (40% soil and 60% sewage sludge), T4 (20% soil and 80% sewage sludge) and T5 (100% sewage sludge) for a period of three months. The growth performance, including height and diameter, of J. curcas was measured using diameter tape, while the basal diameter was measured using a venier caliper every two weeks. Plant samples were collected after harvest and soil samples were collected before and after planting. The ICP-MS was used to determine the concentration of heavy metals in the planting medium and plant parts. Results: According to the growth parameters, the composition of 60% sewage sludge mixed with 40% soil was suitable for achieving optimum J. curcas growth. This plant was able to remove heavy metals (Zn, Pb, Cr, Cd and Cu) effectively from the medium containing 100% sewage sludge and after harvesting, the concentrations of Zn, Pb, Cr, Cd and Cu in T5(100% sewage sludge medium) were decreased by 67.7, 78.3, 77.2, 78.5 and 75.0%, respectively from the initial values. The highest levels of Zn (29.5 mg kg-1), Cu (0.44 mg kg-1) and Cd (8.35 mg kg-1) accumulation were found in the roots, whereas the highest Pb and Cr concentrations were observed in the leaves and stem, respectively. Conclusion/Recommendations: The roots of J. curcas were found to be suitable for the uptake of heavy metals in sewage sludge, especially Zn. Cr was also adsorbed effectively by the leaves. Thus, J. curcas was a suitable plant to use as a phytoremediator to clean heavy metals, in particular Zn, Cu and Cr. However, a study determining, the short term effects of the large scale use of sewage sludge on trees /-field crops/-leafy vegetables and environmental its impact needs to be carried out.
  B.T. Saga , O.H. Ahmed , A.S. Jamaluddin , H. Abdul-Hamid , S. Jusop , N.M. Nik Ab. Majid , A. Hassan , K.H. Yusof and Arifin Abdu
  Problem statement: The tropical rain forests in Southeast Asia have been characterize by several researchers. However empirical data on soil characteristics under degraded forest land in tropical rain forest and rehabilitated program are limited. A study was conducted to evaluate the soil orphology, mineralogical and sesquioxide properties of a rehabilitated degraded forest land (19 years after it was planted with various indigenous species) in comparison with an adjacent secondary forest. Approach: Soil samples were air-dried and pass through a 2 mm sieve. Soil morphology was determined based on field observation. The non-crystalline (amorphous) of Al, Fe and Si oxides and hydroxides (Alo, Feo and Sio) were extracted with ammonium oxalate while the Dithionate-Citrate- Bicarbonate (DCB) method was used for extracting (crystalline) the Al, Fe and Si oxides and hydroxides (Ald, Fed and Sid). The concentrations of extracted Al, Fe and Si were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Mineralogical compositions were identified by X-ray diffraction method. Results: The A-horizon of secondary forest was darker and thicker than that of the rehabilitated forest. Root mat at the secondary forest was well-developed compared to the rehabilitated forest. The clay minerals were dominated with kaolinite and illite to a lesser extent of goethite and hematite accompanied with low values of activity ratio of Al and Fe oxides and hydroxides, indicating that the soils were highly weathered. Conclusion/Recommendations: The difference between rehabilitated and secondary forests was root abundance where secondary forest had most. Good root penetration in the secondary forest indicates that the soil texture there was not heavy. Soils in the rehabilitated and secondary forests were strongly weathered (high presence of kaolin minerals), but the low presence of sesquioxides suggests that they are yet to reached the ultimately weathered phase. The soil properties in terms of morphology, sesquioxides and clay minerals should be taken into account for better management of forest rehabilitation program in tropical regions.
  Nurul-Nasyitah Shukor , Hazandy Abdul-Hamid , Arifin Abdu and Mohd-Kamil Ismail
  In this study the effects of waterlogging were examined on growth and physiological characteristics of Azadiractha excelsa, one of the famous indigenous tree species used for urban landscape. Forty eight seedlings about 3 year-old subjected to waterlogged for three time durations, i.e., 1, 2 and 3 weeks and at its recovery. The results had shown the highest survival percentage in two weeks of waterlogged seedlings, decreased rate in diameter, leaf area and chlorophyll content in waterlogged seedlings. In spite of all these, there was an increased in height for waterlogged treatment as compared to control. High biomass of stem was found in waterlogged treatment. There were no differences among treatments for the ratio maximum quantum efficiency of the photosystem II (Fv/Fm) and gas exchange parameters except vapour pressure deficit (VpdL). The disturbed water relation also occurred in waterlogged seedlings. Azadirachta excelsa seedlings were found to only tolerate with stress of being waterlogged up to two weeks of treatment. However, the recovery seedling leaves can still perform well in its physiological performance.
  Nurul-Nasyitah Shukor , Hazandy Abdul- Hamid , Arifin Abdu and Mohd-Kamil Ismail
  Urban landscape trees have always been very much exposed to the stresses of soil compaction. Trees in such condition need high flexibility in both morphological and physiological attributes to survive well. This study was conducted to determine the effect of soil compaction on Azadirachta excelsa seedlings by imposing different levels of compacted medium with bulk density at 1.2, 1.4 and 1.6 g cm-3. Growth and physiological characteristics were assessed and repeated measures analysis was used to analyze the differences between treatments. The results showed that the seedlings were seen struggling to survive but still sprouting new shoots even after showing dying symptom. Significant decrease in leaf elongation also occurred in this experiment resulting from root damage thus initiated reducing physiology performance in leaf traits. However, biomass data showed persistent relation towards root sensitivity of the system architecture. Gas exchange attributes were also found to decrease significantly between treatments but not for other water related parameters such as predawn and midday water potential, hydraulic conductance and water use efficiency. It was decisively found that this species is partially tolerable towards soil compacted condition due to its ability to resist permanent damage and stress avoidance.
  Nurul-Nasyitah Shukor , Hazandy Abdul-Hamid , Arifin Abdu and Mohd-Kamil Ismail
  Over-top-filling is one of common stresses experienced by urban landscape trees. Flexibility of morphological and physiological is needed by trees to survive in over-top-filling. This study was conducted to determine the effect of over-top-filling on Azadirachta excelsa seedlings by imposing different levels of soil over-top-filling, i.e, 10, 20 and 30 cm. Soil was mounted above the normal collar and covered. Growth and physiological characteristics were assessed, and repeated measures analysis was used to analyze the differences among times and treatments. The repeated measures results showed various patterns of morphological growth throughout the experiment. In general, treated A. excelsa seedlings showed positive growth due to the extra availability of nutrients in the soil. Leaf mass ratio was high in the 30-cm over-top-filling treatment, indicating a large amount of chlorophyll. In addition, new development of root area showed a persistent relation to root sensitivity of the system architecture by increasing root volume. Chlorophyll fluorescence was found to be higher in the treated seedlings compared to the controls. Gas exchange attributes were also found to vary among treatments, but not other water-related parameters such as predawn and midday water potential, hydraulic conductance, and water use efficiency. It was decisively found that this species is partially tolerant of over-top-filling due to its ability to resist permanent damage and due to its stress avoidance.
  Hazandy Abdul- Hamid , Arifin Abdu , Mohd-Kamil Ismail , Mohd-Khairul- Anuar Rahim , Abdul-Latib Senin and Wan-Mohd-Nazri Wan-Abd-Rahman
  Gas exchange is important for determining the species plasticity. However, study on gas exchange in dipterocarp is almost non-existence and this study may provide useful information for future references. The study was conducted at the Compartment 14, Ayer Hitam Forest Reserve, Puchong and Selangor, Malaysia. The main objective of this study was to determine the leaf gas exchange of three dipterocarps, Shorea platyclados V. SI. ex Foxw. (meranti bukit), Shorea assamica Dyer forma globifera (Ridl) Sym. (meranti pipit) and Anisoptera marginata Korth. (mersawa paya) planted in different sizes of gap. The results showed that the gas exchange parameters were not significantly different between species except stomatal conductance (Gs) and transpiration rate (EL). Insignificant differences of all the gas exchange parameters were also observed between planting designs. Meanwhile, the correlation analysis showed that insignificant effect of design on species for net photosynthesis (Anet) is due to the effect of internal CO2 concentration (Ci). However, the significant difference observed for transpiration rate (EL) between species might be due to the significant roles of stomata conductance (Gs). Overall, the higher tropical species plasticity by introducing reciprocal planting in rehabilitation programme has produced mixed results.
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