Asian Science Citation Index is committed to provide an authoritative, trusted and significant information by the coverage of the most important and influential journals to meet the needs of the global scientific community.  
ASCI Database
308-Lasani Town,
Sargodha Road,
Faisalabad, Pakistan
Fax: +92-41-8815544
Contact Via Web
Suggest a Journal
Articles by Anwar Mallongi
Total Records ( 19 ) for Anwar Mallongi
  Syafri Kamsul Arif , Imtihanah Amri and Anwar Mallongi
  Background: Laryngoscopy and endotracheal intubation can cause increase in sympathetic activity and simpatoadrenal reflex, associated with increased blood pressure and heart rate. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of dexmedetomidine 0.75 μg kg–1 b.wt., and fentanyl 2 μg kg–1 b.wt., to propofol induction dose requirement and hemodynamic response due to laryngoscopy and endotrakheal intubation. Materials and Methods: Randomized, single-blind controlled study, involving 48 patients with ASA physical status I and II planned for elective surgery with general anesthesia in DR (Wahidin Sudirohusodo hospital). Subjects are divided into two groups and each group is given dexmedetomidine (D) 0.75 μg kg–1 b.wt. or fentanyl (F) 2 μg kg–1 b.wt. intravenously before induction of propofol (50 mg kg–1 h–1) until the BIS reached 48±2, continued administration of atracurium 0.5 mg kg–1 and maintenance with 1.0 vol% isoflurane in oxygen 60%. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure and heart rate are recorded at 1, 3 and 5 min after intubation as well as side effects. Results: Induction dose requirement in D group was less than the F group (p<0.05). In the 1st min, there is a 16.32% increase in average MAP and 18.88% in mean heart rate in F group, whereas a 2.90% increase in average MAP and 3.37% decrease of average heart rate was observed in D group. In the 3rd and 5th min, both groups were able to prevent increase in blood pressure but the F group has not been able to prevent an increase in average heart rate at the 3rd min (3.99% increase). The incidence of hypertension and tachycardia were significantly different (p<0.05) between the two groups. Conclusion: Induction dose requirement in dexmedetomidine group is less than the fentanyl group (p<0.05). Hemodynamic response on dexmedetomidine 0.75 μg kg–1 b.wt., is more stable than fentanyl 2 μg kg–1 b.wt., at 1st min after intubation but at 3rd and 5th min after intubation both groups can maintain stable hemodynamic response with a lower mean heart rate achieved by dexmedetomidine.
  Anwar Mallongi , Irwan and A.L. Rantetampang
  Background and Objective: Mercury (Hg) direct emission of amalgam open burning from Artisanal Buladu gold mine is the main Hg pollutant point source of air ambient, atmospheric deposition, surface water, soil and plants. This process has been occurred for more than 25 years in the Buladu gold mine but no informative data from this area is available. This study aimed to investigate the Hg emission in air, atmospheric dry deposition and Hg inhalation rate among the children school, communities and miners in the mining area. Materials and Methods: Dry deposition sampling was conducted using a set of glass dish sampler. Both Total dry deposition and THg atmosphere were estimated in the summer which corresponded to the climatologically dry seasons in Gorontalo Province, like wise personal inhalation rate were measured among the school children, communities and gold miners in nine respondents each. Statistical analyses of the survey data were performed using Stata 13.0 (Stata, College Station, TX, USA) and SPSS (Version 16). In addition to descriptive analyses, descriptive table, Student t-tests were used to compare means of Likert scales. Results: The average of total atmospheric of Hg showed a small concentration (0.0034 μg m–2) in the background site whereas highly elevated (1.19-1.54 μg m–2) in the study area. In addition, dry deposition Hg show a similar level (0.06 μg m–2) in background and (1.11-1.54 μg m–2) in the study area, respectively. Since St. 2 is the closest distance from the point source, the peak level THg generated by the direct fall of THg in the site. Result of target hazard quotient of the Hg are in the decreasing order of mine workers >community >students and their highest risk values are 1.54, 0.98 and 0.93, respectively. Finally, the THQ values obtained from this study due to this primary exposure route for the Hg investigated were higher than for all in the working mine site. Conclusion: The results showed that the working years have reasonable correlation with the sum of the positive findings in the 10 neurological symptoms among miners. Then, the closest Hg source distance the higher Hg concentration accumulation found. The recorded mercury in Buladu gold mine area showed that the magnitude concentrations of THg (p) in amalgam burning centre was higher than those of school and in community area.
  Anwar Mallongi , Darwin Safiu , Hasnawati Amqam , Aminuddin Syam , Muhammad Hatta , Tatik Sutarti , Muhith Abdul , Sandu Siyoto and Apollo
  This study aims to determine the pattern of dissemination, distribution model and estimation of SO2 and CO gas emission concentration derived from the Tello diesel engine with a dynamic model approach. The design of this research is descriptive quantitative with Gaussian Model approach and dynamic system model. The study was conducted at PLTD Tello Kota Makassar by collecting secondary data. For model distribution and estimation of SO2 and CO pollution using Gaussian Model and dynamic modeling with Stella. Population in this research is data of emission emission parameters generated by Tello’s steam power plant influenced by atmospheric stability, wind direction and velocity so as to obtain concentration of pollutant by using Gaussian calculation sample sample is SO2 concentration concentration and CO PLTD Tello contained in monitoring report on RKL&RPL implementation for 2012-2017. The results of the dominant area of research are the impact of pollution from the Tello diesel power plant based on the dominant wind direction during 2012-2016 is the Northwest part of the Tello steam power plant at a height of 1 m above the ground with a distance of 500, 1, 500, 2, 500 and 4,000 m of the Tello diesel powered TTL Aspol, Panaikang, Pampang and Rappokalling. Total SO2 and CO emission concentrations derived from Tello PLTD during 2012-2016 in each location at 1 m above ground level with a distance of 500 m, i.e., Aspir Tello SO2 1.395 and CO 1.162 μg/m3, a distance of 1,500 m of SO2, SO2 1.247 and CO 1.039 μg/m3 2,500 m distance of Pampang 0.878 μg/m3 and CO 0.7317 μg/m3 and a distance of 4,000 m of Rappokalling 0.6363 μg/m3 and CO 0.5303 μg/m3 from the pollutant source of the chimney PLTD Tello. The estimated concentration of Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) and Carbon monoxide (CO) gas emissions based on 12 month dynamic model simulation (2018) is increasing every time until July 2018 at each of four location points at 1 m above the surface soil with a distance of 500 m of Aspol Tello SO2 0.26065 μg/m3 and CO 0.21530 μg/m3, 1,500 m distance of Panaikang SO2 0.04447 μg/m3 and CO 0.03134 μg/m3, distance 2500 m of Pampang SO2 0.01760 μg/m3 and CO 0.00938 μg/m3 and a distance of 4,000 m of Rappokalling SO2 0.00740 μg/m3 and CO 0.00611 μg/m3 from the source of the bursts of the Tello steam power plant with the rate of increase in the emission concentration of Asp2 SO2 0.0053 and CO 0.0044 times, SO2 04061 times and CO 0.0004 times, Pampang SO2 0.00021 times and CO 0.000073 times and Rappokalling SO2 0.000078 times and CO 0.0000064 times every month. The concentration of SO2 and CO emissions generated by the Tello steam power plant during 2012-2016 is still far below the ambient air quality standard (South Sulawesi Governor Decree No. 69 Year 2010) in each location at a height of 1 m above ground level, i.e., Aspol Tello 0-1.39 μg/m3, Panaikang 0-1.247 μg/m3 Pampang 0-0.878 μg/m3 and Rappokalling 0-0.6363 μg/m3. So, it can be said that the four areas are still included in the air quality is quite healthy.
  Rosmala Nur , Anwar Mallongi , Indah P. Kiyai Demak , Fadliah , Elli B. Yane , Nurhaya S. Patui , Marselina , H. Muhammad Rusydi , Muhammad Asep Dwitama and R. Erina Thursina
  Early-age marriage is one of the factors affecting women reproductive health such as bleeding, low birth weight, premature, miscarriage and unwanted pregnancies. The purpose of this study was to determine the differences of social demographic characteristics of early-age marriage with early unmarried, the impact of early-age marriage on women’s reproductive health and realations between early-age marriage with women’s reproductive health. The study conducted in the work area of the Tinggede Community Health Centers (CHC) in three villages namely: Sunju, Tinggede and Tinggede Selatan. Research target was all pregnant mothers and have children under 2 years of age with number 180 people. The survey used data collection techniques, interviews, observations and Focus Group Discussion (FGD). Data analysis used Chi-square. The result showed that 106 respondents 58.8% married early (≤20 years) and did not married early (≥21 years) as many as 41.2%. Respondents who married early on average had a low educational level only up to junior high school (42.6%), most of respondents were housewives 84.9%, respondents who had children ≥3 (60.3%). In addition, respondents who not married early had high school education 48.6, work 37.9% and had an average of ≤2 children 83.8%. Early marriage affects women’s reproductive health disorders such as infection, bleeding, LBW, prematurity, fever/seizures, miscarriage, no contraception and unwanted pregnancies. These impacts are at risk for maternal and infant deaths directly. A significant relationship of early marriage with reproductive health disorder of woman with value p = 0.001. The conclusion was early-age marriage had an impact on reproductive health disorder which resulted in increasing maternal and infant mortality, especially in Tinggede Village, Sigi Regency, Central Sulawesi Province. Socialization of the importance of ideal marriage age and women reproductive health needed.
  Sandu Siyoto , Anwar Mallongi and Katmini
  Antenatal care is one of an effort in health reinforcing of pregnant mother. The high of mother mortality number is big problem in Indonesia. Health world report realizes that the care of antenatal care can increase mother’s and infant’s health whose goal is to increase health and to diagnose the risk of pregnancy complication, especially, preeclampsia. The goal of this research is to know the direct and indirect correlation between reinforcing factor and the usage of ANC in preventing preeclampsia. The research design uses case control study with cross sectional approach. It was conducted in Kediri Regency, East-Java Province Indonesia from October 10, 2016 to March 8, 2018. The variables of this research are social networking, trust, feed-back norm, ANC behavior and preeclampsia. Samples were chosen by fixed disease sampling with the scale 1:3 for subject of case and control were 160 subjects. The data collection methods were by questionnaire and medical report. The data was analyzed by path analyses by using stata program 13. There was correlation between ANC behavior and preeclampsia of pregnant mother (b = -0.91, CI = -1.65-0.17, p = 0.015). It was found indirect correlation between trust and preeclampsia through ANC behavior (b = 1.16, CI = 0.44-1.88, p = 0.0001). There wasn’t correlation between social network (b = 0.27, CI = -0.43-0.98, p = 0.452) and the feedback norm (b = -0.91, CI = -0.29-1.13, p = 0.254) with preeclampsia trough ANC behavior. There was direct and indirect correlation between reinforcing factor and the usage ANC in preventing preeclampsia with path analysis approach. It is significant to apply the ANC usage in preventing preeclampsia on pregnant mother from early pregnancy.
  Jacob Manusawai , Anwar Mallongi , Anton Sinery and Agustinus Murdjoko
  The tropical forest has been an attention globally as its important role such as conservation program. In Indonesia, many areas have been decided legally as protection forests for decades. However, the evaluation of the enforcement of the conservation management. Therefore, this research took Gunung Meja Natural Tourism Park in West Papua as a study case to figure out the implementation of the conservation program. The interview with the central and regional government as well as local people and field observation were applied to collect data concerning policies and the conditions of Gunung Meja as forest protection. The results revealed that The Gunung Meja Natural Tourism Park experienced the management of regional and central government that was Manokwari Regency and Natural Resource Conservation Board of Ministry of Environment and Forestry. However, the management of conservation program has not reached the main goal as seen from conditions of Gunung Meja. The area is not utilized as its function as conservation area where the local people still use the part of Gunung Meja as cultivation and logging. The threats were the certain locations that were polluted by garbage and the local houses were built inside the Gunung Meja. The management of Gunung Meja Natural Tourism Park must control the ecological conditions as indicators of how conservation program is implemented.
  Muhith Abdul , Lantin Sulistyorini , Tatik Sutarti , Anwar Mallongi and Hannan Mujib
  Health problems about chronic lack of energy, low education, irregular eating patterns and poor health conditions in pregnant women in some villages in Jelbuk sub-district of Jember Regency are still very high. The research design uses confirmatory research and explanatory research. The sample included pregnant women in Sukowiryo village, Jelbuk village, Sugerkidul village, Sukojember village, Sucopangepok village, Panduman village, Jember District is 187 respondents. The research used a cluster random sampling technique. The variables include community empowerment, health status, pregnant women nutritional status. Data analysis using structural equation modeling with parameter data estimation using software analysis of moment structures Version 21. Estimation of empowerment of society to health status with value 0.105, health status to nutritional status of pregnant women with value 0.020, community empowerment of nutritional status of pregnant women with value 3.690, empowerment of society to the nutritional status of the pregnant mother through health status with value 0.002, community empowerment to health status with value 0.105. Community empowerment can be through health education and motivation improvement which is expected to decrease maternal and infant mortality and low birth weight case.
  Anwar Mallongi , Fitriani Adrin Arfani and A.A. Arsunan
  This research aims to estimate the concentration of Sulfur dioxide (SO2) and Ozone (O3) in the next 10 years on the main roads of Makassar and evaluated effectiveness the model concentration of Sulfur dioxide (SO2) and Ozone (O3). This research used an observational descriptive study with system dynamic models. The research was conducted on eight main roads at Makassar city with using purposive sampling method. Data analysis was the analysis of dynamic system using the program Stella. Dynamic modeling was started with flowchart model. The results showed that in 10 years from now, the estimated concentration of Sulfur dioxide (SO2) in the absence of control measures increased by 6286 mg/Nm3 with a multiple increase in concentration of 0.03 times/month whereas the estimated concentrations of Ozone (O3) in the absence of control measures increased by 4358 mg/Nm3 with a multiple increase in the concentration of 0.15 times/month. An increase in the estimated rate of SO2and O3 concentrations can be reduced through policy intervention to a concentration of SO2fell by 2675 mg/Nm3 with an increase of 0.1 fold and O3 concentration decreased by 1815 mg/Nm3 with an increase of 0.06 times/month. The most appropriate in reducing the rate of increase in the concentration of SO2 and O3 is the combined simulation (scenario 2-4).
  Anwar Mallongi , Fadly Nur Rahman Umar , Atjo Wahyu , Muh. Saleh , Fatmawati , Abdul Muhith , Herawati , Muhammad Ridwan , A.L. Rantetampang and Yacob Ruru
  The amount of exhaust emissions resulting from the burning of motor vehicles caused the air in the city of Makassar to be polluted. This study aims to estimate the concentration of Sulfur dioxide (SO2) and Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) for 10 years (2017-2027) on the main road of Makassar city. This research is an observational analytic research with dynamic system model approach. Results showed that in the next 10 years, the estimated total concentration of total Sulfur dioxide (SO2) in the first scenario without do nothing in 2017 of 6.44 μg/Nm3 increased by 2027 by 8,581 μg/Nm3 by multiples of increased concentration 61.58 times/month and an annual increase of 1.80 times/year whereas the estimated concentration of Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in the absence of control measures increased from 2017 by 4.99 μg/Nm3 increased by 2027 by 7,934 μg/Nm3 by multiples of increased concentration 37.6 times/month. Application of Second Scenario (2) has decreased total concentration of Sulfur dioxide (SO2) and Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) when compared to total concentration in first scenario (I). Increasing the concentration of Sulfur dioxide (SO2) in 2017 by 6.44 μg/Nm increased by 2027 by 3785 μg/Nm3 with total monthly concentration increase of 37.4 times/months and total annual concentration increase of 0.72 times/year. Effectiveness in the second scenario in reducing the concentration of Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) by 22.72%. Application of the third scenario (3) there is a significant decrease in the concentration of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide when compared to the first scenario (1). Effectiveness in the third scenario (3) in reducing sulfur dioxide concentration of 66.43%. Implementation of the fourth scenario (4) passenger shift for the use of bus rapid transportation (bus rapid transportation) with the aim of decreasing the volume of vehicles operating on the main road, if it is assumed that 50% of passengers switch to BRT bus, BRT passengers in 2027 will be 3960/days.
  Stang Abdul Rahman , Amran Rahim and Anwar Mallongi
  Background: Standard statistical models generally assume that any incident of dengue disease in one location are independent with the incidence of dengue disease in other locations. However, the independent assumption does not apply in the spread of dengue disease. The spread of dengue disease tends to occur almost simultaneously in a same area or in the adjacent area due to similar environmental factors in the area. Similar environmental factors results in their risk spatial correlation of disease spread. If spatial correlation aspects is not considered in modeling then the conclusion of the significant factors that influence on the risk of spreading disease becomes inaccurate. Objective: The purpose of this study was to make mapping the risk of dengue fever incidence in Bone Regency South Sulawesi province by region (districts) with non-stationary spatial geostatistics model. Materials and Methods: The analysis variables included are larvae density, temperature, population density, rainfall, altitude from sea level and the incidence rate of dengue fever. Results: The results showed that risk rate model of dengue in Bone Regency with stationary spatial geostatistics models are as follows: log(pi) = -0.08+0.006X1+0.02X2-0.02X3-0.04X4-0.01X5. X1 = The density of larvae, X2 = Air temperature, X3 = Population density, X4 = Rainfall and X5 = The height of the sea level. Risk rate model of dengue in Northern Bone Regency (cluster 1) with non-stationary spatial geostatistics models are as follow: log(pi) = -0.02-0.0009X1-0.17X2+0.003X3+0.22X4-0.006X5. Risk rate model of dengue in Southern Bone Regency (cluster 2) with non-stationary spatial geostatistics models are as follow: log(pi) = -0.02-0.02X1-0.01X2-0.02X3-0.02X4-0.03X5. Risk rate model of dengue in Western Bone Regency (cluster 3) with non-stationary spatial geostatistics models are as follow: log(pi) = -0.08-0.007X1-0.02X2-0.03X3-0.009X4-0.06X5. Conclusion: The prediction error values on the non-stationary model between (0.27-3.6) lower than stationary model with variation between (0.68-6.37).
  Jumadi , Saifuddin Sirajuddin , M. Natsir Djide and Anwar Mallongi
  Background and Objective: Anemia that caused by intake the low iron staple food is a global issue. Biofortification through PGP (plant growth promotion) intervention was a new strategy to improve mineral content in staple food. This study aimed to improve iron content in maize grain through root inoculating with Pseudomonas putida IFO 14796. Materials and Methods: Experiment was carried out by randomized group design. Roots plant was inoculated P. putida IFO 14796 (5.18×107 C.F.U g1) used as treatment and uninoculated as a control. The stem size mean of corn plant was measured after 55 days in cultivated. The iron contents in maize grain after 30 DAP (days after pollination) were analyzed using the Atomic Absorbance Spectrophotometer (AAS) method. Results: The stem size mean of the corn plant with the treatment of P. putida IFO 14796 was 65.09 cm and control 52.39. The stem size mean of corn plant was significantly different at p<0.05. The higher iron content in maize grain 10.1117 mg kg1 was obtained from root inoculated P. putida IFO 14796, while uninoculated was 8.5130 mg kg1. Improving iron content in maize grain up to 18.79% after 30 DAP (days after pollination). Conclusion: It is concluded that Iron content in maize grain can be improved through root inoculating with P. putida IFO 14796.
  Anwar Mallongi , Preeda Parkpian , Poranee Pataranawat and Sopa Chinwetkitvanich
  Total mercury (THg) in water column, sediment and aquatic biota as well as environmental and health risks at artisanal Buladu gold mine and vicinity areas of Gorontalo Province, Indonesia were investigated both in summer and rainy seasons. THg was determined by CV-AAS (Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer; Spectr. AA6200) after NabH4 (Sodium Borohydride) reduction, with detection limit was of 0.001 μg/L. Site-specific exposure parameters such as body weight (bw) and consumption rate of fish and shellfish were determined and calculated using target hazard quotient (THQ) formulation for health risk assessment. This study showed that the assessment of average balance of Hg: Au ratio forecasted that approximately 1.3 g of Hg in open burning process was released to atmosphere to produce 1 g of gold. Likewise, 15.88 g of Hg is lost to produce 1 g of gold during amalgamation process in particular equipment, the tromols. Moreover, the highest levels of THg concentrations in water column, sediment and shells in uncontaminated track were 41 μg/L, 5238 μg/kg dw, 215 μg/kg dw for Bellamnya javanica and 397 μg/kg dw for Mya arenaria in summer season, respectively, whereas in rainy season the lower THg concentration were 24 μg/L, 5077 μg/kg dw, 141 μg/kg dw for Bellamnya javanica and 180 μg/kg dw for Mya arenaria, respectively. However, in contaminated track, the significant elevated THg were found about 123 μg/L, 5612 μg/kg dw, 1455 μg/kg dw for Bellamnya javanica and 1745 μg/kg dw for Mya arenaria in summer season, respectively, whereas in rainy season the highest concentration were 165 μg/L, 6950 μg/kg dw, 1250 μg/kg dw for Bellamnya javanica and 1745 μg/kg dw for Mya arenaria, respectively. THg elevated in Thunnus sp. was also found at station one in big tuna with the value of 762 μg/kg dw. Those elevated THgs were consistent and significantly different between those two seasons in term of bioaccumulation level. In addition, the estimated weekly intake (EWI) of Hg for B. javanica, M. arenaria and Thunnus sp. exceeded the accepted maximum tolerable weekly intake of 0.005 μg/kg bw. Nevertheless, THQ values were still less than 1 with the maximum levels of 0.06, 0.11 and 0.69 in summer season, respectively. These results suggested that Hg containing wastewater discharged into the Buladu River and the atmospheric fallout from Hg emission were the major sources of Hg in the areas of interest. Consequently, Hg, resulting from Hg released from the gold mine that has been operated for 30 years more, has gradually accumulated in the aquatic ecosystems of the Buladu River and the Sulawesi Sea.
  Hasmi and Anwar Mallongi
  Background: Human life is threatened by environmental hazards due to toxic contamination with lead. According to some studies, the waters and biota of Youtefa Gulf near Jayapura city have been polluted by lead. Objective: This study aimed to analyze the health risks caused by lead exposure from consuming fish and the non-carcinogenic risk of consuming fish for the citizens of Youtefa Gulf. The study used observational research with a risk analysis approach (Risk Quotient (RQ)). Methodology: The study population included fish and people living along Youtefa Gulf in Jayapura, with a sample composed of 75 people and fish collected from 12 stations. Samples were collected by purposive sampling. Results: The results showed that the concentrations of Pb in the fish from the12 stations was an average of 2.46 mg kg–1, a level considered to indicate pollution because it is above the 0.3 mg kg–1 threshold defined by ISO 7387 in the year 2009. Out of the 75 respondents, 66 respondents (88%) were found to have an RQ>1, which is considered to indicate high risk of lead exposure because it is greater than 1. From the results, the average RQ from the 75 respondents who consumed fish was 6.03. Based on this very high RQ value, the risk for these individuals needs to be controlled. Conclusion: It is recommended that the Youtefa Gulf community reduce its exposure to lead by decreasing the amount of fish consumed and decreasing the duration of daily lead exposure to diminish the health effects caused by exposure to lead-contaminated fish.
  Rosmala Nur and Anwar Mallongi
  Background: This study aims to investigate the impact of violence and the relationship between the socio-demographic factors and health reproduction problems. It is important to identify the groups (via screening) that are vulnerable to the impact of violence. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in Sunju village (rural) and the Tanjung Batu sub-district (urban) of Donggala Regency Central Sulawesi. The participants included 94 women and the sample consisted of married women of child bearing age who were pregnant, puerperium, had experienced pregnancy or had given birth in the last 2 years and had experienced violence. Results: The results of this study revealed that the violence of a husband toward his wife that occurs during pregnancy and puerperium affects reproductive health and it is associated with pregnancy complications, unwanted pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases, unsafe abortions, premature birth/low birth weight and loss of sexual desire. Additionally, there are differences in the health reproduction problems (pregnancy complications) according to the socio-demographics of the wives. Wives who suffered from pregnancy complications were more likely to be <35 years of age, have an elementary school level education (SD>), have a total of <4 children and live in a village. Meanwhile, unwanted pregnancies were more common in the group of women who are <35 years of age, have a high school education, are dating, have <4 children and live in the city. Conclusion: In conclusion, violence towards wives during pregnancy and puerperium has variable health reproduction effects according to the socio-demographic conditions of the wife.
  Noer Bahry Noor , Ridwan Amiruddin , Muhammad Awal , Sukri Palutturi and Anwar Mallongi
  Background and Objective: Stroke is an acute brain disorder caused by an interruption in cerebral blood circulation, which suddenly (within seconds) or rapidly (within a few hours) arises and impairs circulation in focal areas of the brain. Stroke is a major health problem in the world and it is the third leading cause of death after heart disease and cancer and is the cause of major disabilities. This study aims to develop a risk factor model of stroke incidence in South Sulawesi. Materials and Methods: This research applied an analytic observational method with a control case that is an epidemiologic research design for the study of exposure level relationships with various disease conditions or other health problems. The study includes a stroke case sample and a non-stroke control patient samples. Analyses were performed using an odds ratio and logistic regression with a value of p = 0.05 considered significant. Results: The results showed there was a significant relationship between stroke and hypertension, with OR = 4.06, 95% CI: 3.25-5.07 and there was a relationship between diabetes mellitus and stroke incidence. There was a relationship between smoking and the incidence of stroke, with OR = 1.60, 95% CI: 1.23-2.07. There was a relationship between heart disease and the incidence of stroke, with OR = 1.81, 95% CI: 1.42-2.32. However, there was no relationship between stress and stroke incidence, with p = 0.619 (p>0.05) and OR = 1.9, 95% CI: 1.48-2.64. The value of OR = 1.10 with 95% CI: 0.75-1.63. Conclusion: Hypertension is the most significant risk factor for stroke incidence compared to other risk factors but all of these risk factors can be lowered by lifestyle modification.
  Azniah Syam , Muhammad Syafar , Ridwan Amiruddin , Muzakkir , Darwis , Sri Darmawan , Sri Wahyuni and Anwar Mallongi
  Background and Objective: Early breastfeeding initiation in the 1st h after delivery seems unsuccessful. This study aimed to analyze the impact of socio-demographic, knowledge and social support factors toward the failure of early breastfeeding initiation. Materials and Methods: An observational prospective approach was used with 238 selected purposively pregnant women who were followed through delivery in South Sulawesi province. Field data were collected from April-December, 2015. Results: The study results showed that marital age (OR:1.88, 95% CI:1.07-3.31), place of delivery (OR:1.81, 95% CI:0.99-3.29) and midwife social support (OR:2.74, 95%:CI:1.62-4.66) were significant predictors of early breastfeeding initiation, whereas mother’s knowledge was not a significant predictive factor. Home birth was found to be significantly different from hospital birth. Conclusion: To make early breastfeeding initiation successful, it is necessary to combine good practices among an educated midwife, family and traditional birth attendant.
  Hasanuddin Ishak , Anwar Mallongi and Nurhidayah Aras
  Background and Objective: Insecticide resistance and environmental damage are impacts of the continuous application of synthetic larvicides; therefore, alternative larvicides are necessarily for Malaria vector control. The study aimed to analyze the effect of Carica papaya seed and leaf extracts on Anopheles sp. larval mortality. Materials and Methods: The study method involved a post-test only control group experimental design. Third and fourth instar larvae of a field strain of Anopheles sp. were collected from a paddy field habitat. Fresh C. papaya seeds and leaves were obtained from a garden located in the Tanete subdistrict. The C. papaya seeds and leaves were extracted with 70 % methanol using a Soxhlet apparatus. A bioassay test was carried out in three different concentrations of each extract and a control. Larval mortality was observed during 12 h in three replicates. Further, a field trial on each extract as a larvicide was conducted in Anopheles sp. habitat in Tanete, Bulukumba, South Sulawesi, Indonesia. Results: Phytochemical screening of the C. papaya seed extract revealed the presence of tannins and terpenoids. The C. papaya leaf extract revealed the presence of flavonoids, saponins and steroids. The LC50 value of the C. papaya seed extract reached a 3.9% concentration and The LT50 value was 5 min (p<0.05). The LC50 value of the C. papaya leaf extract reached a 2.8% concentration and The LT50 value was 60 min (p>0.05). The LC50 value of the mixed C. papaya seed and leaf extract reached a 2.6% concentration and The LT50 value was 5 min (p>0.05). The field trial of the C. papaya extract showed that the seed and mixed seed and leaf extracts both demonstrated a 100% larval density reduction, whereas the leaf extract only showed a 91% reduction (Mulla’s formulae). Conclusion: The C. papaya seed extract had a significant effect on the Anopheles sp. larval mortality, whereas the other extracts (leaf and mixed seed and leaf extracts) had no significant effect. The C. papaya seed and mixed seed and leaf extracts were indicated as effective larvicid for Malaria vector control.
  Anwar Mallongi and Herawaty
  Mercury emitted to the atmosphere may pollute different environmental compartments in term of dry and wet fall out deposit. This study aimed to investigate the Total mercury (THg) concentration in dry deposit, surface soil, rice grains and assess its potential risks. Sampling field survey conducted during one period of sample collection. Result shown that Thg concentration in dry deposit were ranged from 1.76-4.00 μg m-3 day-1, surface soil were ranged from 85.94-193.33 μg kg-1 dw in 0-5 cm depth and 120.64-226.59 μg kg-1 dw in 5-10 cm depth and brown rice were in the range of 99.1-181.5 μg kg-1 ww and white rive were in the range of 113.1-185.1 μg kg-1 ww, respectively. The elevated THg in dry deposit were in St. 4 and 5 had average values with 3.46 μg m-3 day-1) while in surface soil (0-5 and 5-10 cm) had averages of 161.64 and 177.89 μg kg-1 dw), respectively. Hence in conclusion, THg concentration in dry deposit and surface soil were due to results of ore amalgam processing that correspond to the elevated THg concentration in atmospheric dry deposition.
  Anwar Daud , Anwar Mallongi , B. Agus Bintara , Mustafa and Maming
  Background and Objective: Diseases Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI) is a disease caused by particulate matter (PM10) and housing conditions are bad/poor in urban. This study objectives to determine the relationship between the levels of particulate matter (PM10) of home air quality and the incidence of the acute respiratory infection in the community living in the working area of Dahlia Health Center, Makassar city. Methodology: The study type used the case control study design and the samples were chosen using the Purposive Stratified Random Sampling technique. The total samples comprised 195 respondents. The data about the physical condition of the houses were collected using the measurement (case 65 and control 130 or 1:2), while other variables were collected through observation and interviews using questionnaires. Results: The study results obtained using the chi square test indicated that the variables which had a significant relationship with the Incidence of the acute respiratory infection of the respondents living in the study area of Dahlia Health Center were PM10 in the houses (p<0.000), BMI (p<0.020), ventilation (p<0.031), while the variables which did not have a relationship were the temperature (p>0.216), humidity (p>0.360) and smoking in house (p>0.712). It is calculated that odd’s ratio with 95% confidence interval using logistic regression model were PM10 and acute respiratory infection (OR: 29.177, 95% CI: 3.172-268.341, p<0.003, age OR: 0.127, 95% CI: 0.015-1.096, p>0.061. Conclusion: Particulate matter (PM10) in the home meet the requirements of health and change the behavior of blocking the vents to increase the flow of fresh air from outside into the house.
Copyright   |   Desclaimer   |    Privacy Policy   |   Browsers   |   Accessibility