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Articles by Anthony Jide Afolayan
Total Records ( 4 ) for Anthony Jide Afolayan
  Oluwagbenga Oluwasola Adeogun , Alfred Maroyi and Anthony Jide Afolayan
  Background and Objective: The consumption of fruits and vegetables is recommended for humans to increase immunity and reduce the risk of many chronic diseases. High moisture content and minimal processing of fruits and vegetables with high demand by consumers bring to fore the need for preservation. This study was carried out to ascertain the preservation potential of the leaf of Ocimum gratissimum (O. gratissimum) on fresh cut Cucumis sativus (C. sativus). Materials and Methods: Ocimum gratissimum leaves were collected and extracted with different solvents: Ethanol and hexane. The extracts were used to determine the quality of fresh cut C. sativus stored for 9 days using dipping method. The following quality parameters were assessed: Carotenoids, ascorbic acid, total phenolic acid, pH, total soluble solids, turbidity, microbial loads and moisture contents. Furthermore, qualitative and quantitative phytochemical analyses of the extracts were determined and essential oil constituents were established with the aid of GC-MS. Data obtained were subjected to descriptive analysis using SPSS analysis (Version 20.0). Results: Cucumis sativus treated with O. gratissimum extracts had lower moisture content, pH and brix values of the total soluble solids than untreated C. sativus. The ascorbic acid, phenolic and carotenoids contents of C. sativus treated with O. gratissimum extracts had lower values than untreated C. sativus. The total load of microbes in C. sativus treated with O. gratissimum extracts was lower than untreated C. sativus. Flavonoid, alkaloid, cardiac glycoside, phenol, tannin, steroid, anthraquinone and saponin were present in O. gratissimum leaves. The essential oils isolated from O. gratissimum included γ-terpinene, caryophyllene, oleic acid and (E)-9-octadecenoic acid. Conclusion: This study established that the leaf extracts of O. gratissimum have bio-preservation potential that can be used to enhance the shelf of C. sativus.
  Elizabeth Bosede Famewo , Anna Maria Clarke and Anthony Jide Afolayan
  Background: Polyherbal remedies are widely used for the treatment and management of various diseases in developing countries. These remedies often contain active pharmacological compounds, thus, the evaluation of herbal remedies used for the treatment of tuberculosis in the Eastern Cape province for their toxicity is of great importance. Materials and Methods: Nine polyherbal medicines used for the treatment of tuberculosis were assayed for their toxicity using hatchability success and larval mortality of brine shrimp (Artemia salina Leach). These remedies were liquid preparations and coded according to their respective place of collection, viz., King Williams Town site A, King Williams Town site B, King Williams Town site C, Hogsback first site, Hogsback second site, Hogsback third site, East London, Alice and Fort Beaufort. Results: The percentage hatchability success of 44.42, 42.96 and 39.70% were observed in cysts incubated with herbal preparations from King Williams Town site A, Hogsback first site and Hogsback third site, respectively. The hatching success in these remedies was significantly higher than the positive control (nystatin) and the negative control (sea water) at p<0.05. The herbal preparations from King Williams Town site A and East London exhibited significantly more inhibitory hatchability effects with minimum inhibitory concentration values of 2.4 and 2.8 mg mL–1, respectively. The mortality of A. salina nauplii incubated in Alice, King Williams Town site B and King Williams Town site C remedies was significantly higher than when larvae was incubated in both controls. Based on Meyer’s index, the LD50 of each polyherbal medicine was between 2.9-4.0 mg mL–1, the LD50 values greater than 1 mg mL–1. Conclusion: The polyherbal remedies evaluated in this study are considered non-toxic and are therefore safe for the patients. However, further in vivo toxicity tests are required to validate the safe use of these polyherbal remedies.
  Olubunmi Abosede Wintola and Anthony Jide Afolayan
  Background: Dysentery is a chronic disease causing intestinal inflammation as a result of severe diarrhoea with mucus or blood in the faeces. This is caused either by infectious or non-infectious agents and the severity ranges from asymptomatic to severe dehydration resulting into death. Methodology: Phytochemical, antioxidant and antimicrobial analyses were carried out using standard methods and the crude extracts were screened against 12 bacteria strains. Agar well diffusion and broth micro-dilution techniques were used to determine the diameters of zone of inhibition and the Minimum Inhibition Concentrations (MICs), respectively. Results: Phytochemical assay revealed the presence of high content of flavonoids, total phenol and tannins, low equivalent quantity of saponins and proanthocyanidin and very low alkaloids. Antioxidant activity showed high nitric oxide, low ferric reducing activities, moderate/low DPPH and ABTS scavenging activities of the plant. The degree of inhibitions varied significantly with different solvents used. Curtisia dentata activity against all the tested bacterial demonstrated an inhibition mean zone diameter of 10-25 mm. The MIC of the acetone extract ranged from >5 to 0.01 mg mL–1 and was active against 10 out of the 12 bacteria isolates with Escherichia coli (20±1.1) being the most susceptible organism. Conclusion: This study provides scientific evidence for ethnomedicinal uses of Curtisia dentata stem bark as a good source of free radical scavenging and antimicrobial agents. This appreciably justifies the ethnomedicinal importance of the plant.
  Wilfred Otang-Mbeng and Anthony Jide Afolayan
  Background and Objective: Acokanthera oblongifolia is an evergreen medicinal shrub used for snakebites, itches, wounds and internal worms and the relief of itchy conditions and other skin disorders by the Mpondo and Xhosa tribes in South Africa. The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of the plant extracts against selected pathogens that cause human skin disorders and evaluation of the antioxidant capability for validation of folk uses of the plant. Materials and Methods: The agar diffusion and micro-dilution methods were used to determine the antimicrobial activities of the extracts against selected bacteria and fungi. The data were subjected to one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT) was used to determine significant differences (p<0.05) among treatment means. Results: The highest antibacterial activity (inhibition zone diameter >19 mm) was obtained with the acetone extract against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Shigella sonnei, Shigella flexneri, Bacillus cereus, Streptococcus pyogens and Bacillus subtilis; by the ethanol extract against B. cereus. None of the extracts was active against the tested fungi, apart from the acetone extract which showed strong inhibitory activity against Candida glabrata. The ethanol extract showed a higher ABTS scavenging than those of gallic acid and BHT at concentrations lower than 0.15 mg mL–1. Conclusion: The in vitro antibacterial activity of the acetone extract of A. oblongifolia against the tested pathogens has provide scientific evidence to justify the ethnomedicinal use of A. oblongofolia against skin disorders in the study area and also indicate that the plant is a potential source for the development of antimicrobial and antioxidant agents.
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