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Articles by Amarpal
Total Records ( 10 ) for Amarpal
  Mudasir Bashir Gugjoo , Amarpal , Prakash Kinjavdekar , Hari Prasad Aithal , Abhijit Motiram Pawde , Deepti Bodh and Gutulla Taru Sharma
  The cancer stem cell concept is currently seen as an important breakthrough in cancer research and relies upon the availability of the cancer stem cells. The cells have capability to produce whole tumor mass through self-renewal and differentiation besides, the ability to metastasize possibly through homing. Since such properties are also expressed by the normal stem cells, more research is needed in this field, especially in isolation and characterization. As the conventional therapies are effective only against the bulk of the tumor without any effect on cancer stem cells, it normally relapses. It seems logical to target the cancer stem cells through direct or indirect means along with the conventional therapies, in order to devise effectual therapeutics for cancer. The current review briefly throws light upon the development of the cancer stem cell theory and its concepts besides the possible therapeutic implications.
  Mudasir Bashir Gugjoo , Amarpal , Prakash Kinjavdekar , Hari Prasad Aithal , Mohd Matin Ansari , Abhijit MotiRam Pawde and Gutulla Taru Sharma
  Mesenchymal stem cells are recognised based upon the plastic adherence, fibroblastic morphology, expression of certain surface markers, non-expression of haematopoetic markers and their ability to differentiate into atleast three lineages viz., adipogenic, chondrogenic and osteogenic. The rabbit Mesenchymal Stem Cells (rMSCs) though used extensively in research but have not been thoroughly studied and are not compared to other species. The present study was therefore conducted to determine the morphology, surface markers and trilineage differentiation potential of New Zealand white rabbit MSCs. Isolation of rMSCs was done by an established method of density gradient method using Ficoll-hapaque. The cells were characterised by Phase Contrast Microscopy, Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) and Alkaline Phosphatase (AP) staining. The cells isolated were plastic adherent and had fibroblastic spindle shape with eccentric irregular nuclei. The cells expressed surface markers viz., CD 105 and CD 106 besides expressing genes of collagen type II and I. Haematopoetic markers (CD 34 and CD 45) and aggrecan gene however, were not expressed. The rMSCs showed a moderate alkaline phosphates activity. Trilineage differentiation was conducted utilizing prepared differentiation media and rMSCs were differentiated into corresponding cell lineages based upon the medium used. It was concluded that rMSCs possess morphology similar to other species with good proliferation rate and exhibit the characteristics laid down by International Society for Cellular Therapy (ISCT). The present study provided basic protocols for characterization of rabbit MSCs that should be used before application of these cells for any research or therapy.
  Ahmed Abdelbaset-Ismail , Mudasir Bashir Gugjoo , Alaa Ghazy , Mohamed Gomaa , Ahmed Abdelaal , Amarpal , Ahmed Behery , Abdel-Basit Abdel-Aal , Mohamed-Tayiser Samy and Kuldeep Dhama
  There is no doubt that the donkey, as a drafting animal, plays a critical role in the developing communities for both agriculture production and riding purposes. Therefore, to maintain healthy skeleton in these animals, the understanding of radiographic anatomy of ossification centers and growth plates (locations, types and closure times), need to be advanced. It is imperative that an appropriate maturation point is reached to avoid early overexertion of the donkey and the resulting irreparable damage. It is therefore the aim of this review is to highlight the importance of expanding the limited dataset on epiphyseal growth plate maturation and begin to define its ossification times in the donkey. Moreover, it has been recently proposed that the receptors of gonadal sex hormones including estrogen androgen as well as pituitary sex hormones including luteinizing hormone and prolactin are localized in human and animal growth plates. This indicates that these hormones actively participate in the chondroregulation mechanisms at the ossification growth plates. A connection with that, we noticed that the more primitive stem cells as well as hematopoietic stem cells and mesenechymal stem cells express these receptors as well. Therefore, it would be very interesting to address the link between sex hormones and ossification time of growth plates, as well as the sharing activities of these stem cells during the ossification process.
  R.A. Ahmad , Amarpal , P. Kinjavdekar , H.P. Aithal , A.M. Pawde and D. Kumar
  The study was conducted to evaluate and compare sedation, analgesia and muscle relaxation, and other systemic changes produced by dexmedetomidine, dexmedetomidine-midazolam and dexmedetomidine-midazolam-fentanyl in 12 apparently healthy adult dogs divided into three groups (n = 4). In a prospective randomised blinded study, the dogs received 20 μg kg-1 dexmedetomidine (group A), 20 μg kg-1 dexmedetomidine and 0.2 mg kg-1 midazolam (group B), and 20 μg kg-1 dexmedetomidine, 0.2 mg kg-1 midazolam and 4 μg kg-1 fentanyl (group C), through intramuscular route. All the drugs were given simultaneously using separate syringes. Dexmedetomidine produced moderate sedation and muscle relaxation and mild to moderate analgesia with mild depression of laryngeal reflex. Addition of midazolam resulted in excellent muscle relaxation, deep sedation and moderate analgesia with moderate depression of laryngeal reflex. Weak time and down time were decreased whereas time to return of righting reflex and recovery time were increased. Heart rate, respiratory rate and rectal temperature and pulse oximeter values did not differ significantly between groups A and B. Addition of fentanyl further accentuated muscle relaxation, analgesia and produced deep sedation and allowed easy intubation without any further depression of clinical parameters. It reduced the onset time and increased recovery time further. It was concluded that addition of midazolam enhances the sedation and muscle relaxation produced by dexmedetomidine. The combination of fentanyl-dexmedetomidine-midazolam results in excellent analgesia, sedation and muscle relaxation with favourable conditions for intubation which may be used to perform diagnostic or minor surgical operations in dog.
  K.M. Santosh , Amarpal , R.A. Ahmad , P. Kinjavdekar , H.P. Aithal and A.M. Pawde
  The present study was designed to compare the influence of increased dose of dexmedetomidine and addition of fentanyl on the course of anaesthesia produced by dexmedetomidine-midazolam-ketamine combination in dogs. A prospective randomized blinded study was conducted on 12 client owned adult mixed breed dogs of either sex, divided into three groups. In the animals of group A, dexmedetomidine 10 μg kg-1 b.wt. and midazolam 0.4 mg kg-1 were administered simultaneously in the thigh muscles. In group B, dexmedetomidine 20 μg kg-1 and midazolam 0.4 mg kg-1 were administered. In the animals of group C dexmedetomidine 10 μg kg-1, midazolam 0.4 mg kg-1 and fentanyl 4 μg kg-1 were administered. Ten minutes later, ketamine was administered I.V. in all the groups to induce anaesthesia. Excellent muscle relaxation was observed up to 30 min in groups A and B and up to 75 min in group C. Pedal reflexes were abolished up to 45 min in groups A and B and up to 75 min in group C. Only 25% animals in group A permitted intubation, but intubation could be performed in all the animals of groups B and C. Weak time and down time were significantly (p<0.05) shorter in group B than in group A. Sternal recumbency time was significantly (p<0.05) longer in group B as compared to groups A and C but standing recovery time was significantly (p<0.05) shorter in group C as compared to groups A and B. Heart rate decreased significantly (p<0.05) in groups B and C but MAP (Mean Arterial Pressure) remained unchanged. In group A heart rate did not change significantly but MAP showed significant (p<0.01) decrease. Respiratory rate decreased significantly (p<0.05) in groups A and B but SPO2 (Saturated Oxygen) was maintained near the base line in all the groups. It was concluded that dexmedetomidine (10 μg kg-1) -midazolam (0.4 mg kg-1)-ketamine combination produced anaesthesia for 45 min. Increasing the dose of dexmedetomidine to 20 μg kg-1 did not offer any advantage, however, addition of fentanyl (4 μg kg-1) not only increased the duration of anaesthesia up to 60 min but also facilitated the recovery without additional adverse side effects.
  Mani Saminathan , Ram Bahal Rai , Kuldeep Dhama , Ruchi Tiwari , Sandip Chakraborty , Amarpal , Gopikunte Jayaramaiah Ranganath and Kandasamy Kannan
  The miracle medicinal plant Morinda citrifolia L., also called as Noni, Great Morinda or Indian mulberry, belongs to the family Rubiaceae. Its fruit has been used traditionally for more than 2000 years by native Polynesians. However, all parts of the plant have medicinal properties. More than 160 phytochemicals have been isolated from the plant Noni which makes it an amazing herbal remedy for the treatment of numerous disorders including cancer. Recently, the Noni juice has been in high demand in market as Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) for its multi-dimensional health benefits. It is a potent antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, antihelminthic, anticancer, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, hypotensive, cardiovascular protective, wound healer, anxiolytic, sedative, antigout, antiobesity and immune enhancing agent. Anticancerous activity of Morinda citrifolia is attributable to its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and apoptosis-inducing effects. Based on toxicological and mutagenicity assessment, Noni juice has been considered as safe. Few reports of hepatotoxicity exist, although there are many evidences suggesting hepatoprotective effects of Noni. Even though large number of in vitro studies has been carried out but only few clinical trials exist in the literature to suggest real beneficial effects of Noni in humans. Recently, Noni fruit juice has been accepted as a novel food element in the European Union. A number of scientific studies have been conducted to elucidate the mechanism of action of phytoconstituents of Noni. In this review, active phytochemical constituents, pharmacological properties, mechanism of action and various immunomodulatory and therapeutic potentials of Noni usage as a useful herbal medicine are discussed in detail which could be very helpful in safeguarding health of humans and their companion animals. A special focus has been made on the potent utility of this wonderful herbal plant in preventing and treating the deadly malady of cancer.
  Kuldeep Dhama , Ruchi Tiwari , Sandip Chakraborty , Mani Saminathan , Amit Kumar , K. Karthik , Mohd. Yaqoob Wani , Amarpal , Shoor Vir Singh and Anu Rahal
  Owing to rising incidences of antimicrobial resistance against various chemotherapeutic and antimicrobial agents, the treatment of bacterial infections requires special consideration that may otherwise lead to grave prognosis. Simultaneously, evolution of many a Multiple Drug Resistant (MDR) bacterial strains have further aggravated the present situation. In this scenario, scrutinizing for some alternative yet effective antibacterial therapeutics like herbs, nutritional immunomodulators, bacteriophages, avian egge antibodies and others have become need of the day. Herbs have been a valuable source of medication in virtually all cultures and societies worldwide due to their important antimicrobial principles and phytoconstituents and wider therapeutic potentials. As various extracts of herbs and medicinal plants are being reported with antibacterial activities, much effort should be made in their identification, studying biologically active ingredients, efficacy and potency testing and scientific validation for their significant and practical multi-beneficial uses. The present review elaborates the potential role and applications of several herbs in treating bacterial infections and various types of bacterial diseases for safeguarding health of humans and their companion animals. It highlights the salient beneficial applications of traditional herbs and novel phytomedicines, from ancient periods to modern usages. Due emphasis has been given regarding scientific approaches to be followed and future perspectives with a vision to counter the emerging antimicrobial resistance. The review will certainly promote and popularize herbs as alternatives to conventional antimicrobials, particularly in the event of emerging MDR bacterial infections. Global usages of herbs as alternative and complementary medicines to various antimicrobials would lead not only to safeguard health issues and obtain optimum production from animals but will also ensure the public health issues including of food safety concerns viz., antibiotic residual effects in animal products (milk, meat) and zoonotic threats.
  Rekha Pathak , Amarpal , P. Tamilmahan , Kuldeep Dhama and Netrapal Sharma
  The ability of the osteoblasts to lay the extracellular matrix and mineralize determines the efficiency of bone formation. Vitamin D injections are used to enhance bone mineralization in clinical cases. The present study was designed to evaluate the in vitro efficacy of Vitamin D on the osteoblastic activity in both fetal and adult osteoblasts. The long bone was collected from fetal and adult rabbits and cultured in Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle’s Medium (DMEM) containing 10% fetal bovine serum and antibiotics. The passaged cells, after attaining more than 80% confluence were induced for mineralization through osteogenic media with or without 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (Vit D3). Fetal and adult cells were harvested after 7, 14, 21, 28 days for observation of osteoblastic differentiation and mineralization. Relative transcripts abundance of mRNA of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and osteocalcin (OCN) were measured to assess the osteoblastic activity using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) at different time intervals. The mineral accumulation was assessed by Von-Kossa staining. Fetal osteoblasts compared to adult osteoblasts showed a marked significant increase in mineralization on addition of Vit D. However, the adult osteoblasts reflected transcript abundance of ALP only after 14th day and OCN genes after 21 days post induction whereas fetal osteoblasts showed the same by 7th day post induction. This reflects a great therapeutic potential of fetal osteoblasts along with Vit D3 in bone regeneration. Further studies are required to correlate the influence of Vit D3 on ALP/OCN expression and also whether there is a comparative increase in the receptors of Vit D3 and osteocalcin protein in fetal cells as compared to adult osteoblasts.
  K. Dhama , M. Kesavan , K. Karthik , Amarpal , R. Tiwari , Lakshmi T. Sunkara and R.K. Singh
  Neuroimmunomodulation involves interactions among nervous, endocrine and immune systems. An integrated function is performed by nervous and immune systems that is responsible for preservation of integrity and homeostasis of the organism. Though Central Nervous System (CNS) has a limited repertoire for its own protection, it has the Blood Brain Barrier (BBB) and the capacity to engage peripheral immune system to eliminate infections and xenobiotics. Neural cells involved in the process of providing neural immunity include: Glial cells, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. Besides working as sentinels to get rid of pathogens in the process of neurodevelopment, both central as well as peripheral immune cells actively participate helping in cognitive brain functions. Neurogenesis process may also be regulated by adaptive immune cells peripherally. Recently there is a discovery of cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway wherein vagal nerve has shown anti-inflammatory role in endotoxemia and shock. Hormones viz., nor-epinephrine, epinephrine and glucocorticoids prepare immune system to combat infections and enhance distribution and trafficking of immune cells by several ways. This review focuses on neurobiology, neuro-immune cross talk, neuroimmunoregulation, stress and neuroimmunomodulation which will be beneficial for researchers, professionals and academicians. Topics like neurotoxic and neuroprotective roles of immune reactions (which are innate in nature) in the process of aging are highly debated among researchers. In this review, topics like neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration, role of vitamins, minerals, herbs and drugs and volatile oils in the process of neuroimmunomodulation and particularly countering various diseases, disorders, infections, stress and aging have been discussed vividly to enhance and update the knowledge of the scientific community regarding this particular topic ‘Neuroimmunomodulation’.
  Kuldeep Dhama , Mani Saminathan , Siju Susan Jacob , Mithilesh Singh , K. Karthik , Amarpal , Ruchi Tiwari , Lakshmi Tulasi Sunkara , Yashpal Singh Malik and Raj Kumar Singh
  In veterinary and medical sciences, immunomodulation is an area wherein extensive studies have been conducted to devise methods to improve disease resistance as well as to prevent or control immune disorders of host by optimum regulation of the immune system. Today, most infectious diseases of man and animals are treated and controlled mainly by using broad-spectrum antibiotics and vaccines. However, the antibacterial agents are becoming increasingly ineffective due to rapid emergence of resistant microbial strains. So, there is high requirement for novel and improved alternative therapeutic and prophylactic strategies to manage several diseases which are flaring at alarming pace because of the increase in international traffic, globalization and changing food habbits. Immunomodulation is focused on manipulation of immune system to control the infections and other adverse health effects with precise regulation to avoid any complications while suppressive or potentiating efforts are made to benefit the animal and human health. The main aim of this review is to give a closer insight into the potential immunomodulatory molecules, synthetic and natural, that are capable of modifying the immune responses including conventional and novel immunomodulators like adjuvants, cytokines, hormones, glucocorticoids, host defense peptides, microbial products, toll like receptors, synthetic compounds, probiotics, nutrients, vitamins, minerals, herbs, panchgavya, polysaccharides, helminths, vaccines and others. These immunomodulatory regimens could successfully offer the health industries with the most natural methods for enhancement of disease resistance, boosting vaccination immunity and prevention of various infections, disorders, cancer and stress related diseases. The updated information will be highly useful for scientists, veterinary/medical professionals, pharmaceutical industries, livestock and poultry industry to create a healthier future for people and their companion animals.
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