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Articles by Alam Khan
Total Records ( 16 ) for Alam Khan
  M. Abdul Alim Al-Bari , M. Abu Sayeed , Alam Khan , M. Robiul Islam , Proma Khondokar , M.M. Sazedur Rahman and M. Anwar Ul Islam
  Ethyl acetate extract from new actinomycetes, Streptomyces maritimus, showed good antibacterial and antifungal activities against a total of 14 bacteria (5 Gram positive plus 9 Gram negative) and 8 fungi. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC) were determined and found to be 16 μg mL-1 against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella dysenteriae and Aspergillus flavus while 32 μg mL-1 against Salmonella typhi, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger.
  Shahmim Akhter , Alam Khan , Mohammad Mohsin Siddiqui and Gul Nawab
  Frequencies of thyroid problems in different age, sex and seasons were determined from the relative concentration of thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in 9054 patients. These patients visited the radioimmunoassay (RIA) laboratory of the Institute of Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine (IRNUM) Peshawar during the years 1984-1990 (except 1987) and 1995 and 1996. The patients were classified into infants, children, adults and old age groups according to their age, into males and females according to their sex and into winter, spring, summer and autumn according to their visit to the laboratory. T3 and T4 in the blood serum of these patients were determined by radioimmunoassay (RIA) and their TSH in the blood serum were determined by immuno-radiometric assay (IRMA). The data revealed that 54% thyroid patients were having normal levels of T3, T4 and TSH. Considering all age groups together, the frequencies of hyperthyroidism/Thyrotoxicosis and hypothyroidism were 5.1 and 4.0% respectively. Similarly, the frequencies of subclinical hyperthyroidism and subclinical hypothyroidism were 5.8 and 5.4% respectively. The frequencies of other thyroid problems were 25.8%. The frequency of hyperthyroidism/ thyrotoxicosis was higher in adults group (2.9%) followed by old age group (2.0%), children group (0.2%) and infants group (0.01%). Similarly the frequency of hypothyroidism was higher in adults group followed by old age group, children group and infants group were 1.8, 1.3, 0.7, 0.1% respectively. Similar pattern of frequencies of subclinical hyperthyroidism, subclinical hypothyroidism and other thyroid problems was observed. Iodized salted should be used only in iodine deficient areas and with caution.
  Khan Nawaz Khattak , Shahmim Akhter , Alam Khan , M. Mohsin Siddiqui and Gul Nawab
  A retrospective study was conducted to know the distribution of thyroid patients in different age, sex and seasons. Twenty five thousand four hundred and thirty seven thyroid patients were referred to the radioimmunoassay (RIA) laboratory of the Institute of Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine (INRUM), Peshawar, during the years 1984-1990 (except 1987), 1995 and 1996. These patients were of all age, both sexes and they were referred to the laboratory in different seasons of the year. Out of 25237 thyroid patients, age and sex were categorized into infants (0-2 year), children (>1-13 years), adults (>13-40 years) and old age (>40 years) groups. The patients were also separated into males and females. Based on the date of referral to the laboratory, the patients were also classified into winter (Nov.-Jan.), spring (Feb.-Apr.), summer (May-Jun.) and autumn (Aug.-Oct.). The average distribution of thyroid patients among infants, children, adult and old age groups was 0.8, 8.4, 64.0 and 27%, respectively. Similarly, the average distribution of thyroid patients between males and females was 27 and 73%, respectively. The average referral of thyroid patients to the laboratory in winter, spring, summer and autumn of different years was 28.6, 24.6, 30.9 and 15.9%, respectively. The data revealed that thyroid problems prevailed more in the adult group and females. The referral of thyroid patients was more common in summer than other seasons.
  M. Muzaffar Ali Khan Khattak , Alam Khan and M. Usman Khattak
  Male and female students residing in the on campus hostels were explained the aim and importance of this study. Among the students registered were 30 male and 30 female who volunteered to participate in this study. The age range of the registered students was 22 – 26 years. On the day of the registration the age, height and weight were recorded and at the same time, they were given food frequency questionnaires (FFQs). They were asked to record alternately for three days whatever they ate during the prescribed week. Out of sixty students 51 (22 male and 29 female) returned the FFQs and the rest were excluded from the study. From the anthropometry, the weight and height for the given ages were compared with the international standards. From the FFQs the energy and nutrients intake was calculated using the food composition table for all students and compared with the recommended nutrients intakes (RNIs) reported by the FAO/WHO for the same age, height and weight. The total energy consumption was more in the female students than in the male students. Eighty two percent of the male and 21% of the female students had lower energy intake than their RNIs for energy. Eighty two percent of the male students had lower relative energy from protein and 91% had lower energy from carbohydrate intake than their respective RNIs. Similarly, in 48% of the female students had lower relative energy from protein and 76% had lower energy from carbohydrate intake than their respective RNIs. The relative contribution of energy from fat was higher in 95 % of the male and 97 % of the female students than their RNIs. The mean mineral intake was lower both for male and female students with the exception that the intake of P was more than the RNIs by 18.4 and 11.5 % for the male and female students respectively. The mean Fe intake was more than the RNIs by 37.3% in male students. Similarly, the vitamins intake was lower as well, both in male and female students with exception that they were having higher intake for vitamin A and C. Apart from these nutrients, all the students surveyed had lower dietary intake of fibre and cholesterol. This study indicates that the students are at the risk of specific nutrient deficiencies and the energy requirement is mainly met through dietary fat intake instead of carbohydrate.
  Muhammad Muzaffar Ali Khan Khattak , Alam Khan , Shagufta Begum , Javeria Abid and Syed Saeed Qadir
  Three hundred and fifty five patients of various age groups were assessed for their nutritional status. Among these patients, 65 were children, 166 adult male, and 124 adult female. In children all the anthropometric parameters were lower than the reference values with the exception for age group 6.1 – 10.0 years, whose weight were more than the reference values. Hundred percent mal-nourishment was observed in male adults. All the parameters i.e. weight, upper mid arm circumference (UMAC), triceps-skinfolds (TSF) hemoglobin and blood sugar were lower than the reference values. The data collected for female adults also indicated that the females were hundred percent mal-nourished as well with the exception 51+ years of age whose weights were more than the respective standards or reference values. This study indicates the gravity of the problem of mal-nourishment that exists in the hospitalized patients. Therefore, there is an urgent need for the nutritional assessment/intervention in the hospitalized patients.
  Fayaz Ahmad Danish , Alam Khan and Muhammad Muzaffar Ali Khan Khattak
  The prevalence of diabetes mellitus and its relation to diet and physical work was studied in three selected districts namely Muzaffarabad, Bagh and Poonch of Azad Jammu and Kashmir. A city, a town and a village were selected from each selected district, and hundred households (families) from each city, town and village were randomly selected for the study. A total 900 households were selected for interview. A responsible individual of 40 years or older of each household was interviewed and information about diabetes, occupation and diet were recorded in the questionnaire. The mean prevalence of diabetes mellitus was 0.95% in the selected region of the state. The prevalence of the disease was higher in cities than towns and villages. The disease was slightly higher in males than females. The milk and meat consumption of the residents of the area was lower than the recommended amount. The exercise level/physical work status of majority of the residents was almost equal to heavy exercise level. The data suggest that at present, the prevalence of diabetes is not of great concern in Azad Jammu and Kashmir. The prevalence of the disease is linked with diet and exercise level/physical work. The residents have marginal deficiency of food intake
  Alam Khan and Mahpara Safdar
  Diabetes mellitus is a global disease, prevails all over the world, though the prevalence rate differs from country to country. Diabetes, a disorder of carbohydrate metabolism, is characterized by high blood glucose level and glycosuria resulting from dysfunction of pancreatic beta cells and insulin resistance. In advance stages of diabetes, metabolism of protein and lipid is also altered. Many factors like heredity, age, obesity, diet, sex, sedentary life style, socio economic status, hypertension and various stresses are involved in the etiology of diabetes mellitus. Drug, diet and recently spices therapies are the major approaches used for treatment and control of diabetes mellitus. In drug therapy, hypoglycemic medicines and insulin are used. In diet therapy, diet composition, amount, distribution and time of food intake are important factors. The diet must be acceptable, must supply adequate amount of nutrients, and be formulated in a way to normalize body weight. The diet for diabetic children should have sufficient calories for adequate nutrition, normal weight gain and growth. The diet should be high in complex carbohydrate, low in simple carbohydrate, low in fat and high in mono-unsaturated fatty acid. High fiber diets are beneficial for treatment of diabetes. Soluble fibers are more effective than insoluble fibers. Chromium is important for diabetes and functions in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism primarily via its role in potentiating insulin action in carbohydrate metabolism. In the spices therapy, cinnamon, cloves, bay leaves and turmeric have an insulin potentiating activity and are beneficial for diabetic individuals. Cinnamon is effective in reducing glucose level in type 2 diabetic individuals. The effective ingredient in cinnamon for hypoglycemic function has been identified as methyl hydroxy chalcone polymers. Other plant products have also hypoglycemic activities and may have beneficial role in treatment of diabetes mellitus. Cinnamon should be a part of diabetic diets for its hypoglycemic effect in diabetic individuals.
  Alam Khan , Aien Khan Afridi and Mahpara Safdar
  Prevalence of obesity, over weight and under weight was determined in both sexes of high and low-income employees of 11 schools/colleges/faculties/institutions of University of Peshawar, Khyber Medical College, Khyber Teaching Hospital, Engineering University, Agricultural University, Peshawar and Pakistan Forest Institute, Peshawar, Pakistan. A random sample of 50 employees of both sexes and of both income groups was selected from all schools/colleges/faculties/institutions except Faculty of Law and Agricultural University, Peshawar where 46 and 88 employees were selected respectively. In this way, a total of 834 employees of the different institutions were studied. Age, sex, income level, food preparation, eating pattern and activity level were recorded. Weights and heights of the employees were taken. The prevalence of obesity, over weight and under weight was assessed on the method of body mass index. The over all prevalence of obesity, over weight and under weight was 8.0, 29.6 and 5.4% respectively. The prevalence of obesity, over weight and under weight in the male employees was 6.9, 29.1 and 4.6% respectively and in the female employees was 11.1, 31.4 and 7.15% respectively. The prevalence of obesity, over weight and under weight in the male employees of the high-income group was 7.5, 34.9 and 1.6% respectively and in the male employees of the low income group was 6.5, 24.9 and 6.8% respectively. The prevalence of obesity, over weight and under weight in the females employees of the high income group was 13.6, 31.8 and 4.6% respectively and in the females of the low-income group was 7.4, 30.5 and 11.6% respectively. The data indicated that prevalence of obesity and over weight was high. The incidence was more in female than male employees. Also the prevalence was more in the high income group than the low income group. Precautionary measures in terms of food preparations, eating pattern and physical activity/exercise are needed.
  Muhammad Abbas , Alam Khan and M. Muzaffar Ali Khan Khattak
  The present study was conducted to assess the prevalence of obesity in relation to diet and physical activity levels (PALs) in Tehsil Mardan, of the North West Frontier Province (NWFP), Pakistan. Three cities, three towns and three villages were selected from the whole Tehsil. Hundred households in each city, town and village were randomly selected. A male individual of above 30 years age from each selected household was interviewed. In this way a total of 900 male subjects were surveyed. The information collected include their height, weight, food intake for three alternate days, occupation and other activities. Prevalence of obesity was determined by Body Mass Index (BMI). The average values showed 7 and 34% prevalence of obesity (BMI = > 30) and overweight (BMI = 25-30), respectively in Tehsil Mardan. Prevalence of obesity and overweight was more in cities than towns and more in towns than villages. The average energy intake was 2522±449 kcal/day. The relative contribution of protein, fat and carbohydrate to the total energy intake was 12, 33 and 56%, respectively. The energy intake was positively correlated with BMI (r = 0.799) and their PALs were negatively correlated with BMI (r = - 0.398). The present study alarms that obesity is becoming a major health problem of concern in Tehsil Mardan. Therefore, early nutritional interventions are required.
  Alam Khan and Richard A. Anderson
  Control of diabetes by diet and natural products is more appropriate and economical in developing countries, hence fruits, vegetables, tea, spices and homeopathic drugs were investigated for their insulin potentiating function in glucose metabolism in rat epididymal fat cells assay. Dried flesh and seed of jamon fruit (Eugenia jambulina), fresh and dried flesh and seed of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia), fresh and dried chaunga (Carulina tuberculate) and powdered fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) were extracted with 0.1 N NH4OH or boiling water (1:20 w/v). Black, decaffeinated and green tea (Thea sp.) were prepared without milk and with milk. Sugar was not added to the tea. The supernatants of the extracts and the different prepared tea samples were used for insulin potentiation in the rat epididymal fat cells assay. Homeopathic drugs, diabene and diacure were tested for insulin potentiating activity in the above assay. Dried flesh of jamon fruit potentiated insulin 6.7 fold when boiled with water and 6.1 fold when extracted with 0.1N NH4OH. Dried jamon seed potentiated insulin 2 and 5 fold when extracted with water and 0.1N NH4OH respectively. Insulin potentiating activity was found in the dried seed of bitter ground but not in the fresh and dried flesh portion. Chaunga did not show any insulin potentiating activity. The water extract of fenugreek showed some activity. Black tea potentiated 5.2 fold insulin function in glucose metabolism and this activity was reduced to 3.7 fold with decaffeinating of tea. Green tea potentiated insulin 2 fold in glucose metabolism. Addition of milk to tea inhibited the insulin potentiating function of tea. Both the homeopathic drugs did not show any insulin potentiating activity. The result indicated that both flesh and seed of dried jamon fruit and tea had very good insulin potentiating function. In the light of these data, based on the vitro model of insulin function, the diabetic patients are advised to use both the flesh and seed of jamon fruit and tea without milk and sugar for their diabetic control.
  Aien khan Afridi , Mahpara Safdar , Muhammad Muzaffar Ali Khan Khattak and Alam Khan
  Obesity is a risk factor for the development of various diseases like CHD, hypertension, stroke, NIDDM, osteoarthritis, sleep apnea and cancers of endometrium, breast, prostrate and colon. Psychological consequences of obesity range from lowered self-esteem to clinical depression. Many of these conditions are revisable through weight loss and maintenance. Weight reduction may be life saving so it is necessary to reduce weight.
  Aien khan Afridi and Alam Khan
  Obesity is an excess body weight due to fat deposition as compared to set standards of body weight. Though it is determined by a number of methods, but body mass index (BMI) has become the measurement of choice for many obesity researchers and health professionals. BMI is a practical indicator of the severity of obesity. A more important aspect of obesity is the regional distribution of excess body fat. Mortality and morbidity ratio vary with the distribution of body fat, with the highest risk linked to excessive abdominal fat, usually called as Central obesity. Waist circumference is a useful measurement to the risks associated with obesity. Waist circumference and BMI are interrelated, waist circumference provides an independent prediction of risk over and above that of BMI. Prevalence of obesity varies amongst countries depending upon environmental and behavioral changes brought about by economic development, modernization and urbanization. The variation in prevalence of obesity epidemic in various races and communities of the world may be attributed to heredity, age, sex, diet, eating patterns, life style and/or behavior. The prevalence of obesity is minimum in China (3.8%) and Singapore (6.7%) and maximum in Micronesian Island of Naru (85% for male and 93% for female). In Pakistan, the prevalence is 7-8%. Obesity develops as a result of a complex interaction between a person`s genes and the environment characterized by long-term energy imbalance due to excessive caloric consumption, insufficient energy out put (sedentary lifestyle, low resting metabolic rate) or both. Diet and life style play a significant role both in development and control of obesity. A virus Ad-36 found in obese individuals may be an additional factor to the escalating prevalence of obesity.
  Mahpara Safdar , Alam Khan , Muhammad Muzaffar Ali Khan Khattak and Mohammad Siddique
  The effect of cinnamon doses on blood serum glucose was studied in type 2 diabetic individuals for 60 days. Sixty type 2 diabetic individuals of both sexes and of age 48±6.5 years were divided into 6 groups; each group was having 10 individuals. Groups 1, 2 and 3 were assigned for 1g, 3g and 6g cinnamon doses/day respectively. Groups 4, 5 and 6 were assigned for 1g, 3g and 6g placebo doses/day respectively. The doses were equally distributed over the day. Cinnamon and placebo were given in the form of capsules with breakfast, lunch and dinner. The doses were given for 40 days and after 40 days; there was a 20 days blank period. Fasting blood samples were taken on days 0 (starting day of the experiment) 20, 40 and 60 and blood serums were separated. The blood serum glucose of both the cinnamon and placebo groups were determined. The mean fasting serum glucose levels for cinnamon doses on days 0, 20, 40 and 60 were 208.7, 189.1, 156.5 and 176.6 mg/dl for 1 g cinnamon dose/day; 206.2, 178.4, 170.3 and 177.8 mg/dl for 3 g cinnamon dose/day and 233.9, 183.2, 166.4 and 205.7 mg/dl for 6 g cinnamon dose/day respectively. The cinnamon doses significantly (P<0.05) reduced the mean fasting serum glucose levels while the placebo doses did not affect the serum glucose levels. In the light of this research, it is recommended that Type 2 diabetic individuals should use 1-3g cinnamon in their food preparations on regular basis. They can use cinnamon shakers for sprinkling of cinnamon powder on the curry in the plate. They can prepare cinnamon tea without sugar and can use it after meals. Also they can chew cinnamon bark after meals. This will keep their sugar level near to normal values.
  Aien Khan Afridi , Mohammad Siddique , Mahpara Safdar and Alam Khan
  Five major approaches namely dietary, exercise, behavior, combination and pharmacy therapies are used for treatment and control of obesity. In dietary therapy, low-calorie diet (LCD), which provides 800 to 1500 kcal of energy daily; a very-low-calorie diet (VLCD), which provides 250-800 kcal of energy daily and an energy-restricted or hypo caloric diet (HCD), which is based on a person`s estimated daily energy requirement. LCDs can reduce total body weight by an average of 8 percent and help reduce abdominal fat content over a period of approximately 6 months. VLCDs are not recommended for weight loss therapy because the deficits are too great, and nutritional inadequacies will occur unless VLCDs are supplemented with vitamins and minerals. Regular exercise/physical activity should be an integral part of weight loss therapy and weight maintenance. A daily regimen of 30-45 minutes of walking, bicycling or working around the house conveys physical activity`s positive effects on the muscolo-skeletal, cardiovascular, respiratory and endocrine systems, reduces risk of premature mortality, coronary heart disease, hypertension, colon cancer and diabetes. Exercise should be initiated slowly, and the intensity should be increased gradually; starting from small tasks of daily living such as taking the stairs or walking or swimming at a slow pace leading to the more strenuous activities like brisk walking, cycling, exercise, rope jumping and Jogging. Behavior therapy provides methods for overcoming barriers to compliance with dietary and exercise therapies. Combined intervention of an LCD, increased physical activity, and behavior therapy provides the most successful therapy for weight loss and weight maintenance. Islamic way of life (directional eating) and lifestyle (worship schedule) is the most efficient method for prevention and control of obesity and is one of the best example of combination of diet and exercise therapies. Pharmacotherapy or medication should be the last approach for obesity control.
  Mahpara Safdar , Alam Khan and Habibullah
  The effect of jaman fruit extract on glucose and lipid was studied in 10 type 2 diabetic individuals of both sexes for 12 days. Whole jaman fruit extract was prepared in distilled water. The insoluble residue was separated by filtration. Two gram potassium-metabisulphite and 30 g citric acid/L was added to the extract as preservatives. The extract was stored at room temperature for use. Ninety ml extract was given to the diabetic subjects in 3 doses per day after breakfast, lunch and dinner. Fasting blood samples were collected from the subjects on day 0, during the experiment (days 4 and 8) and 4 days after the stoppage of jaman extract (day 12). Serum glucose, TGL, total, HDL and LDL cholesterol were determined. After consumption of jaman extract, there was decrease in serum glucose in some individuals but not significant. Similar pattern was observed in serum TGL. Total cholesterol was decreased, but non-significantly. Also LDL was non-significantly decreased. HDL was not affected. The serum glucose, total cholesterol and LDL were lower on day 12, when the individuals were not using jaman extract, than the values for these parameters on day 0, when the individuals had not started yet the intake of jaman extract, making a clue that the extract effect may be appearing after some time. The results of this study are not conclusive, may be due to the preservatives used or short experimental period. Studies on jaman extract without preservatives and for longer durations are suggested.
  M. Abdul Alim Al-Bari , Alam Khan , M. Robiul Islam , M. Kudrat-E-Zahan , M.M. Sazedur Rahman , M. Anwar Ul Islam and M. Ashik Mosaddik
  The aim of the present study was to investigate the antimicrobial activities of ethyl acetate extracts against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and fungi. An attempt has been made to investigate the indigenous drugs of choice in infectious diseases for mitigation of suffering of the vast masses of humanity. The organism, Streptomyces bangladeshiensis was isolated from a soil sample collected from Natore, Bangladesh at the depth of 0.75 m using crowded plate technique. The maximum secretion of metabolites from the strain was found at the 7th day of incubation in Czapek Dox broth (alkaline pH 8.5) medium at 32.5°C by maintaining the physicochemical factors in optimum level for the culture. In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility was determined as per National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards guidelines and serial dilution technique for the determination of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of extracts. Ethyl acetate extract from a new actinomycetes, Streptomyces bangladeshiensis, showed good antibacterial and antifungal activities against a total of 14 bacteria (5 gram positive plus 9 gram negative) and 8 fungi. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC) were determined and found to be 16 μg mL-1 against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella dysenteriae and Aspergillus flavus while 32 μg mL-1 against Salmonella typhi, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. Present data shows that all the pathogenic microorganisms (Gram positive and negative bacteria and fungi) showed a substantial sensitivity towards the crude extract. But further work is necessary in order to establish the individual antibiotics present of this isolated compound.
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