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Articles by Agus Susanto
Total Records ( 6 ) for Agus Susanto
  Caribu Hadi Prayitno , Suwarno , Agus Susanto and Anuraga Jayanegara
  Background and Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate supplementation of garlic (Allium sativum) extract and organic minerals (1.5 ppm organic Cr, 0.3 ppm organic Se and 40 ppm Zn-lysinat) on milk yield, milk quality and feed digestibility of lactating dairy cows. Materials and Methods: Fifteen multiparous, one month pre-partum Friesian Holstein cows with an average body weigth of 638±72 kg were used as the experimental units and therefore, there were 5 replicates for each treatment. The cows were fed with a Total Mixed Ration (TMR) consisted of Napier grass: Concentrate mixture (60:40 w/w, dry matter basis) as the basal diet. The experiment was conducted with three treatments, namely control feed (CTL), control feed+Organic Minerals (OM) and OM+garlic extract (OM-G). Variables measured were nutrient intake, nutrient digestibility, milk yield and milk composition. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance with a completely randomized design. Results: Supplementation of garlic extract significantly influenced the digestibility of Crude Fiber (CF), Neutral Detergent Fiber (NDF ), milk yield and milk efficiency (p<0.05). However, the supplementation had no effect on nutrient intake (dry matter, organic matter and total digestible nutrient) and milk composition (fat, protein, lactose and solid non-fat). Supplementation of garlic extract and organic mineral resulted in better feed digestibility, milk production and milk efficiency than those of the control diet and control diet supplemented with organic mineral (p<0.05). Conclusion: Supplementation of combined garlic extract and organic mineral (Se, Cr and Zn) in dairy cows increases feed digestibility, milk production and milk efficiency.
  Luqman Hakim , Agus Susanto and Agus Budiarto
  Background and Objective: Recording linear traits in a dairy breeding program by scoring the traits have become a more common practice in developed countries where certified classifiers are available. Estimating the genetic parameters of linear traits (measured directly on the animals) of Holstein cows population raised by BBPTUHPT Baturraden of Indonesia was the aim of this paper. Materials and Methods: A total 323 lactating primiparous Holstein cows were measured for 6 linear traits (angularity, stature, body depth, rump angle, rump width and chest width) and 6,961 animals in the pedigree were included. The systematic environmental factors included month and year of birth. The variance component analysis was performed by using Restricted Maximum Likelihood Method (REML) incorporated in DMU program. Results: The means of stature, angularity, chest width, body depth, rump angle and rump width were all within intermediate category. The heritability estimates of the corresponding linear traits ranged from small to medium where angularity and rump width had the lowest and highest heritability, respectively. The phenotypic correlations were very low and varied where angularity-rump width and angularity-rump angle are having the smallest and biggest coefficient of correlation, respectively. The genetic correlation were also very low and varied being chest width-angularity and rump angle-angularity to have the smallest and highest coefficient of correlation. Conclusion: The new approach of recording the linear traits by measuring directly the traits is possible with reasonable variability. The considerable magnitude of heritabilities indicates that the traits will respond to a selection program incorporating those linear traits. The nearly zero estimates of the correlations could be improved by using a more complete pedigree file in the analysis.
  Ismoyowati , Sukardi and Agus Susanto
  This study was aimed to evaluate the genetic diversity based on phenotype and the genetic relationship between four kinds of Kedu chicken, using 4 microsatellite markers. The result from the phenotype observations showed that the four chicken breeds have qualitatively different plumage, skin, comb and shank colours. Cemani chickens’ have lower egg production than others. The results from the isolation and identification of DNA using microsatellite primers showed that the 4 primers were polymorphics. The highest polymorphic information contain values based on locus derived from the entire population was LEI 0147 (0.643), while the average polymorphic information contain value on each population were 0.362, 0.531, 0.482 and 0.568 for Cemani, white Kedu, red Kedu and black Kedu chickens, respectively. Estimation of the heterozygosity value on loci of different populations of Kedu chickens showed a large variation (0.618-0.743). Genetic distance analysis showed that among Kedu chickens had a genetic relationship ranging from 0.018 to 0.236. The conclusion was that the genetic diversity based on chicken phenotypes and based on microsatellite markers in the population of Kedu chickens indicated a high diversity and had a relatively distant genetic relationship.
  Agus Susanto , Erika B. Laconi , Dewi Apri Astuti and Syamsul Bahri
  The objective of the study was to evaluate and compare the efficiency of glucomannan extracted from Amorphophallus oncophyllus (GRE) with commercial aflatoxin binder glucomannan yeast product (GYP) in broiler chicken fed aflatoxin contaminated feed. A total of 63 one day old chicks were assigned to 9 equal groups according to dietary treatments: A (basal feed), B (basal feed+aflatoxin 50 μg/kg), C (basal feed+aflatoxin 2 mg/kg), D (basal feed+aflatoxin 50 μg/kg+GYP 1 g/kg), E (basal feed+aflatoxin 50 μg/kg+GRE 1 g/kg), F (basal feed+aflatoxin 50 μg/kg+GRE 2 g/kg), G (basal feed+aflatoxin 2 mg/kg+GYP 1 g/kg), H (basal feed+aflatoxin 2 mg/kg+GRE 1 g/kg) and I (basal feed+aflatoxin 2 mg/kg+GRE 2 g/kg). The body weight decreased significantly (p<0.05) with the inclusion of aflotoxins in the diet at 2 mg/kg diet. Both GYP and GRE were found almost equally effective in combating the negative impact by improving the body weights. Feed intake and FCR of birds fed basal diet with aflatoxin at 2 mg/kg decreased significantly (p<0.05) when compared to the control. Supplementation of both GYP and GRE improved the feed intake and FCR of broiler chicken. Aflatoxins at 2 mg/kg (group C) significantly (p<0.05) decreased PCV but not at 50 μg/kg level. GYP and GRE supplementation helped to overcome the negative effect of aflatoxin by increasing PCV compared to group C. There was no significant (p>0.05) effect on Hb, MCHC and glucose levels among various treatment groups. The weight of liver varied significantly (p<0.05) among the treatment groups but no change in heart, spleen and kidney weights were observed. The highest increase in the relative weight of liver was seen in the group fed aflatoxins at 2 mg/kg level. Supplementation GYP and GRE helped in reducing the liver enlargement effect of aflatoxins. In conclusion, GRE proved to be an effective alternative to GYP particularly at the rate of 2 mg/kg in providing protection against aflatoxin contaminated feed in broiler chicken.
  Ismoyowati , Agus Susanto , Dattadewi Purwantini , Elly Tugiyanti and Aziz Noor Awalludin
  Background and Objective: The body shape or morphological characteristics of Muscovy ducks are determined by the length of the femur, tibia, tarsometatarsus, tarsometatarsus circumference, 3rd-digit, wings and maxilla. Identification of the feather color of Muscovy ducks is important because feather color determines the physical quality of the carcass and affects the level of consumer preference. The aim of this research was to assess the genetic variation of native Indonesian Muscovy ducks based on morphometric traits and gene sequence variation of Melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) and its genotypic association with different feather colors. Methodology: Two hundred day-old Muscovy ducks consisting of the white and white-black feather color combination in the same proportion between male and female ducks were included in the study. Differences in body weight and morphometric measurements among the groups were evaluated by ANOVA with Systat version 13. Primer design used Clustal X, based on Cairina moschata MC1R gene, partial cds (KX013541.1) from the GenBank database, the primary forward sequence: 5’-GCTCTTCATGCTGCTGATGG-’3 and reverse primer: 5’-GATGAAGACGGTGCTGGAGA-’3. Results: The male Muscovy ducks have larger morphometric features than females. Male Muscovy ducks with the white-black feather color combination had the heaviest body weight. A general linear F-test analysis separately showed that only the neck length, length of third digit and sex significantly affected the animals' body weight. The identification of feather color of Muscovy ducks showed that there are variations within a group of white-black feather color combination of Muscovy ducks. Feather color variation was observed on the head, wings, breast, tail and plumage. The sequencing of PCR products resulted in nucleotide polymorphism. The GG genotype was observed in 293 nt in the white-black population and the CC genotype was observed in white-black and white feather colors in both male and female Muscovy ducks. Conclusion: Muscovy ducks with the white-black feather color combination had heavier body weights than those with the white feather color. The neck length can be used to predict the body weight of Muscovy ducks. Muscovy ducks had a variety of feather colors ranging from white to the white-black color combination. The MC1R gene polymorphism was observed in Muscovy ducks. Muscovy ducks with the white-black feather color grow faster and their live weight can be estimated by neck length.
  Yurnaliza , I Nyoman Pugeg Aryantha , Rizkita Rachmi Esyanti and Agus Susanto
  Ganoderma boninense is a major pathogen in oil palm plantations which easily infects basal stems and thus it is difficult to be eradicated. Fungal endophytes from healthy oil palm tissues can be used as biological control agents in host plants against G. boninense. For selecting the antagonist candidates against G. boninense, a simple method of dual culture assay was used. A total of 526 endophytic fungi were isolated from 531 oil palm segments in three of plantations location in Medan, North Sumatera province of Indonesia i.e. Kuala Bekala (KB), Medan Tuntungan (MT) and Medan Johor (MJ). Overall, fungal isolation rate in oil palm segments was 0.99 and colonization rate was 77.2% and the highest being found in the KB plantation. From different sample parts, we found that palm leaf midrib had the highest value of colonization and isolation rate. Based on six categories in qualitative dual culture assay, 53 isolates showed a high antagonism effect to G. boninense, twenty two of which were found to have a Colony Growth Inhibition (% CGI) value of more than 80%. Further studies showed that all 22 isolates exhibited a chitinolytic activity on Coloidal Chitin Bromcresol purple (CCBp) assay while only ten (crude extract of liquid culture) inhibited mycelial colony of G. boninense. From microscopic observation, fungal endophytes attached themselves to the hyphae of G. boninense at the interaction zone and causing hypae abnormalities to the pathogen. Almost all selected fungal endophytes potential to be biocontrol agents against G. boninense belong to the Genera of Trichoderma.
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