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Articles by Adrian S. Ray
Total Records ( 2 ) for Adrian S. Ray
  Adrian S. Ray , Jennifer E. Vela , Constantine G. Boojamra , Lijun Zhang , Hon Hui , Christian Callebaut , Kirsten Stray , Kuei-Ying Lin , Ying Gao , Richard L. Mackman and Tomas Cihlar
  GS-9131 is a phosphonoamidate prodrug of the novel ribose-modified phosphonate nucleotide analog GS-9148 that demonstrates potent anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) activity and an excellent resistance profile in vitro. Prodrug moieties were optimized for the efficient delivery of GS-9148 and its active diphosphate (DP) metabolite to lymphoid cells following oral administration. To understand the intracellular pharmacology of GS-9131, incubations were performed with various types of lymphoid cells in vitro. The intracellular accumulation and antiviral activity levels of GS-9148 were limited by its lack of cellular permeation, and GS-9131 increased the delivery of GS-9148-DP by 76- to 290-fold relative to that of GS-9148. GS-9131 activation was saturable at high extracellular concentrations, potentially due to a high-affinity promoiety cleavage step. Once inside the cells, GS-9148 was efficiently phosphorylated, forming similar amounts of anabolites in primary lymphoid cells. The levels of GS-9148-DP formed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells infected with HIV-1 were similar to that in uninfected PBMCs, and approximately equivalent intracellular concentrations of GS-9148-DP and tenofovir (TVF)-DP were required to inhibit viral replication by 90%. Once it was formed, GS-9148-DP was efficiently retained in activated CD4+ cells, with a half-life of 19 h. In addition, GS-9131 showed a low potential for drug interactions with other adenine nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors, based on the lack of competition for anabolism between suprapharmacologic concentrations of GS-9148 and TVF and the lack of activity of GS-9131 metabolites against purine nucleoside phosphorylase, an enzyme involved in the clearance of 2`,3`-dideoxyinosine. Together, these observations elucidate the cellular pharmacology of GS-9131 and illustrate its efficient loading of lymphoid cells, resulting in a prolonged intracellular exposure to the active metabolite GS-9148-DP.
  Tomas Cihlar , Adrian S. Ray , Constantine G. Boojamra , Lijun Zhang , Hon Hui , Genevieve Laflamme , Jennifer E. Vela , Deborah Grant , James Chen , Florence Myrick , Kirsten L. White , Ying Gao , Kuei-Ying Lin , Janet L. Douglas , Neil T. Parkin , Anne Carey , Rowchanak Pakdaman and Richard L. Mackman
  GS-9148 [(5-(6-amino-purin-9-yl)-4-fluoro-2,5-dihydro-furan-2-yloxymethyl)phosphonic acid] is a novel ribose-modified human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) nucleotide reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitor (NRTI) selected from a series of nucleoside phosphonate analogs for its favorable in vitro biological properties including (i) a low potential for mitochondrial toxicity, (ii) a minimal cytotoxicity in renal proximal tubule cells and other cell types, (iii) synergy in combination with other antiretrovirals, and (iv) a unique resistance profile against multiple NRTI-resistant HIV-1 strains. Notably, antiviral resistance analysis indicated that neither the K65R, L74V, or M184V RT mutation nor their combinations had any effect on the antiretroviral activity of GS-9148. Viruses carrying four or more thymidine analog mutations showed a substantially smaller change in GS-9148 activity relative to that observed with most marketed NRTIs. GS-9131, an ethylalaninyl phosphonoamidate prodrug designed to maximize the intracellular delivery of GS-9148, is a potent inhibitor of multiple subtypes of HIV-1 clinical isolates, with a mean 50% effective concentration of 37 nM. Inside cells, GS-9131 is readily hydrolyzed to GS-9148, which is further phosphorylated to its active diphosphate metabolite (A. S. Ray, J. E. Vela, C. G. Boojamra, L. Zhang, H. Hui, C. Callebaut, K. Stray, K.-Y. Lin, Y. Gao, R. L. Mackman, and T. Cihlar, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 52:648-654, 2008). GS-9148 diphosphate acts as a competitive inhibitor of RT with respect to dATP (Ki = 0.8 µM) and exhibits low inhibitory potency against host polymerases including DNA polymerase γ. Oral administration of GS-9131 to beagle dogs at a dose of 3 mg/kg of body weight resulted in high and persistent levels of GS-9148 diphosphate in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (with a maximum intracellular concentration of >9 µM and a half-life of >24 h). This favorable preclinical profile makes GS-9131 an attractive clinical development candidate for the treatment of patients infected with NRTI-resistant HIV.
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