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Articles by A.Y. Adenkola
Total Records ( 7 ) for A.Y. Adenkola
  A.Y. Adenkola and J.O. Ayo
  Experiments were performed on 40 indigenous turkeys with the aim of investigating, fluctuations in their rectal temperature (RT) and the effect of ascorbic acid (AA) on during the hot-dry season. Twenty turkeys which served as experimental birds were administered AA orally at the dose of 52 mg kg-1, while the remaining 20 turkeys which served as control were given ordinary water. Measurements of RT were taken for 3 days, one week apart and every hour from 06:00-19:00 h. The results showed that RT values in both experimental and control turkeys significantly (p<0.01) fluctuated with the hours of the day (r = 0.614, 0.612, respectively) and the dry-bulb temperature (r = 0.794, 0.928, respectively). The RT value of 41.2±0.03oC recorded in experimental turkeys was significantly lower (p<0.05) than the corresponding value of 41.5±0.03 °C obtained in control turkeys. The results demonstrated that AA significantly reduced RT values in experimental turkeys. In conclusion, AA administration may be of value in turkeys subjected to unavoidable stressful conditions during the hot-hours of the day.
  C.D. Tuleun , S.Y. Igyem and A.Y. Adenkola
  A feeding trial was conducted with two hundred and twenty four one week old quail chicks to study the optimum inclusion level of toasted mucuna seed meal in a practical quail diet. Four isonitrogenous (24% crude protein) diets incorporating graded levels (0, 5, 10 and 15) of toasted mucuna seed meal were formulated and fed for 42 days in a completely randomized design. The chicks were divided into four treatment groups, each group replicated two times with 28 chicks per replicate. A group each was allotted to one of the four isonitrogenous diets. The performance, nutrient digestibility, carcass quality and visceral organs and haematological parameters were evaluated. Feed intake, weight gain, feed/gain ratio and nutrient digestibility did not differ significantly (P>0.05) across the treatments. The haematological parameters of quails fed the mucuna diets were not significantly different (P>0.05) compared to those on control diet. Likewise the inclusion of toasted mucuna seed meal in the diets did not cause significant disproportionate growth in carcass quality and visceral organs. It was concluded that toasted mucuna seed meal can be included up to 15% level in practical diets of growing Japanese quail.
  O.I.A. Oluremi , F.N. Okafor , A.Y. Adenkola and K.T. Orayaga
  A 5-week feeding trial to determine the effect of fermentation of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) fruit peel on its maize replacement value in broiler starter diet was conducted. Sweet orange fruit peels were collected from peeled orange sellers and divided into three portions. The first portion was not fermented (SP0), while the second and third portions were fermented for 24hrs (SP24) and 48hrs (SP48), respectively. They were separately sun-dried, milled and samples screened and analyzed for phytonutrients. Four different diets namely the control (CD) and three test diets SP0D, SP24D and SP48D in which SP0, SP24D and SP48 replaced maize in the control diet (CD) at 30% level in that order were compounded. Seven-day old one hundred and twenty Anak 2000 broiler chicks were randomly assigned to these diet groups to evaluate their performance. There was a decrease in the concentration of each of oxalate, flavonoid, tannin, saponin and phytate detected in the peels as the duration of fermentation increased from 0 to 48hrs. Thirty percent replacement of maize by the fermented sweet orange fruit peel meal depressed body weight gain (p<0.01), feed intake (p<0.05) and live weight (p<0.01) of broiler starter. The fermentation technique used in this study did not improve the nutritive value of the sweet orange fruit peels to enhance its suitability as a feed resource in broiler starter production.
  C.D. Tuleun , A.Y. Adenkola and M.M. Okenyi
  A study was conducted to examine the comparative inclusion of graded levels (0, 10, 15 and 20%) of cooked and toasted mucuna seed meal in the diets of broiler chickens. Maize-soybean diet served as the control. About 147 unsexed Anak strain 7 days old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to the seven dietary treatments and each treatment was replicated 3 times. The experiment lasted 9 weeks. Feed and water were supplied ad libitum throughout the experimental period. At the end of the experiment, three birds were randomly selected from each dietary replicate and slaughtered for carcass and haematology evaluation. Results showed no significant difference in all performance parameters studied. Carcass weights of birds fed the control diet and the diets with cooked or toasted mucuna seed meal were similar. The total red blood cell count, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration of broiler on the dietary cooked or toasted mucuna seed meal levels were statistically comparable (p>0.05) with the corresponding diet in the control diet. However, broiler on 15 and 20% inclusion levels of toasted mucuna seed meal had significantly higher packed cell volume and haemoglobin values while the lowest value (p<0.05) was recorded in the group placed on 10% cooked mucuna seed meal. Broilers on dietary toasted mucuna seed meal had similar total protein values with the birds on control diet. It was therefore, concluded that dietary inclusion level of 20% processed mucuna seed meal adequately supported the acceptable growth performance and normal haematology indices of broiler chickens.
  C.D. Tuleun , A.Y. Adenkola and K.T. Orayaga
  A 35 days feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of the fermentation of mucuna seed meal on broiler performance, carcass characteristics and haematology. One hundred and fifty 4 weeks old Anak 2000 broiler chicks were randomly assigned to four treatments, replicated 3 times with 10 birds each. Mucuna seeds were purchased from International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan, Nigeria. They were cleaned of dirt, cooked in water for 5 h, drained of water, packed hot in jute bags and covered with polythene films to naturally ferment for 48 h, thereafter sun-dried and milled for the feeding trial. Five isonitrogenous and isocalolic diets were formulated such that diet 1 (0%) contained no mucuna and served as the control while 2, 3, 4 and 5 contained 5, 10, 15 and 20% Fermented Mucuna Seed Meal (FMSM), respectively. The results showed that final body weight, daily weight gain, daily feed intake, protein intake, feed conversion and protein efficiency ratios were not significant (p>0.05) affected by the level of dietary inclusion of FMSM. There were significantly (p<0.05) differences in the protein conversion ratio but with no definite pattern. Percentage bled weight and relative weight of spleen of the broilers were significantly (p<0.05) higher in birds on FMSM diets compared with the control treatment. However, the carcass characteristics and other visceral organs did not differ significantly (p>0.05) across the dietary treatments. Packed cell volume and haemoglobin values were significantly (p<0.05) higher in broilers on 20% FMSM diets but the values fell within the acceptable range for healthy chickens. Dietary inclusion of FMSM at 20% produced a comparable performance with the control diet and had no adverse effect on organ and haematological parameters.
  A.Y. Adenkola , I.I. Luga , O.O. Agbede and J. Okpe
  The study was conducted with the aim of assessing the impact of harmattan season on the quality of beef and chevon Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria. About 88 samples consisting of 44 beef samples and 44 chevon samples were obtained between December 2010 and January 2011 which was considered the peak period of harmattan in Makurdi. Approximately 50 g of the meat sample was taken from each animal post slaughter into a sterile container where 10 g each from the meat sample was processed for determination of the pH values, total coliform count and anaerobic plate count. Approximately 5 mL of blood sample was also collected from each animal whose meat sample was collected. This was done during slaughtering and the blood was collected into a sample bottle containing 2 mg mL-1 of sodium salt of Ethylene Diaminetetra Acetic acid (NaEDTA) as an anticoagulant. The pH values of the beef samples ranged from 4.6-6.24 and the pH values of the chevon samples ranged from 5.0-6.5. The pH values of the beef samples were lower than that of the chevon samples. The total coliform plate count and anaerobic plate counts for the beef samples were higher than those of the chevon samples, indicating a higher contamination of the beef samples. The obtained PCV value of 33.78±0.83% in cattle was significantly (p<0.05) >27.24±0.89% recorded in goat while the haemoglobin concentration recoded in the goat was significantly (p<0.05) lower than the obtained value in cattle. Total erythrocyte count recorded in the goat was significantly (p<0.05) lower than that obtained in cattle. In conclusion harmatan season stressfully affects cattle and goat hence the quality of beef and chevon was compromised indicating that the goats were more stressed than the cattle during this season. It is therefore, recommended that minimal stress should be imposed on the animals intended to be slaughtered during this season in order to maintain the good and keeping quality of beef and chevron sample.
  L.D. Ojabo , A.Y. Adenkola and G.I. Odaudu
  This study investigated the feed value of dried sweet orange (Citrus sinesis) peel as a replacement for maize in rabbit diet. Twenty mixed breed male rabbit were used and randomly assigned to diets T1 (0%), T2 (20%), T3 (30%), T4 (40%) in which sweet orange peel replaced maize at 0, 20, 30 and 40%, respectively at the rate of five rabbits per dietary group. The rabbit were fed and provided drinking water ad libitum for the 8 weeks experimental duration. Feed intake and live weights were recorded weekly for each replicate and the relative cut-up parts were also determined. Feed conversion ratio from the data as quantity of feed per unit weight gain over the same period. At the end of the trial, the animals were slaughtered by the cut-throat method and dressed to determine the dressing percentage. During slaughtering 4 mL of blood sample was collected into bijou bottles containing the anticoagulant, disodium salt of ethylene diaminetetra-acetic acid at the rate of 2 mg mL-1 of blood for the determination of Packed Cell Volume (PCV), Haemoglobin concentration (Hb) total erythrocyte count and total leucocyte count and erythrocyte osmotic fragility. The performance indices, feed intake, body weight and feeds conversion ratio was not affected significantly (p<0.05) except water consumption and water feed ratio. None of the haematological parameters were significantly (p>0.05) affected. The performance and haematology of rabbits fed on sweet orange were not depressed. The study has shown that sun dried sweet orange peel can be used as a replacement feedstuff for maize in the ration of grower rabbit at a level of 40%, its optimal replacement level can only be determined by evaluating its effect at higher level of maize replacement in subsequent studies.
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