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Articles by A.U. Mani
Total Records ( 5 ) for A.U. Mani
  B.A. Usman , A.U. Mani , A.D. El - Yuguda and S.S. Diarra
  In order to study the development of Newcastle Disease (ND) in Japanese quail subjected to high ambient temperature with or without supplementation with ascorbic acid (AA), eighty 3 week-old Japanese quails were randomly allotted to four equal groups. Two of the groups were kept at room temperature (26 ±0.5 °C) with one supplemented with AA (RA) and the other receiving no AA (RO). The other two groups were kept at a continuous temperature of 41.8 ±0.6 °C with one of them supplemented with AA (HA) and other receiving no AA (HO). The group RO served as the control. Ascorbic acid was supplemented at the rate of 1000mg/kg feed. Twelve birds in each of four groups were challenged oculonsally with a pigeon isolate of velogenic ND virus and the rest left as in contact. Morbidity rate was 100% in all challenged and in contact birds except in the incontact of the group supplemented with AA which recorded 50%. One hundred percent mortality was recorded in heat stressed groups irrespective of AA supplementation while 0% and 50% mortality was recorded in those kept at room temperature with or without AA supplementation respectively. None of the unchallenged in contact birds died in any of the groups. Lesions of ND in the experimentally infected quails were characterized by pathological lesions. The results of haemagglutination inhibition test performed on blood samples of all birds on days 0, 7, 14 and 21 post inoculations indicated no effect of heat treatment or AA supplementation on the humoral immune response of the Japanese quail. It was concluded that prolonged high ambient temperature has detrimental effects on the survival of Japanese quail with AA supplementation having some ameliorating effects. High ambient temperature may not adversely affect the humoral immune response of Japanese quail to Newcastle disease and AA may not be an important factor in the resistance of quails exposed to prolonged high ambient temperature to ND virus infection.
  B.A. Usman , A.U. Mani and O.B. Muyiwa
  A study to determine the effects of dietary supplementation with ascorbic acid on blood parameters, egg production and quality in quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica)subjected to heat stress was conducted. Forty eight adult female quail were divided into 6 equal groups (A to F) and fed ad-libitum on either commercial layers mash ration (Groups A and D), layers mash supplemented with 200mg (Groups B and E) or 1000mg per kilogram ascorbic acid (Groups C and F). From the day treatment with Ascorbic acid started, Groups A, B and C were exposed to high temperature of about 38 °C for about 8 hours a day for two weeks. Daily feed and water consumption, egg production and quality and blood parameters were measured. By the end of the second week, feed consumption was higher in groups that were not subjected to heat stress (Groups D, E and F) than in those subjected to heat stress (Groups A, B and C). There was however no significant difference in feed consumption between birds treated with the two levels of ascorbic acid (AA) and those that were not, in both heat stressed and non stressed groups. Birds in heat stressed groups given ascorbic acid supplementation consumed more water than those not given any ascorbic acid. There was also no significant difference in weight of birds, egg production and egg weight between the groups except in birds that were not heat stressed and treated with 1000g ascorbic acid whose eggs were significantly heavier (P < 0.05). No significant difference was also observed in the mean egg weight between quail that were neither exposed to high temperatures nor treated with AA (Group D) and those that were exposed to high temperatures only (Group A), treated with AA only (Groups E and F) and exposed to high temperatures and treated with AA (Groups B and C). Following one week of the experiment, birds that were not exposed to heat stress but treated with 1000mg of AA (Group F) had heavier eggs (P< 0.05) than those that were heat stressed and given no AA (Group A) (P< 0.05) and those that were heat stressed and given 200mg AA (Group B) (P< 0.05). After 2 weeks of experiment however, eggs from birds in Groups E and F were significantly heavier (P< 0.01; P< 0.001) than those from Group A. Birds exposed to heat stress and given 1000mg AA (Group C) had heavier eggs (P< 0.05) than those also exposed to heat stress but were not given AA (Group A). The eggs of birds exposed to heat stress and not given AA (Group A) were also significantly lighter (P< 0.05) than those also not given AA but not expose to heat stress (Group D). Birds on heat stress given 200mg AA similarly had lighter eggs(P< 0.05) than those given the same level of AA but not heat stressed (Group E). There were no significant differences in the length and width of quail eggs between any of the six groups. Mean shell weight and thickness of quail eggs were however higher in birds given AA than in those not given but the differences were not significant except between birds in Group F and those in Group A (P< 0.01) and Group B (P< 0.01), respectively. No significant difference in internal egg quality as measured by Haugh unit was observed between any of the groups of the six groups. There was also no significant difference between any of the six groups in RBC count, Hb concentration, PCV%, MCV MCH, MCHC and WBC count except for a higher WBC count in Group F compared to Group A (P< 0.05). It was concluded that the quail appear to exhibit some level of heat resistance compared with other species of birds and also to benefit from ascorbic acid supplementation under hot environments; however, further studies would need to be undertaken.
  B.A. Usman , A.U. Mani and I.I. Garndawa
  A study to determine the effect of pre-incubation storage of the eggs of the Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) was conducted during the cool harmattan season in the north-east arid region (Sahel) of Nigeria. Eggs were collected daily from six-months-old quail and stored at room temperature (25-29 °C) for 0 to 20 days before incubation in an electric incubator. Eggs that failed to hatch were opened for determination of fertility and estimation of time of death of embryos. A total of 196 (29.3 %) eggs out of 668 incubated hatched successfully. The length of pre-incubation storage was negatively correlated (r = -0.91; P < 0.0001) with hatchability. The highest hatchability (72.3%) was obtained from eggs that were not stored (Day 0 of storage). Hatchability dropped sharply after storage for 9 days. No egg hatched following pre-incubation storage of over 11 days. Among the unhatched eggs, there were significantly more apparently infertile than fertile eggs (P < 0.0002). There was no relationship between pre-incubation length of storage and the proportion of embryos that died in early, middle or late incubation period. However, the proportion of the apparently infertile eggs increased with increasing length of pre-incubation storage (r = 0.95; P < 0.0001). No egg stored for 18 days or more was found to be apparently fertile. It was concluded that the length of pre-incubation storage has detrimental effect on hatchability of quail eggs in the Sahel area and that quail eggs for incubation should not be stored at room temperature for more than 9 days, even in the coolest season.
  M. Muhammad , L.U. Muhammad , A.U. Mani and A.G. Ambali
  A questionnaire-based survey was conducted to investigate chick mortality at hatching in three commercial hatcheries in and around Jos, central Nigeria. Mortality was defined as the sum of dead chicks, dead-in-shell embryos and culls due to various other reasons. There was a large variation in culling rates due to poor hatching. The major reasons for culling were dead-in-shell embryos, weak chicks, dead chicks, omphalitis and physical abnormalities such as incomplete feathering, weak limbs, distorted beaks and wetness. There was no significant correlation between the age of breeding flock and percentage of culls indicating that culling rate was not strongly influenced by the age of breeding flock. Although, factors contributing to poor hatching include management and incubation failures, the most probable cause of abnormalities, weak chicks and omphalitis are diseased breeder flocks or poor hygiene and sanitation in hatchery operations. Two of the hatcheries used a combination of formaldehyde and iodine for disinfection but hygiene standards were compromised due to inadequate cleaning in all three hatcheries. The poor hatch experienced in this study suggests that there is considerable room for improvement in hatchery operations particularly with regards to hygiene and sanitation. Adequate training of hatchery operators in understanding the crucial role hygiene plays in ensuring high chick quality is needed.
  M. Muhammad , L.U. Muhammad , A.G. Ambali and A.U. Mani
  A questionnaire-based survey was conducted to investigate early chick mortality and its causes during the first two weeks on small-scale poultry farms in Jos, central Nigeria. The survey covered layer and broiler farms procuring day-old chicks from three selected hatcheries. Flock sizes varied from 20 birds up to 2000. Average mortality was 10.4 per flock with a standard deviation of 14.4. As a percentage of flock size, mortality was 11.4% with a standard deviation of 18.8%. The major causes of mortality were stress, Pullorum disease and diarrhoea. There was no significant relationship (p = 0.01, R2 = 0.02) between flock size and mortality. There was also no significant relationship (p = 0.01, R2 = 0.04) between mortality and the breed of stock. Of farms experiencing mortalities, only 28.8% consulted a veterinarian for diagnosis and treatment. The other 71% self-diagnosed the problems and instituted treatment which included vitamin supplementation or antimicrobial therapy, with enrofloxacin and gentamycin being the most popular drugs. Medication without consultation with qualified veterinarians may result in the abuse and misuse of antibiotics with the attendant consequences of resistance and the occurrence of drug residues in poultry and poultry products. The wide-spread use of antibiotics in the study area is cause for concern from both a veterinary and public health point of view. Although factors responsible for early chick mortality are complex, information on chick mortality on small-scale farms can be used for the training of farmers on its control. A better understanding of the causes of mortality in the crucial first few weeks of the chick’s life may lead farmers to rely more on better management such as better hygiene and sanitation and less on antibiotics for problems encountered during the early brooding period.
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