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Articles by A.S. Sajap
Total Records ( 9 ) for A.S. Sajap
  M. Zakaria , M.N. Rajpar and A.S. Sajap
  The objective of this study was to examine the bird species diversity and feeding guilds in Paya Indah Wetland Reserve, Peninsular, Malaysia. Distance sampling-point count method was used to survey the bird species. A total of 13872 birds belonging to 100 species and 38 families were recorded. The results show that Treron vernans (12.42%), Pycnonotus goiavier (12.13%), Geopelia striata (7.58%), Porphyrio porphyrio (6.87%) and Streptopelia chinensis (6.33%) were the most dominant species in the area. The Ardeidae was the most dominant family with nine species and sixteen families were rarest only with one species each. The highest bird diversity was observed in Marsh swamp (Shannon’s N1 = 27.16), while the lowest was in Patchy shrubland (Shannon’s N1 = 22.51). The highest bird species richness was observed in Marsh swamp (Margalef’s R1 = 9.52), while the lowest was observed in open water bodies (Margalef’s R1 = 7.35). The evenness of individuals among the species was higher in Marsh swamps (Pielou J = 0.71) and lower in Patchy shrubland (Pielou J = 0.67). Analysis of variance and Tukey (HSD) tests showed that bird species among habitats is significantly different (F4, 495 = 8.82 p<0.0001). Feeding guilds indicated that insectivore was the most dominant group (37%), while Carnivore/Insectivore and Granivore were the least dominant groups (3% each) in all five habitats. This study clearly indicated that Paya Indah Wetland Reserve is highly important in providing food resources, shelter, nesting and roosting sites for wide range of bird species.
  S.H. Lee , P.S. H`ng , A.N. Lee , A.S. Sajap , B.T. Tey and U. Salmiah
  Pyroligneous acid which is one of the commercial sources for acetic acid can be produced from high temperature carbonization of lignocellulosic biomass. Acetic acid can be used as a wood preservative to discourage the growth of fungal and molds. However, at higher temperature, organic compounds especially acetic acid in pyroligneous acid degraded except for some phenols. Therefore, effectiveness pyroligneous acid that pyrolysed at different temperature as fungicide and insecticide for used as wood preservative was evaluated. Pyroligneous acids were derived from rubberwood, oil palm trunk and mix hardwood heated at temperature of 300, 400 and 500°C, respectively in an airless container. The yield of pyroligneous acids was calculated and the chemical compounds of the pyroligneous acid were analysed using Fourier Transform InfraRed (FT-IR). For the efficacy of pyroligneous acid tests, rubberwood test blocks were immersed in the pyroligneous acid for 24 h at room temperature. The treated rubberwood test blocks were later tested against mold (Penicillium sp.), white rot fungus (Pycnoporous sanguineus) and subterranean termites, (Coptotermes curvignathus) according to ASTM standard method. The result shows that highest pyroligneous acid yield was found during pyrolysed of lignocellulosic biomass at temperature of 500°C. All the rubberwood test blocks treated with pyroligneous acids were effective against the mold, white rot fungi and termites. Nonetheless, the pyrolysis temperature did not affect the effectiveness of pyroligneous acids against biological agents. Conclusively, pyroligneous acids effective for discourage the growth of mold and white rot fungi as well accelerate the mortality of termites in laboratory condition.
  S.H. Lee , P.S. H`ng , M.J. Chow , A.S. Sajap , B.T. Tey , U. Salmiah and Y.L. Sun
  Lignocellulosic biomass natural and abundantly available resource has been steadily gaining attention from relevant industries as feedstock for the production of chemicals, fuels and biocompatible materials due to increased concern in economic and environmental issues. The potential of being converted into usable chemicals which pyroligneous acids is one of the chemicals from the distillation of smoke generated during charcoal making. It was found to be potential use as bio-preservative due to the complexity of its chemical compounds. In Northern Malaysia, there are 336 charcoal making kilns, with a total production of around 3, 500 tonnes of charcoal and sales of about RM3 million (USD808, 300) per month. Thus, chemicals recovery from the vapours released during charcoal making could lead to a flourishing industry. This study focuses on development of pyroligneous acid as bio-preservative against wood biodegradable agents. Pyroligneous acids derived from Rhizophora and Bambusa at 300-400°C. The chemical compounds were then analysed using Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR). For the efficacy of pyroligneous acid test, rubberwood test block was immersed in pyroligneous acid for 24 h at room temperature. Treated rubberwood test block were later tested against mold (Penicillium sp.), white rot fungus (Pycnoporous sanguineus) and subterranean termites (Coptotermes curvignathus) according to ASTM standard methods. Results showed that pyroligneous acids treated test blocks were effective against mold for the surface coverage area and white rot decay in the weight loss but not effective against termiticidal activity. It was concluded that pyroligneous acid could be used as fungicide but not as insecticide.
  F. Abood , G.A. Bajwa , Y.B. Ibrahim and A.S. Sajap
  Seven isolates of Beauveria bassiana were screened for pathogenicity and infectivity at a concentration of 5x107 conidia mL-1 against Atteva sciodoxa at 27±2°C and 75±5% relative humidity with 12 h photoperiod. Based on screening results, isolates Bba-Pp and FS-11 were further bioassayed at 1x106, 5x106 and 1x107 conidia mL-1. All the isolates were found to be pathogenic. However, the infectivity varied significantly among the isolates. The earliest mortality was recorded three days after inoculation. The most virulent isolate, Bba-Pp, caused 100% mortality with a median infective time (ET50) of 3.6 days on day seven following inoculation while FS-11 caused 83.3% mortality with an ET50 value of 4.1 days. Bba-Sl3 was the least infective isolate with 24.9% mortality and 15.3 days of median effective time. Mycelia appeared on 24 to 48 h old cadavers. The highest level of sporulation on two-week old cadavers was 150.6x105 Bba-Pp conidia mg-1 cadaver while the lowest was 12.23x105 Bba-Sl3 conidia. The median effective concentration (EC50) of Bba-Pp was 9.89x105 conidia mL-1 while that of FS-11 was 3.85x106 conidia mL-1. The ET50 values for 1x106 and 1x107 conidia mL-1 of Bba-Pp ranged between 7.0 and 4.4 days, respectively, while that of FS-11 were 10.3 and 5.8 days. A strong negative correlation was found between inoculum concentrations and food consumption (R2 = -0.99). The infection by Bba-Pp and FS-11 resulted in 55.8 to 72.5% reduction in food consumption by A. sciodoxa compared to the controls.
  Y.L. Cheong , A.S. Sajap , M.N. Hafidzi , D. Omar and F. Abood
  A field study on population of bagworms was carried out in oil palm, Elaeis guineensis, plantation at Hutan Melintang, Perak, Malaysia from October 2005 to April 2006. Sampling was conducted at 14 days interval. The result suggests bagworm infestation was not correlated with amount and distribution of rainfall as being claimed by many planters. The result also shows that Pteroma pendula (Lepidoptera: Psychidae) was the most dominant bagworm species among all of the bagworms recorded. Natural enemies, predators, parasitoids and some entomopathogenic fungi, contributed to mortality of the bagworms. Larvae of Callimerus arcufur (Coleoptera: Cleridae) were the most common predator attacking the bagworms. Cosmelestes picticeps (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) was also observed attacking P. pendula. Among three species of parasitoids, Dolichodenidea metasae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) was the most significant parasitoid of bagworm and this parasitoid commonly attacked by a hyperparasitoid, Pediobius imbrues (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Two species of entomopathogenic fungi, Peacilomyces fumosoroseus and Metarhizium ansopliae, were isolated from fungal-infected bagworms. Even though natural enemies were affecting the bagworm populations in the field and their resultant impact in controlling the bagworm populations in the field was still far from desirable.
  H. Nook Farikhah , A.S. Sajap and A.B. Idris Ghani
  A study on the abundance lacewing Glenochrysa sp. (Neuroptera:Chrysopidae) in a lowland dipterocarp forest at different stages of recovery after longing was carried out. The lacewings were sampled using sticky traps baited with eugenol. The traps were placed for one week at a three month interval over one year in a primary forest and forests of five and ten years after logging. The result shows that the abundance of Glenochrysa sp. varied with the stages of forest recovery after logging. The number Glenochrysa sp. was significantly higher in the logged over forests than in the primary forest. Even though the lacewing was present all year round, its abundance, however, was influenced by the composition of vegetation within the selected forests, availability of food resources as indicated homopteran abundance and amount of rainfall.
  Idris A. B. , A.Y. Paul , B.A.H. Zainal Abidin , A.S. Sajap and A.K. Hussan
  T.L. Peng , A.S. Sajap , L.H. Jeen , S.H. Lee and W.C. Lum
  One species of lace bug Cochlochila bullita Stål (Heteroptera: Tingidae) was found heavily infested Orthosiphon aristatus Blume Miq., an important medicinal plant in Malaysia. A morphological re-description of C. bullita was done in order to facilitate the identification of this oligophagous insect pest. Five variables, body length and width, antenna length, tibia length and head width were measured from 15 samples from each stage. Among these variables, body length and width were used to construct the ratio for species identification; while body lengths with the other three variables were used to distinguish the nymphs from each developmental stage. The measurements of four traits except the antenna length showed significant differences between the development stages. And thus suggest the body width, tibia length and head width were suitable parameters used to distinguish the nymphal stages. However, the result on the growth factor showed only the sizes of the head followed a more constant growth rate with growth ratios (1.21-1.39) lie between the Dyar’s ratio. Body length and width ratio for the adult female and male was 1.51±0.00 and 1.59±0.01, respectively. These data are pertinent for identifying developmental stages and to distinguish the species of the lace bug.
  A.B. Idris and A.S. Sajap
  The abundance of scuttle fly (phorid flies) was studied in the selected forest habitats of Peninsular Malaysia in 1996 and 2000, respectively. The scuttle flies were more abundant in the undisturbed than in the disturbed forests. A total of 26-phorid genera were collected and this was estimated to be 11.4% of the total phorid genera worldwide. This study also successfully collected 21.7% (12 genera) of the total genera recorded from Oriental and Australasian region (55 genera) and 33.3% (5) of the total genera recorded from Malaysia (15). The individuals of genera Megaselia and Woodiphora were the most abundant as compared to other 24 genera recorded. The ratio for the total Megaselia to Woodiphora (M:W) individuals indicated that the less disturbed forests had higher M:W ratio than the more disturbed forests. The potential of Megaselia and Woodiphora to be used as biological indicator of forest disturbance are discussed.
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