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Articles by A.S. Kiess
Total Records ( 9 ) for A.S. Kiess
  K.J. Barker , J.L. Purswell , J.D. Davis , H.M. Parker , M.T. Kidd , C.D. McDaniel and A.S. Kiess
  A common practice in the commercial broiler industry is to reuse litter over multiple broiler flocks. Over time the bacterial populations in the reused litter increases but how those organisms are spatially distributed throughout the litter bed is unclear. Therefore, the goal of this project was to investigate the distribution of bacteria at three different depths of litter. Litter samples were collected from three commercial broiler houses on three different farms. Four samples from each house were collected using clear PVC pipes which were driven through the litter bed to the clay floor. Each pipe was transported up-right to the lab, where they were cut into three sections (top, middle and bottom) exposing the litter for processing. Litter from each section was serially diluted in peptone and streaked onto either tryptic soy agar or Levin eosin methylene blue agar plates. Plates were incubated under the appropriate atmospheric condition for 24 h at 37oC. After 24 h, plates were counted for total aerobes, anaerobes and coliforms. Results of this study indicate a significant difference (p<0.05) in bacterial counts between the different sections of the litter. The middle and bottom sections had significantly lower anaerobe and coliform counts compared to the bacterial counts in the top sections. In conclusion, the results suggest that the middle and bottom section of litter provide a less favorable environment for bacterial growth than the top section.
  J.D. Davis , J.L. Purswell , E.P. Columbus and A.S. Kiess
  An alternative broiler litter to pine shavings may be switchgrass, a high yielding forage crop (8-12 tons per acre) that can grow across the Southeastern U.S. A study was conducted to determine the efficacy of chopped switchgrass as a litter material for broiler chickens. Pine Shavings (PS) and Switchgrass (SG) were used as litter treatments with 10 replications each. Body weight, body weight gain, feed consumption, feed conversion, carcass weights and mortality were not different between treatments. However, the incidence of foot pad dermatitis was significantly decreased with SG litter. Live performance and carcass weights were not affected by using chopped SG as a litter material when rearing broilers over a short duration (one flock cycle).
  J.B. Wells , C.D. Coufal , H.M. Parker , A.S. Kiess , K.M. Young and C.D. McDaniel
  Research has shown that exterior eggshell Aerobic Plate Counts (APC) are greatly decreased using a combination of Ultraviolet Light (UV) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). However, it is unknown how this treatment process would impact hatchability. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to determine if spraying eggs with 1.5% H2O2 followed by UV irradiation for 8 min to reduce eggshell APC would affect hatchability. Eggs from 3 commercial houses (57 wk-old broiler breeders) were collected over 2 d (n = 1,944 eggs). Half were treated with 1.5% H2O2 and UV and the other half served as untreated controls (18 eggs/ tray). At time of treatment, 1 egg was randomly selected from each of 108 trays (n = 54 per treatment) for eggshell APC enumeration on TSA. Remaining eggs were stored at 18.3oC. Prior to set, 1 egg per tray from d 1 of collection was sampled for APC enumeration. The 16 remaining eggs/tray were weighed prior to incubation and at 18 d to determine egg weight loss. At hatch (21.5 d), chick weights were obtained, meconium samples were collected from 18 chicks per incubator and samples were plated on TSA to determine the presence of intestinal microorganisms. A 3 log10CFU/egg reduction in eggshell APC was found for treated eggs when compared to control eggs. At hatch, no differences in chick weight, egg weight loss, positive meconium samples, or hatchability were observed between treatments. In conclusion, UV irradiation for 8 min with 1.5% H2O2 reduced eggshell APC on broiler breeder eggs with no affect on hatchability.
  J.B. Wells , C.D. Coufal , H.M. Parker , A.S. Kiess , J.L. Purswell , K.M. Young and C.D. McDaniel
  Previous research has indicated that a single exposure of eggs to Ultraviolet Light (UV) in combination with 3% hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) results in a greater reduction of eggshell microorganisms compared to eggs treated with either UV or H2O2 alone. The objective of this study was to determine if hatchability would be affected if eggs were treated by repeated applications of UV and H2O2. In the first experiment, eggs receiving H2O2 and UV light for 2 min 6 times yielded the greatest reduction in aerobic plate counts (5.3 log10CFU/egg) when compared to other treatment groups that utilized various repetitions of H2O2 and UV light. The second experiment determined the effect on hatchability when using this combination tested in Experiment 1. In Experiment 2, a 4 log10CFU/egg reduction in eggshell aerobic plate counts was observed for eggs treated with UV and H2O2 when compared to untreated control eggs. There were no differences in hatchability, hatch residue, chick weight, residual yolk weight, or egg weight loss between control and treated groups. In conclusion, multiple applications of UV and H2O2 effectively reduced aerobic microorganisms on the eggshell to low levels with no detrimental effects on broiler breeder egg hatchability or chick quality parameters.
  J.L. Purswell , J.D. Davis , B.D. Luck , E.J. Kim , H.A. Olanrewaju , A.S. Kiess and S.L. Branton
  Improvements in modern broiler housing have substantially reduced air leakage, making proper operation of ventilation systems critical to maintaining a suitable environment. Fuel prices have increased in recent years, leading to reduced minimum ventilation in order to conserve fuel which increases carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations within the house. Four trials were conducted to assess the effects of increased CO2 concentrations on birds aged 28 to 49 days. Each trial used 300 straight-run broilers placed in environmentally controlled rooms where CO2 concentrations were maintained with no added CO2 (control), 2500 ppm at all times, 2500 ppm (day) and 4500 ppm (night), or 2500 ppm (day) and 6500 ppm (night) from 28 to 42 days. No differences in live production (body weight, body weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion) or processing yields were observed. Analysis of ventilation rates to maintain the test conditions for a commercial broiler house showed that while supplemental heat requirements are lower with reduced ventilation needed to maintain either 4500 or 6500 ppm, the associated ventilation rates are inadequate for moisture removal.
  K.N. Eberle , J.D. Davis , J.P. Purswell , H.M. Parker , C.D. McDaniel and A.S. Kiess
  In 2009, the USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service announced the development of new pathogen reduction performance standards for Salmonella and Campylobacter both on-farm and in the processing plant. The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and distribution of Campylobacter in 3 newly constructed broiler houses for the first 4 flocks placed. Litter and fecal samples were collected from each house at 0, 28 and 48 d of production. Samples were serially diluted and spread onto Campy Cefex agar plates. Two 40 mL water samples were collected each production day and filtered through a 0.45 μm membrane before being placed onto a Campy Cefex agar plate. All plates were purged with a microaerophilic gas and incubated for 36 h at 42°C. Individual plates were screened for characteristic Campylobacter colonies and suspect colonies were confirmed using a latex agglutination kit. An additional 50 g of litter was collected from the evaporative cooling inlets, middle and tunnel ventilation fans to determine litter moisture and pH. Inside and outside temperatures were also collected. Out of 2300 litter, 900 fecal and 45 water samples, only 5, 6 and 1 of the collected samples, respectively, were confirmed Campylobacter positive. The middle of the house contained a higher litter moisture level (37%) than the evaporative cooling inlet end (33%) and tunnel ventilation fan end (34%) (p<0.05). Litter pH was not different across days, locations or flocks. Temperature averaged 26.8oC inside and 27.6oC outside. In conclusion, the newly constructed houses did not show a high prevalence of Campylobacter. Litter moisture was at levels conducive for Campylobacter growth. The high litter pH and low temperatures, along with other on-farm management strategies and the fact the broiler houses were brand new, may have suppressed Campylobacter’s ability to colonize the litter.
  D.L. Everett , Y. Vizzier-Thaxton , C.D. McDaniel and A.S. Kiess
  In addition to pine shavings, alternative litter sources for poultry bedding include sand, pine straw, or even peat moss. Peat moss has a high absorptive capacity and is naturally acidic, possibly making it a good poultry litter amendment. The objective of this study was to determine if microbial populations changed when different levels of peat moss were added to poultry litter. Experimental treatments included 0, 13 and 20% peat moss which were added to used pine shavings. A total of 216 male broilers (42 d) were separated into 18 pens (6 pens/3 treatments). Control litter samples (100 g) were collected prior to the addition of peat moss and birds (0 d); then litter samples from each pen were collected weekly thereafter for 3 wk. From each litter sample, 10 g was diluted in 90 ml of Buttersfield’s Phosphate and then serially diluted. For Tryptic soy agar, MacConkey agar and Sabouraud Dextrose agar, 100 μl of inoculums was plated in duplicate to detect aerobic bacteria, total coliforms and yeasts/molds, respectively. Plates were incubated aerobically for 24 h at 37°C and then counted. The results indicated that there were no differences between treatments for total aerobic bacterial counts. Initially, an increase in coliforms was detected in treatments that had peat added. By the second week coliforms were reduced in the peat treatments and a treatment by week interaction was detected (P = 0.012). The level of coliforms in litter which had peat added (13 or 20%) was 3.92 and 4.04 log cfu/g, respectively. For the control litter where no peat was added, coliforms were 5.43 log cfu/g of litter. Also a treatment by week interaction was detected for yeast and molds (P = 0.0025). Over each week of the experiment a decrease in the number of yeast and molds occurred in litter where peat was added. In week 1, yeast and molds were at 5.22 log cfu/g of litter in the control and 4.42 and 4.54 log cfu/g of litter in the 13 and 20% peat treatments, respectively. Week 2 the yeast and molds were 5.43 log cfu/g of litter in the control and 4.0 and 3.88 log cfu/g of litter for the 13 and 20% peat treatments, respectively. For, week 3 the yeast and molds were 6.03 log cfu/g of litter in the control and 4.82 and 3.72 log cfu/g of litter for the 13 and 20% peat treatments, respectively. In conclusion, the data demonstrates that the addition of peat moss may be a useful amendment for reducing bacteria, yeasts and molds in poultry litter. Overall, future studies should test the absorptive capacity of peat moss for trapping ammonia and changing the litter pH which could demonstrate how peat moss is actually reducing bacteria and yeast/mold growth in poultry litter.
  P. Santa Rosa , H.M. Parker , A.S. Kiess and C.D. McDaniel
  Parthenogenesis, embryos from unfertilized eggs, often exhibit delayed development at oviposition and throughout incubation at standard incubational temperature. Additionally, the first egg in a clutch sequence is more likely to exhibit parthenogenesis than subsequent eggs. Because the first egg in a clutch sequence stays in the hen’s body longer, it is possible that the temperature of the hen’s body accelerates parthenogenetic development. Increasing storage and incubational temperature may simulate the hen’s body temperature and increase the incidence of parthenogenesis. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine if storage and incubational temperatures impact parthenogenetic development in virgin Chinese Painted quail. Daily eggs were collected, labeled and divided among 3 different storage temperatures (20, 30 or 40°C). Eggs were incubated at 37°C for 10 d or 42°C for 48 h then returned to the standard incubational temperature of 37°C for the remaining 8 d of incubation. After 10 d of incubation, albumen pH and parthenogen size was measured for each egg. At an incubational temperature of 42°C, eggs stored at 20°C yielded the highest percentage of parthenogens. Also, eggs stored at 20°C and incubated at 42°C yielded the lowest albumen pH. As storage temperature increased, parthenogen size increased when eggs were incubated at 37°C. Also when eggs were stored at 30°C, embryo size was larger when incubated at 42°C for 48 h as compared to incubation at 37°C. In conclusion, elevated egg storage or incubational temperatures alter albumen pH, the incidence of parthenogenesis and the size of parthenogenetic embryos.
  M.D. Haines , H.M. Parker , C.D. McDaniel and A.S. Kiess
  Lactobacillus resides in the hen’s gastrointestinal tract, vagina and cloaca. When fed to hens, Lactobacillus has improved egg weight, size and shell strength. However, data from our lab suggests Lactobacillus may be detrimental to semen and possibly fertility. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine if semen exposed to Lactobacillus affected fertility in hens. For the experiment, semen was collected from 40 roosters and used to create 4 treatments: saline, broth, 103 cfu/mL of Lactobacillus and 106 cfu/mL of Lactobacillus. Each treatment was diluted 1:1 with pooled semen and sperm quality index readings were obtained prior to insemination. Eighty hens in each treatment were equally divided among 10 blocks and inseminated. Eggs were collected from 2 to 7 d post-insemination (DPI) and hens were artificial insemination again on DPI 8, eggs were collected for another 7 d. Eggs were incubated for 10 d, candled for fertility and a portion of the eggs were examined for Lactobacillus. The entire experiment was repeated twice. Semen quality was within the normal range for treatments 1, 2 and 3, but semen from treatment 4 was immotile before insemination. Additionally, 84% of the eggs from treatments 1, 2 and 3 were fertile; however, all eggs from treatment 4 were infertile. There was no difference between treatments for Lactobacillus counts in the yolk or on the shell. However, fertility and Lactobacillus shell counts declined over DPI. In conclusion, if Lactobacillus exceeds 106 cfu/mL in the hen or roosters reproductive tract, fertility could be impacted.
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