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Articles by A.S. Abdulamir
Total Records ( 16 ) for A.S. Abdulamir
  Muhammad Zukhrufuz Zaman , A.S. Abdulamir , Fatimah Abu Bakar , Jinap Selamat and Jamilah Bakar
  Problem statement: Biogenic amines are basic nitrogenous compounds present in a wide variety of foods and beverages. Their formations were mainly due to the amino acids decarboxylase activity of certain microorganisms. Excessive intake of biogenic amines could induce many undesirable physiological effects determined by their psychoactive and vasoactive action. Fish sauce which is considered as a good source of dietary protein, amino acids, vitamins and minerals was a popular condiment in Southeast Asian countries. However, it has also been reported that fish sauce contain high amount of amines. Hence, attention should be given to ensure the safety of this product. Approach: A review study was conducted to deliver an overview on the presence of biogenic amines in fish sauce and to discuss the important factors affecting their accumulation. Impact of amines on human health and efforts to reduce their accumulation in fish sauce were also discussed to give a comprehensive view. Results: Histamine, putrescine and cadaverine is the most abundant amines in fish sauce with maximum reported value of 1220, 1257 and 1429 ppm, respectively. Tyramine present in a lesser amount with maximum reported value of 1178 ppm. Other amines such as tryptamine, phenylethylamine, spermine and spermidine were considered as minor amines. However, different profiles of amines were reported in different type of products. This was depended on microbial flora, availability of precursors and physicochemical factors such as temperature, pH, salt, oxygen and sugar concentration. In synergistically supporting physicochemical factors, several microorganisms such as Enterobacteriaceae, Micrococci and Lactobacilli were responsible for biogenic amines formation in fish sauce. Conclusion: Since the formation of amines in fish sauce was a result of many factors, it was almost virtually impossible to control each factor during fermentation. Addition of amines degrading bacteria into fish sauce fermentation might be useful to prevent amines accumulation. Concomitantly, a good and hygienic manufacturing procedure will enhance the safety of fish sauce.
  Abbas K.A. , A. Mohamed , A.S. Abdulamir and H.A. Abas
  This review study summarized the Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) as new analytical method. The advantage and disadvantage of CO2 (SC-CO2 )as well as special applications of SFE in food processing such as removal of fat from food, enrichment of vitamin E from natural sources, removal of alcohol from wine and beer, encapsulation of liquids for engineering solid products and extraction and characterization of functional compounds were also highlighted. The study also covered the application of SFE in food safety such as rapid analysis for fat content, rapid analysis for pesticides in foods as well as the recent applications of SFE in food such as supercritical particle formation and nan particle formation and ssupercritical drying. The outcome finding confirmed that SFE was found to be advance, fast, reliable, clean and cheap methods for routine food analysis.
  H.S. Kadhim , A.S. Abdulamir , R.R. Hafidh , F. Abubaker and K.A. Abbas
  Problem Statement: Transitional Cell Carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder is a significant health problem worldwide. The molecular mechanisms of tumor development and progression are complicated but likely involve the interaction of tumor suppressor genes, oncogenes, cell cycle regulatory proteins and other factors. Hence this study tries to explore the role of p53, bcl-2, c-myc and Ki-67 in TCC of the bladder in correlation with different clinicopathological criteria which are tumor grade, muscle invasion by the tumor and disease presentation, primary or recurrent tumor. Approach: Thirty patients with TCC of the bladder were involved in the period from March 2007 - May 2008. Tumors were diagnosed by histopathology and compared with 20 control subjects. The expressions of p53, bcl-2, c-myc and Ki-67 proteins were investigated by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Results: Increased expression of p53 and bcl-2 was associated with tumor grade and muscle invasion (p<0.05), but not with disease presentation (p>0.05). C-myc expression was only associated with muscle invasion (p<0.05). Ki-67 was associated with tumor grade, muscle invasion and tumor presentation (p<0.05). The correlation among these cell cycle proteins was generally significantly positive except for the correlation between bcl-2 and c-myc was poor. Conclusions: There was a significant oncogenic role of p53 and bcl-2 on TCC in terms of muscle invasion and tumor grade. C-myc was associated only with tumor invasiveness and Ki-67 proved to act as a reliable prognostic factor of TCC. This could highlight the hot targets of TCC anti-cancer therapy and the reliable targets for disease prognosis.
  Faezeh Yazdani Moghaddam , Jamshid Darvish , Nasser Mahdavi Shahri , A.S. Abdulamir and Siti Khalija Daud
  Problem statement: The digestive tract of animals including rodents has taxonomic and ecologic importance due to its ability in adaptation for different environments. Whereas colon absorbs water and carbohydrates, it has a vital role ecologically and physiologically and enjoys different histological structures in different rodents with various diets. Approach: Different rodent specimens belong to the family Muridae, namely Gerbilinae subfamily (Jerbillus nanus, Meriones Persicus, Meriones lybicus) Microtinae (Microtus, transcaspicus, Ellobius fascocapillus, Microtus sp.) Dipodidae (Alactage elater, Jucullus blanfordi) and scuridae (Funambulus penantii, spermophillus folvus), were studied via histochemistry techniques. Various parts of the digestive tract were removed and measured. Proximal colon was cut into 2-3 cm segments and fixed by bouin solution. The segments stained by lectin (PNA, WGA) chemochemistry. Results: Microscopic observations indicated that there were remarkable distinctions in the carbohydrates and glycoproteins content of the different layers of colon among different species of rodents. Both PNA and WGA lectin histochemistry showed high and significant discriminatory power among the studied species of rodents especially lectin staining in mucosal and absorptive cells (p<0.05). Goblet and epithelial cells showed much lower affinity to lectins. Conclusion: It was concluded that use of lectin histochemistry was a valid method for phylogenic characterization of rodents, may be other animals, depending on colon tissues. Moreover, Colon tissues proved to be highly distinct and variable among species of animals. This assay can also be used in determining the diet nature, geographical variation, diseases affection on different species of animals.
  Willy Pranata Widjaja , A.S. Abdulamir , Nazamid B. Saari , Fatimah Bt. Abu Bakar and Zamri B. Ishak
  Changes in the fatty acid composition of the fresh water catfish (Mystus nemurus) stored in 10°C and ice (0± 2°C) for 1, 10 and 20 days were monitored. A total of 22 fatty acids were found to be present in the studied samples. The main saturated fatty acids (SFA) were palmitic (17.99%), tridecanoic (16.59%), stearic (4.40%) and myristic (2.61%). The monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) were dominated largely by the oleic acid (24.84%) and palmitoleic acid (4.66%). The long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were also present in significant amounts, composed of eicosapentaenoic (2.65%) and docosahexaenoic (4.44%). Results also revealed that saturated and monounsaturated fatty acid significantly increased (p<0.05) during storage while polyunsaturated decreased. This should attracts attention to the importance of the proper and short period storage to retain the best quality of fish meat and its lipid contents.
  A.S. Abdulamir , R.R. Hafidh , N. Abdulmuhaimen , F. Abubaker and K.A. Abbas
  The purpose of this study was to determine the phenotyping of Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes (PBL) in Head and Neck Cancers (HNCA) patients and to relate this with the level of Cell-Mediated Immunity (CMI) measured by in vitro lymphoproliferative assay, in order to evaluate immune suppression in HNCA patients and its possible mechanisms. Accordingly, one hundred twenty two HNCA patients and 100 control subjects were enrolled in this study. HNCA patients were classified into 42 nasopharyngeal carcinoma, 66 carcinoma of larynx and 14 Hypo Pharyngeal Carcinoma (HPC). For measuring CMI, Microculture Tetrazolium assay (MTT) was applied on the freshly isolated lymphocytes of HNCA patients and control group. Immunophenotyping of PBL was carried out for monitoring the blood level of CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD21+ cells in HNCA patients in comparison with controls. The results of both assays have been integrated, revealed the presence of remarked immune suppression in HNCA patients in comparison with the controls, especially for NasoPharyngeal Carcinoma (NPC) patients who were immunosuppressed more than other studied HNCA types. Surprisingly, NPC group showed the lowest CMI level along with the highest level of PBL subsets, particularly NPC patients expressed the highest level of CD8+ cells among HNCA. It was inferred that CD8+ cells were more likely immune suppressor rather than cytotoxic cells and this is the principal factor for inducing sustained immunosuppression in HNCA and in NPC in particular. Furthermore CD4/CD8 ratio proved to be a reliable index for assessing the immunological status of HNCA patients and more dependable index than other immunity-evaluating factors.
  R. Suzita , A.S. Abdulamir , Fatimah Abu Bakar and R. Son
  Problem statement: Food borne illness occurs all over the world. Vibrio cholerae is the etiological agent of cholera which is spread by contaminated food, water or direct fecal contact with food handlers. There are also examples of sporadic outbreaks of illness attributed to raw products eaten unprocessed. Consequently, there was a widespread concern that food in international trade carries pathogenic microorganisms that could result in outbreaks of illness. Approach: A review was done on the role of shellfish and seafood in the transmission of cholera. Google, Pubmed and Scpus were used in preparation of this review. Results: This review clarified that shellfish is one of the main seafood sources for the transmission of cholera. In natural waters Vibrio cholerae can be presented in both free-living state or attached to copepods, zooplankter and algae. Vibrio cholerae can adhere strongly to the shellfish digestive tract and cannot be effectively removed by rinsing the shellfish or by depuration. Colonization or attachment of Vibrio cholerae to shellfish increased the resistance of these bacteria to heat, drying and low pH. Conclusion: Therefore, sea food in general and shellfish in particular provided suitable background for cholera outbreaks. Unfortunately, this mode of transmission was underestimated. Accordingly, proper cooking, storing and re-heating of foods before eating were considered as main safety measures for preventing food-borne transmission of cholera. It was recommended to reconsider this mode of transmission for cholera again as source of cholera epidemics.
  W.M. Wan Norhasima , A.S. Abdulamir , F. Abu Bakar , R. Son and A. Norhafniza
  Problem statements: Fumonisin was a mycotoxin produced mainly by fungi belonging to the genus Fusarium in various foods and feeds. They occurred worldwide and were found predominantly in corn and in corn-based animal feeds and also can be found in other crops. Contamination of food and feed with fumonisins has been implicated in and associated with a number of diseases in both livestock as well as human beings. Approach: A review was done on the effect of fumonisins on animal and human and detoxification method for the prevention. ScienceDirect, Scopus, PubMed, Google and Yahoo were used in the preparation of this review. Results: This review clarified that the major forms of fumonisins found in food were the B series, fumonisin B1, B2 and B3. Fumonisin B1 (FB1) was the most common and the most thoroughly studied. FB1 caused toxicities in animals including Equine Leukoencephalomalacia (ELEM), Porcine Pulmonary Edema (PPE) in pigs and nephrotoxic, hepatotoxic and hepatocarcinogenic in rats. Furthermore, FB1 had been implicated to be associated with high rates of human esophageal cancer. In addition to their natural occurrence in corn-based animal feeds and in home-grown corn used for food, fumonisins were frequently found in commercial corn-based foods. Methods for prevention and detoxification for fumonisins included prevention of plants contamination at the field level and harvest and post-harvest control of fumonisins. Furthermore, the diseases occurred in livestock will pose the additional economic losses in livestock farmers. Conclusion: Due to economic losses engendered by fumonisin, several strategies for detoxifying and preventing contaminated foods and feeds had been described in the literature including physical and biological process. However these methods still in demonstrated. Awareness of fumonisin-related animal diseases, contamination of fumonisin in foods and feeds and adherence to guidance recommendation in prevention methods were important for reducing fumonisin-induced diseases in agriculturally important species.
  Raftari Mohammad , Azizi Jalilian Farid , A.S. Abdulamir , Son Radu , Sekawi Zamberi and Fatimah Abu Bakar
  Problem statement: Decontaminating meat surfaces has been the big concern of meat industry. Thus, various intervention strategies have been studied to reduce the level of bacteria on animals’ carcass surfaces. Approach: Mixture of different concentrations 1, 1.5 and 2% of acetic, lactic, propionic and formic acids at 1:1 ratio were spray washed on inoculated meat to evaluate their efficacy in reducing numbers of Staphylococcus aureus on meat tissue at 4±1°C. The beef pieces were decontaminated with hot water and then inoculated with S. aureus which then were spray washed with treatments for 15 sec separately. Results: Spray wash combinations of acetic and formic, lactic and formic and propionic and formic acids reduced the number of S. aureus at a range of 1.18-1.43 log cfu mL-1 more than combinations of acetic and lactic, acetic and propionic and lactic and propionic acids on meat tissue. Increasing the concentration of used acids increased the lethality of treatments as lethal effect of 2% concentration >1.5% concentration >1% concentration. Conclusion: Lactic and formic acids Combination showed the strongest lethal effect on S. aureus among other treatments. Moreover, this study showed that the combination of lactic and formic acids treatment is a feasible, safe, and economical decontamination method which is highly recommended for use rather than other combinations or single organic acids.
  R.R. Hafidh , A.S. Abdulamir , F. Abu Bakar , F. Abas , F. Jahanshiri and Z. Sekawi
  Problem statement: Plant antioxidants are natural plant products that inhibit the adverse effects of the Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) produced in plants. Thus, antioxidants enable plants to survive. Depending on this principle, human beings started using some plants’ parts to cure from diseases many centuries ago, even before the discovery of microbes or disclosing the etiology of many human diseases. Shed light on the importance of diet and natural products that have proved of great health impact on human traditionally and scientifically, disclosing the central role of natural antioxidants in this matter. Moreover, this review tried to give an overview on the research has so far done in Asian countries particularly in the field of natural antioxidants during the period 2000-2008. Therefore, the aim of this review is to present a comprehensive index for the antioxidant property of herbs and plants that have been traditionally used as well as experimentally proved beneficial in these countries. Approach: We had compared Asian and other nation's diet in the popularity of the traditional medicine and the type of daily meal in respect to their antioxidants contents and valuable health promoting effects. Many literatures had been collected using online search engines and the main library of University Putra Malaysia. The gathered data had been arranged alphabetically in a table depending on the plant’s scientific name, common name, the used part(s) and the family name. Results: The research had shown that there were seventy-six plants with proved antioxidant activity which had been well studied by Asian scientists in the chosen period of time. Conclusion: The antioxidant components of the natural products constitute the major source of human health promotion and maintenance. The nature is still the perfect source for health promotion and for the supplementation of safe drugs. Great attention is mandatory from all the scientists around the world to explore many underestimated plants with highly effective antioxidant activity.
  S. Norliana , A.S. Abdulamir , F. Abu Bakar and A.B. Salleh
  Problem statement: Formaldehyde was classified as a potential human carcinogen, identified by the US Environmental Protection Agency and International Agency for Research on Cancer as a Class 2A carcinogen. It also can cause irritation to human. However, formaldehyde present in biological fluids or tissues and environment as a result of natural processes or from man-made sources and can be emitted slowly into the air. Formaldehyde was used in many industries, hospitals and research as a sterilizing and preserving agent. The utmost concern of this study was about the present of formaldehyde in seafood product. Approach: A review was done on the health effect adverse by formaldehyde, formaldehyde toxicity to human, formaldehyde in seafood and methods to control formaldehyde in food and seafood. Google, Pubmed, Science Direct and Scopus were used in preparation of this review. Results: This review clarified that one of the formaldehyde source to human was seafood. Previous study showed that seafood contained high amount of formaldehyde because of natural production by postmortem enzymatic reaction besides the used of formaldehyde as preservative. Based on prior studies, exposure to formaldehyde can cause irritation and genotoxicity effect. For cancer effect studies, formaldehyde was long considered as a potential human carcinogen based on experimental animal studies and limited evidence of human carcinogenicity. Conclusion: Several mefinding of many health effect of formaldehyde, suggests that the investigation of level of formaldehyde in seafthods have been suggested to reduce formaldehyde in food such as cooking and washing. The ood should be done and also the level of formaldehyde natural production.
  F. Abu Bakar , A.S. Abdulamir , N. Nordin and T.S. Yoke
  Lactobacillus sp. is probiotic bacteria for which many detection methods were envisaged. However, culture-based methods failed to achieve specific detection of this bacterium due to its presence in mixed bacterial complex communities. The PCR assay was optimized to detect and quantify Lactobacillus sp. specifically in complex microbial community of mixed bacteria. Four DNA extraction methods, DNA integrity, primers specificity and optimized PCR procedure were all tested. It was shown that extracted genomic DNA using Wizard® Genomic DNA Purification Kit showed the highest yield, quality and performance in gel electrophoresis. Moreover, the specificity of the primer set, Lacto-16S-F /Lacto-16S-R, specific for Lactobacillus sp. was checked and found highly specific. In conclusion, the best DNA extraction protocol, working specific primer set and working PCR assay were achieved for achieving efficient, specific and reliable molecular-based, culture-independent, method of detection of lactobacillus sp. in PCR-suppressor highly protein-complex environment of mixed bacteria community.
  E. Khoshraftar , H.M. Anvari , H.K. Assadi , A.S. Abdulamir and F. Abu Bakar
  The aim of this study is to evaluate and quantify the pain relief after minor surgery when certain analgesics are used before surgery. Double blind study was conducted on 300 outpatient surgery patients who were allocated into two groups. Before surgery, 100 mg of acetaminophen was given to one group and 75 mg of diclofenac to the other one. The pain level after surgery was measured and recorded in both groups by a ruler 10 cm using the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) method at intervals of 30 min, 1, 2 and 4 h after surgery. Also for the patients with VAS more than 7, it was recommended to administer IM 50-100 mg teramadole ampoule. Mean VAS in acetaminophen group was 5.28±1.17, 5.17 ±1.04, 4.47±1.05±, 3.97±1.09 while, in diclofenac group was 5.09±1.10, 5.10±1.024.27±1.05 and 3/73±1.07 at 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 h after surgery, respectively. In fact there was no significant difference in pain level after surgery between acetaminophen and diclofenac groups (p>0.05). Moreover, there was no significant difference in the effectiveness of pain relief induced by administering tramadol calmative ampoule along with acetaminophen and diclofenac groups (p>0.05). Acetaminophen results in as effective pain relief as diclofenac with or without tramadol calmative. Due to minimal side effects of acetaminophen when compared to other analgesics, like diclofenac, it is recommended to use acetaminophen for safe and efficient pain relief after outpatients surgeries.
  I. Pakzad , A. Rezaee , M.J. Rasaee , A.Z. Hosseini , B. Tabbaraee , S. Ghafurian , A.S. Abdulamir , F. Abu Bakar and M. Raftari
  Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Brucella abortus is an essential component for developing the subunit vaccine against brucellosis. B. abortus LPS was extracted by n-butanol, purified by ultracentrifugation and detoxified by alkaline treatment. Pyrogenicity and toxicity of B. abortus LPS and detoxified–LPS (D-LPS) were analyzed and compared with LPS of E. coli. Different groups of mice were immunized intraperitoneally with purified B. abortus LPS, D-LPS, a combination of LPS with human serum albumin (LPS-HSA) and B. abortus S19 bacteria; besides, control mice were inoculated with sterile saline. Two doses of vaccine were given 4 weeks apart. Mice were challenged intraperitoneally with virulent B. abortus 544 strain 4 weeks after the second dose of vaccine. Sera and spleens of mice were harvested 4 weeks after challenge. LPS-B. abortus was 10,000-fold less potent in LAL test and 100-fold less potent in eliciting fever in rabbits than in E. coli LPS. And D-LPS was very less potent in LAL test and eliciting fever in rabbits ordinary LPS. The antibody titer of anti-LPS immunoglobulin G (IgG) was higher than D-LPS. However, mice immunized with either LPS, D-LPS or LPS-HSA vaccines showed a significant protection against infection of the spleen (p<0.01). There was no significant difference between mice immunized with LPS and D-LPS in terms of protection (p<0.99). Therefore, it was concluded that D-LPS and LPS-HSA for B. abortus can be used as safer and more potent vaccines than ordinary LPS-B. abortus vaccine.
  Farrah Wahida Othman Ali , A.S. Abdulamir , Abdulkarim Sabo Mohammed , Fatimah Abu Bakar , Yazid Abdul Manap , Anwarul Hidayah Zulkifli and Nazamid Saari
  GABA is well known for its physiological functions as antioxidant, diuresis, tranquilizer, anti-hypertensive, epilepsy treatment and diabetic prevention. Most of the fermented food products are known and proven for its high content GABA producer, which contributes the food as potential functional foods. Among 5 positive isolates from the Malaysian commercial fermented shrimp product (cincaluk), only one strain of bacteria showed the highest GABA-producing activity. Leuconostoc NC5 showed the highest production ability of both extracellular and intracellular GABA content (2.84±0.19 mM, respectively) with GAD activity at 1.93±0.37 unit. The effect of cultivation time, temperature, pH and different concentration of glutamate, carbon source, nitrogen source and Pyridoxal-5’-Phosphate (PLP) on the production of GABA was investigated. This study concludes that the optimum conditions for GABA production were recorded at the cultivation temperature of 37°C, pH 5.0 and cultivation time at 168 h. Furthermore, the addition of PLP and nitrogen source to the culture medium significantly increased GABA production by 30-fold. Thus, Leuconostoc NC5 can be a potential starter culture for GABA-enriched functional foods. This strain showed a potential of being starter culture for the production of fermented functional foods containing GABA.
  M. Raftari , F. Azizi Jalilian , A.S. Abdulamir , R. Son , Z. Sekawy and A.B. Fatimah
  Researchers in the area of microbiological meat safety, in an attempt to reduce beef carcass contamination, try carcass-washing treatments as an effective method to control pathogenic bacteria. Spray wash treatments utilizing 3 concentrations (1, 1.5 and 2%) of acetic, lactic, propionic and formic acids were performed to evaluate their efficacy in reducing numbers of Escherichia coli O157: H7 on meat tissues at 4±1°C. The meat was decontaminated with hot water and then inoculated with E. coli O157: H7, which then was spray washed with organic acids for 15 sec separately. The population of E. coli O157: H7 significantly (p<0.05) reduced after being spray washed with all treatments. The lethality effect of all organic acids according to the concentration was 2% concentration >1.5% concentration >1% concentration. Mean log reductions of E. coli O157: H7showed that the antibacterial effect of formic acid >lactic acid >acetic acid >propionic acid. The results of this study also indicated that formic acid is a good antibacterial agent for decontaminating animals carcass surfaces.
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