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Articles by A.S. Ali
Total Records ( 9 ) for A.S. Ali
  A.S. Ali , M.O. Abdalla and M.E.H. Mohammed
  It was the aim of this study to determine the interaction between the Newcastle disease (ND) and infectious bursal disease (IBD) vaccines used to control these two important viral infections greatly affecting poultry industry worldwide. The commercially available vaccines in the Sudan were used. Haemagglutination inhibition (HI) and agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) tests were employed to measure the Ab titres in chicks sera to ND and IBD respectively. Generally, IBD vaccine was reported to have adverse effect on the ND vaccine whereas the reverse was not true. The results obtained also revealed that better Ab responses against NDV were detected when ND vaccine was administered before IBD vaccine. The deleterious effect of IBD vaccine on Ab levels against NDV antigens was slightly (p<0.05) low when IBD vaccine is administered at two weeks as compared to three weeks of chicken age. No variations in the Ab titres when chicks were boostered with ND vaccine containing LaSota or Komorov strain of the virus at 4 weeks were observed. However, slightly (p<0.01) better Ab responses were noted for LaSota over Komorov strain. It was, therefore, concluded that vaccination of chicks with ND vaccine containing LaSota strain of the virus when they were 10 days followed by vaccination with IBD vaccine at two weeks and boostering with the same ND vaccine yielded better Ab responses but slightly lower protection levels.
  M.O. Sahar , A.S. Ali , Mahasin and E.A. Rahman
  The detrimental outcomes of intermediate and hot infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) vaccine strains in broiler chickens were the objective of this study. Carcass weight gain, bursal enlargement and hemorrhage in the muscles were the parameters considered to monitor these effects. Two hundred, day-old broiler chicks were divided into eight groups namely A, B, C, D, E, F, G and H. Chicks in groups A, B and C were vaccinated with intermediate, hot and both vaccine strains of the virus respectively whereas group D left without vaccination as control in closed pens. Chicks in groups E, F, G and H were treated similarly but in open pens. In both systems of rearing, the highest effects of the vaccines on chicks performance was observed for those vaccinated with the hot strain of IBDV, followed by intermediate strain vaccinated chickens and least effect on those vaccinated with the intermediate and boostered with the hot one. The results obtained also showed that chickens reared in closed pens put slightly higher (p<0.05) body weight, low levels of bursal enlargement and relatively low hemorrhage in the muscles as compared to those reared in open pens. As a conclusion and recommendation, it was advised to vaccinate chickens with intermediate strains of IBD at 2 weeks old and booster them with the hot one at 3 weeks in closed systems.
  M.H. Tabidi , A. Makkawi , E. Mahasin and A.S. Ali
  The antibody (Ab) titres to the intermediate Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccine (Komorov strain) in broiler chicks using haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test and an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were compared in this study. The tirtres were compared following vaccination of chicks via the aerosol, intranasal and drinking water routes. For all routes of the vaccine administration, higher Ab tritres were detected using ELISA technique than HI test. For both serological assays, the highest Ab titres detected when the vaccine was administered via the aerosol route with significant level (p< 0.05) compared to the control group. Non-consistent pattern in the Ab levels between the two tests was observed for intranasal and drinking water routes. As a conclusion, ELISA proved more accurate, sensitive and rapid but less economic than HI test when used for detection of Ab titres against NDV vaccines.
  A. A. Sana , A. I. Khalafalla , A.S. Ali and S.M. Elhassan
  The present study described the epidemiology of Newcastle disease (ND) in village chickens in Sudan. The study was carried out in the framework of the project; Improving Family Poultry Production in Africa. Five and three villages in Khartoum (zone 1) and Gedarif (zone2) provinces respectively were selected for the study. Farmers interview, virus isolation and hemagglutination (HA) and hemagglutination inhibition (HI) tests, to identify the isolated viruses, were employed. The biological characteristics of each virus isolate were also determined. Two out of 20 households (10%) in zone 1 reported occurrence of ND during the study year compared to eleven out of 12 households (91.5%) in zone 2. The disease caused a mean mortality rate of 66% and 69% in zone 1 and 2 respectively. All age groups were found affected and the mortality rate was 70% in chicks, 98% in growers and 62% in adults. Two isolates of NDV were obtained in embryonated eggs following their confirmation by HA and HI using a reference NDV serum. The isolates were designated as GD.S.1 and GD. Gh.1. The isolates showed similarity in that they kill embryos rapidly in mean death time test, produced visceral lesions in 8-week-old chicks and had a high Intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI). Accordingly, the isolated viruses were grouped as velogenic viscerotropic NDV (VVNDV) pathotype.
  A.S. ElDalo , A.S. Ali , S.I. Shaddad and A.H. Mohamed
  In the present work the pharmacokinetic parameters of a new third generation cephalosporin -Cefixime- were evaluated in two species of animals: ovine (the sheep) and bovine (the cattle). One capsule of 400 mg Cefixime was administered to each of six sheep and six cattle in two separate experiments. Plasma concentrations of Cefixime were determined micro-biologically. The pharmacokinetic parameters were computed according to the one-compartment open model of the computer program. The results were statistically analyzed by SPSS program. In the sheep: elimination half-life was 5.96?0.88 hours, clearance 62.48?7.8 L/hour, volume of distribution 4.67?0.61 ml kg-1, area under the plasma concentration curve 6.88?0.78?g hr ml-1, maximum plasma concentration 0.63?0.06?g ml-1 and the time to achieve maximum plasma concentration was 4.8?0.22 hours. In the bovine group: elimination half-life was 13.09?0.81 hours, clearance 47.48?5.03 L/hour, volume of distribution 5.02? 1.77 ml kg-1, area under the plasma concentration curve 8.98?1.07?g hr ml-1, maximum plasma concentration 0.50?0.03?g ml-1 and the time to reach maximum plasma concentration was 2.34?0.51 hours. These finding suggest the rational application of cefixime in veterinary medicine.
  I.M. El Jalii , A. R. Bahaman and A.S. Ali
  Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was evaluated as a tool for diagnosis of human leptospirosis. Human urine samples were seeded with different concentrations of leptospiral cells. Using specific primers, amplified DNA fragments on an agarose gel from urine samples contained as few as 10 hardjo cells per ml urine were obtained. The molecular size of bands produced from all leptospiral concentrations was 600 bp. Urine samples with as little as 10 hardjo cells per ml of urine were positive on PCR indicating high sensitivity of the test. Detection of small number of leptospiral cells in urine by PCR was an advantage over culture and serology.
  A.S. Ali , M.L. Mohd-Azmi and I.M. Eljalii
  The immunogenic peptides of five pseudoraibes virus (PrV) isolates were determined and compared using murine as well as swine sera. Western blotting technique was employed to visualize the immunogenic peptides. Marked differences in the number and kinds of immunogenic peptides among the viruses were observed using either the murine or swine sera. 12 and 13 immunogenic peptides were detected using murine and swine sera respectively. Murine serum was noted to detect peptides of higher molecular weights as compared to those detected by swine serum. The protein of 76.00 Kda was detected when both sera were used although minor variations in the molecular weights were noted for the peptides detected by both kinds of sera. The results obtained indicated that the recognition of different protein peptides of the virus by immune system is an animal species dependent.
  M.E. Wisal , M.A. Hamid , E.A. Hadia , I.M. El Jalii and A.S. Ali
  A total of 29 Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from human, animals and their environment were subjected to genotypic analysis on the basis of coagulase gene polymorphism. The coagulase gene was amplified using a pair of oligonucleotide nested primers. Presumptive phenotypic identification of the strains showed production of free and bound coagulases, production of acetion, anaerobic utilization of mannitol with acid production. PCR-amplified coagulase genes of S. aureus revealed different pattern in base pair lengths and number of amplified bands. There were no obvious specific PCR pattern for all types of isolates thus, genotypic clustering correlated to human, animal and environmental isolates was not passable. Given the specificity of the coagulase gene, the isolates were thus confirmed to be belong to the coagulase positive S. aurueus. Out of 29 PCR-amplification isolates, 21 produced a single band while 8 isolates produced two bands. The length of the amplicon ranged from 430 to 1000 bp. Amplicons of the 21 isolates were thus categorized as 670, 930, 950 and 1000 bp. In conclusion, Amplification of coagulase gene is useful in confirmation of coagulase gene positive S. aurueus.
  S.H. Manal , M.E. Hamid , I.M. El Jalii and A.S. Ali
  One hundred and sixty seven caseated lymph nodes and tuberculous lungs were collected from cattle slaughtered in various locations in Khartoum State (Sudan) and examined bacteriologically. Microscopic examination using Zeilh-Neelsen stain and culture on Lowenstein-Jensen (L-J) medium were carried out to detect and differentiate between the mycobacterial species in the specimens. Thirty-five, 35 (20.96%) samples were found to harbor acid-fast bacteria when examined microscopically. Out of the 35 acid-fast bacteria, 22 (62.86%) showed branching filaments and were identified as Mycobacterium farcinogenes. The remaining 13(37.14%) were bacilli and identified as Mycobacterium bovis. The 35 specimens that proved to harbor acid fast bacteria were cultured on L-J medium. None of the 22 specimens with branching filaments (Mycobacterium farcinogenes) grew on L-J medium when incubated aerobically at 37 ° C between four and eight weeks. 12 (92.31%) of the 13 bacilli (Mycobacterium bovis) showed visible growth using the above growth conditions. In conclusion, microscopic examination can only detect acid fast organisms in the clinical samples whereas culture on L-J medium can differentiate between acid-fast mycobacterial species.
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