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Articles by A.M. King`ori
Total Records ( 5 ) for A.M. King`ori
  A.M. King`ori
  Poultry production at all scales of operation is wholly dependent on the supply of day-old chicks. Fertility and hatchability are two major parameters that highly influence the supply of day-old chicks. Fertility refers to the percentage of incubated eggs that are fertile while hatchability is the percentage of fertile eggs that hatch. It is therefore important to understand the factors that influence fertility and hatchability of eggs. For the hatchability traits, breed has little effect on hatchability of poultry eggs, although light breeds have been reported to have higher fertility and hatchability. The diet of breeder poultry should be adequate in both quality and quantity to meet the recommended levels set out in the feed standards for the category. The most influential egg parameters that influence hatchability are: weight, shell thickness and porosity, shape index (described as maximum breadth to length ratio) and the consistency of the contents. Heat stress reduces the external and internal egg qualities. Heat stress affects all phases of semen production in breeder cocks. Hatchability for small eggs is lower compared to that of medium and large eggs. There are many factors contributing to the failure of a fertile egg to hatch which include lethal genes, insufficient nutrients in the egg and exposure to conditions that do not meet the needs of the developing embryo. Breeder factors that affect hatchability include strain, health, nutrition and age of the flock, egg size, weight and quality, egg storage duration and conditions. The optimum temperature range for poultry is 12-26oC. Fertile eggs should not be stored for more than 10-14 days, after 14 days of storage; hatchability begins to decline significantly. The position (large end up or vice versa) of egg storage influences hatchability. Eggs stored with the small end up have higher hatchability as compared to the large end up. Incubation of fertile eggs can be done naturally by a broody hen or in an incubator. The broody hen provides the fertile eggs with optimum environmental conditions (temperature, egg turning and humidity) to stimulate embryonic development until hatching. The incubator is a simulated artificial design that mimics the broody hen’s role of providing fertile eggs with optimum environmental conditions (temperature, egg turning and humidity) to stimulate embryonic development until hatching. A constant incubation temperature of 37.8oC is the thermal homeostasis in the chick embryo and gives the best embryo development and hatchability. Mortality is seen if the temperature drops below 35.6oC or rises above 39.4oC for a number of hours. Egg turning during incubation is critical for successful hatching and influences hatchability. No turning of eggs during incubation results in low hatchability and delays hatch by a few days.
  A.M. King`ori
  This study was conducted to find out the multiple uses of eggshells in nutrition and medicine. Eggshells can be utilized for various purposes that minimize their effect on environmental pollution. Eggshells present healthy, balanced calcium due to its trace amounts of other minerals and is probably the best natural source of calcium. One whole medium sized eggshell makes about one teaspoon of powder, which yields about 750-800 mgs of elemental calcium plus other micro elements. Eggshell powder has been reported to increase bone mineral density in people and animals with osteoporosis. In laying hens in the late production phase, eggshell powder has been found to increase egg production and improve the quality of shells. Discarded eggshells are often used as a plant fertilizer and are effective liming sources. This is because eggshells contain calcium that raises, or neutralizes, the pH level of overly acidic soil. Chicken eggshells can be used as an alternative soil stabilizer like lime since they have the same chemical composition. Such stabilized soil can be used as subgrade materials in road construction works. Eggshell membrane consists of collagen as a component. Collagen is a type of protein, fibrous in nature that connects and supports other bodily tissues, such as skin, bone, tendons, muscles and cartilage. Collagen has been isolated mainly from bovine and swine skins and bones Collagen used in medicine, biochemical, pharmaceutical, food and cosmetics industries. After the outbreaks of bovine spongioform encephalopathy, foot and mouth disease, autoimmune and allergic reactions, restrictions on collagen uses from these sources were enforced. Eggshell membrane collagen is very low in autoimmune and allergic reactions as well as high in bio-safety and is of similar characteristics to other mammalian collagen. Eggshells/shell membranes have multiple uses in nutrition, medicine, construction and art works.
  A.M. King`ori , J.A. Odero-Waitituh and A.Y. Guliye
  Prosopis juliflora is an invasive multipurpose dry land tree or shrub native to South America, Central America and the Caribbean. It was introduced to Eastern Africa in the 1970s through collaborative projects involving local governments and outside agencies. Prosopis species grow in arrays of environments and are not restricted by soil type, pH, salinity or fertility and are therefore used as rehabilitation of deserts and saline lands for shelter belts and sand dune stabilization. The use of agricultural and agro-industrial by products for livestock feed formulation results in fluctuation in quantity, quality and prices of the manufactured feeds. There has been much interest over recent years to explore alternative feedstuffs because of rising costs for conventional feed ingredients. The large resources of non-conventional agro-forestry trees are not efficiently utilized due to lack of information of their nutritive value and levels of inclusion in feeds. Among the non-conventional agro forestry feed resources is Prosopis juliflora. Prosopis pods are high in sugar and protein content and are a rich food source for livestock like sheep, goats, cattle, pigs and poultry. Rations containing prosopis pods have been recommended for lactating animals and have been said to increase milk production with increasing proportion of pod flour. No effects on milk flavour were noted at <50% pods in the ration, though as a sole feed some taste change has been reported. Faster growth rates on animals fed prosopis pods have been reported. In Brazil, P. juliflora bran (whole pod) replaced 100% wheat flour in chicken diets. The replacement of up to 35% of maize by prosopis flour in lactating sow rations in the North-East of Brazil has been reported. A maximum inclusion level of 20% prosopis pods in broiler, layer and fish diets has been reported. In Kenya, indigenous knowledge of prosopis management has lacked in the areas where it was introduced and spread and it has remained under-utilized and unmanaged. The local people were not advised on the management practices to fully exploit prosopis. In the countries where prosopis was introduced from, there are natural forests or plantations which harnessed for timber, charcoal, honey, gums, human and animal feeds. Similar benefits can be reaped by the Kenyan communities in the ASALs with prosopis. Therefore, technologies and management strategies for sustainable utilization of prosopis should be developed and employed. This will lead to economic empowerment and income diversification of these communities.
  A.M. King`ori
  This study reviews the uses of egg albumen and egg yolk. The albumin and yolk account for 60 and 30% of the egg, respectively. Their chemical composition make the egg to be of a high nutritional value to man. Egg albumen (egg white) is a source of complete protein and it contains all the amino acids required by the body for protein synthesis. Although, egg whites are a good source of low-fat, high-protein nutrition, a small number of people cannot eat them because of egg allergy associated with some proteins. Egg allergy is more common among infants than adults and most children outgrow it by the age of five. There is currently no cure for egg allergy. It is usually treated with an exclusion diet and avoidance of foods that may be contaminated with egg. Egg albumen protein (Lysozyme and EDTA) is effective against Salmonella typhimurium and Avidin-Biotin System is used as a diagnostic tool. Egg white has been used in the manufacture of edible packing films that could be used for water soluble packets for ingredients in the food, chemical and pharmaceutical industries. Egg white is fining agent that can be used in the clarification and stabilization of wine that involves removing insoluble and suspended materials that cause a wine to be cloudy. Egg white is a natural antioxidant that is added to ground meat to decrease oxidation during cooking. Egg albumen is used by artists as a binder for pigments as an ingredient of waterproof glue and as a varnish. Egg yolk is a major source of fatty acids, vitamins and minerals. It is the part of the fertilized egg which feeds the developing embryo. The hen’s diet influences the fatty acids, minerals and vitamins content in eggs. The cholesterol content in egg yolk is significantly reduced by dietary Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFA). Many vaccines for infectious diseases are produced in fertile chicken eggs (yolk). The vaccines are used for disease control in humans and livestock. However, a method of vaccine production has been developed that is less cumbersome than dealing with chicken eggs and the vaccine production is easy. Egg yolk is used in painting as a component of egg-tempera to make liqueurs and for extraction of egg oil used in cosmetic, nutritional and medicinal uses. Egg oil and lecithin from egg yolk are used in biotechnology, food and pharmaceutical industries. Egg yolk is used in the production of egg-yolk agar that is used in identification of Clostridia. Therefore, the egg comprises of chemicals and components that have multiple uses in biotechnology (tissue culture), chemical, food, pharmaceutical and art (painting and photography) industries.
  A.M. King`ori
  Egg weight, shape and shell colour are external characteristics that influence egg grading, packaging, price, consumer preference and hatchability. It is therefore important to understand the factors that influence them. Within a species, egg size may differ with younger birds of a species laying smaller eggs than older birds. Egg weight varies according to the oviposition time. Age of the hen is also important in determining egg weight which increases with increasing age. Higher bodyweights are generally associated with bigger eggs. Nutrition can partially control late egg size and the most important nutrients for control of egg size are linoleic acid, protein and specific amino acids. Lighting programmes influence egg size by accelerating or delaying the age at which hens start to lay eggs. The younger a hen is when she starts egg production, the smaller her eggs will be during her 1st year of life. The greatest consumer demand is for large and extra large eggs. Egg size affects hatchability and the hatchability for small eggs is lower compared to that of medium and large eggs.
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