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Articles by A.K. Kumaraguru
Total Records ( 6 ) for A.K. Kumaraguru
  S. Manikandan , S. Ganesapandian , Manoj Singh and A.K. Kumaraguru
  The distribution and spatial variation of seagrass in the coral reef ecosystem of the Gulf of Mannar was assisted with Line Intercept Transects (LIT) with help of SCUBA diving during January-March 2009. Overall percentage of seagrass was 63% among this 42% distributed towards the shoreward side and 21% towards the seaward side. There were 13 species of seagrass found, among this Cymodocea serrulata was dominant species and the least was Halophila stipulacea. The shoot density of seagrass varied between 63 and 13.4 shoot m-2 in the shoreward side, while in seaward side it was between 65.1 and 2.4 shoot m-2. Seagrass biomass was 179.2 g dwt m-2 at shoreward side and 63.62 g dwt m-2 at in seaward side. Distribution of seagrass along the islands of Gulf of Mannar varies in a very less proportion. But the spatial variation between the shoreward side and seaward side was very high. The present study reveal that seagrass distribution, diversity; shoot density and biomass were significantly higher in shoreward relative to seaward side. This study of seagrass in Gulf of Mannar would be the base line data to know the changes in seagrass population in future.
  S. Manikandan , S. Ganesapandian , Manoj Singh , N. Sangeetha and A.K. Kumaraguru
  Nowadays, emergence of bacterial resistance poses a significant clinical problem. Hence, the aim of this study was to describe the current susceptibility patterns of Multi Drugs Resistant (MDR) strains of Urinary Tract Infections (UTI) isolates to current chemotherapeutic agents, as well as to find out antimicrobial characteristics in the extract of seaweeds against MDR. The extract of Padina tetrastromatica, Stocheospermum marginatum and Grateloupia lithophila exhibited strong activity against Non-MDR strains, whereas, the extract of Grateloupia lithophila only exhibited moderate activity against MDR strains. The extract of Caulerpa sp., Gracilaria corticata and Valaniopsis paachanima exhibited week antimicrobial activity. The extract of Grateloupia lithophila inhibited the growth of both MDR and Non-MDR Staphylococcus aureus. Moreover, extract of Grateloupia lithophila inhibited the growth of Non-MDR E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella. From our findings, the most potent antimicrobial seaweed extract was Grateloupia lithophila which showed maximum inhibitory activity against MDR and Non-MDR Staphylococcus aureus. This study recommends extracts of Grateloupia lithophila can also be used as antibacterial substance for treating multidrug resistant microbes causing acquired infections.
  S. Manikandan , S. Ganesapandian , Manoj Singh , M. Anand and A.K. Kumaraguru
  Coral reef ecosystem in the Gulf of Mannar and Palk bay have been extensively damaged due to over fishing, sedimentation, dynamite fishing etc. Coral bleaching is an usual phenomena in summer and at extreme case the bleaching response is fatal to the coral. Bottom temperature during the months of April and May 2010 had significant change in both GoM and Palk bay and ranged between 31 to 31.9°C. Massive corals Porites solida, Porites lutea and Favia spp. and branch corals Acropora cytherea, A. intermedia, A. formosa, A. nobilis and Mantipora digitata were affected. Percentage of coral bleaching during April 2010 was 72 and 75% in GoM and Palk bay, further this level increased to 85.1 and 87.2%, respectively. Coral recovery was found during June to August 2010 in GoM and Palk Bay region. The phenomenon of coral bleaching has been taking place periodically all over the world. Therefore, in spite of the odds, the corals will resurge under the sea, which we need to protect and conserve for our benefit.
  S. Ganesapandian , S. Manikandan and A.K. Kumaraguru
  Marine litter has become one of the problematic concerns in the Gulf of Mannar. This study was aimed to survey and evaluate the composition, abundance, distribution and quantification of the types, amount, sources and impact of marine litter on the beach of the Gulf of Mannar region. This is first of its kind in India especially in the Gulf of Mannar. Quantification, source and impact of marine litter in the Gulf of Mannar, India were surveyed from March 2006 to February 2008. Maximum shoreline marine litter was noticed in May and June 2007 and the minimum was noticed in Feb. 2008. Occurrence of Shoreline marine litter during the Southwest monsoon period was the maximum and the cool winter period was the minimum. The maximum shoreline marine litter was 94-95 items of 5,409-6,588 g and the minimum shoreline marine litter was 42 items of 2,088 g. Eight percent of the total litter included only three major items, viz., Plastic (48%), polystyrene (18%) and cloth (15%). Fishing represented the largest source, Tourism/recreation was the second and Sewage Related Debris (SRD) was the third common source of marine litter. Stranded marine animals and impact on the ecosystems of coral reef, seagrass were also observed. The findings revealed the factors such as proximity of a given beach to a population center, pilgrim and Southwest monsoon wind which most dominantly affect the litter distribution in the Northern Gulf of Mannar coastline.
  S. Manikandan , S. Ganesapandian , N. Sangeetha and A.K. Kumaraguru
  Marine bacteria are producers of secondary metabolites in the harsh ocean. In the present study, marine bacteria were isolated from marine sponges in the Gulf of Mannar. The potential isolates were selected for 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The results of phylogenetic analyses revealed that isolate No. 3 was Stenotrophomonas sp., strain SMAKK001; isolate No. 6 was Bacillus strain SMAKK002 and isolate No. 8 was identified as Bacillus sp. strain SMAKK003. Antimicrobial assays were performed against various microorganisms with bacterial metabolites. Out of the 10 marine bacterial filtrates only four filtrates exhibited antimicrobial activity. Among them, the filtrate of Stenotrophomonas sp. strain SMAKK001, Bacillus subtilis strain SMAKK002 exhibited strong activity against gram positive and negative bacterial strains. Secondary metabolite of marine bacterial isolates SMAKK001, SMAKK002 and SMAKK003 showed considerable inhibitory activity against pathogenic bacteria and fungi. Inhibitory activity was observed against important pathogenic species such as MDR Staphylococcus sp., MDR Pseudomonas sp. and MDR Klebsiella sp. which opens up interesting avenues in the search for novel compounds against multidrug-resistant pathogenic bacteria. The present study revealed that marine bacterial metabolites used against potential new anti-MDR strains.
  Manoj Singh , S. Manikandan and A.K. Kumaraguru
  The convergence of nanotechnology and biomedical sciences opens the possibility for a wide variety of biological research topics and medical uses at the molecular and cellular level. Current and future research achievements in nanobiotechnology could ultimately lead to the development of revolutionary new modalities of biomolecular manufacturing, early diagnostics, medical treatment and disease prevention beyond the cellular level to that of individual proteins, the building blocks of the life process. This study attempts to explain the diversity of the field, starting with the history of nanotechnology, the properties of the nanoparticle, various strategies of synthesis, the various advantages and disadvantages of different methods and finally ends with its application.
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