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Articles by A.J. Afolayan
Total Records ( 25 ) for A.J. Afolayan
  A.O.T. Ashafa , D.S. Grierson and A.J. Afolayan
  The effect of various methods of drying on the content and chemical quality of the essential oil of this herb was studied. The most prominent components in the fresh, air-dried, sun-dried and oven-dried oils extracted by hydrodistillation were the monoterpenes, α-pinene (9.1, 7.4, 10.2 and 6.8%), β-pinene (3.5, 3.6, 9.6 and 7.0%), myrcene (18.7, 18.4, 22.0 and 16.4%), limonene (26.5, 26.5, 24.4 and 27.4%), cis-ocimene (2.2, 1.9, 2.8 and 2.0%), trans-ocimene (4.8, 5.6, 12.4 and 11.6%) and α-terpineol (3.4, 2.7, 2.2 and 3.2%). Methyl-eugenol, β-caryophyllene, trans-farnesene and bicyclogermacrene were the major sesquiterpenes and all were in minute quantity. Cis-lachnophyllum ester (16.2, 18.1, 19.2 and 16.1%, respectively), was the dominating non-terpenoid polyacetylinic compound. The different drying methods have no significant effect on the quality and composition of essential oil from F. muricata.
  J. Ndlovu and A.J. Afolayan
  In this study, the nutrient levels and phytate content of the leaves, fruits and stems of Corchorus olitorius were determined using standard analytic methods and the results were compared with those of cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.) and spinach (Spinacea oleracea L.). There was no significant difference in the crude protein contents between C. olitorius (16.3%) and spinach leaves (18.7%). There was no significant difference in the lipid contents of wild okra leaves, cabbage and spinach. The intra-nutritional contents of C. olitorius revealed that, its leaves showed superior nutritional quality when compared to the fruits and stems except the lipid content in which the fruits had the highest value. Corchorus olitorius had higher magnesium content than cabbage and spinach. Although, its phytate content was lower than that of spinach, the value was higher than that of cabbage. Generally, present findings revealed that the wild okra contained more nutritional qualities than cabbage and spinach.
  M.O. Sofidiya , O.A. Odukoya , A.J. Afolayan and O.B. Familoni
  Ethnobotanical survey conducted presents findings on medicinal plants commercialized and used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases in the major herb markets in Lagos metropolis. Data were collected through direct interview with traditional herb sellers using unstructured questionnaires. Study revealed a total of 41 plants species belonging to 23 families. Botanical and local names, plant part used, methods of preparation and administration are described. The part of the plants most frequently used was the leaves 55%, stem bark (14%), root (11%), whole plant (9%), sap (5%), aerial parts, flowers and fruits (2%) each. There was a high degree of informant consensus for the family Sapindaceae while oral and topical routes of administration are commonly employed.
  S.O. Oyedemi and A.J. Afolayan
  The present study investigated antioxidant activities of Leonotis leonurus extract both in vivo and in vitro to provide scientific basis to traditional usage of this plant. The in vitro antioxidants activity was evaluated by determining ferric reducing power, total flavonoids, phenolics, flavonols and proanthocyanidins contents using standard assay methods. The ability of the extract to scavenge 2, 2 diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), Nitric Oxide (NO), 2, 2-azinobis [3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid] diammonium salt were also assessed using spectroscopic method. Oral administration of L. leonurus extract at the doses of 125, 250 and 500 mg kg-1 body weight was evaluated in Wistar rats induced with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) for 7 days. The extract effectively increased the percentage inhibition of reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT). However, lipid peroxidation was significantly decreased in CCl4 treated rats with the extract when compared with the diabetic control rats. The plant extract (0.8 mg mL-1) scavenge DPPH.+ ABTS.+ and NO.+ by inhibiting 72.48, 78.02 and 70.43% of the radicals, respectively. The reducing power of the extract was found to be concentration dependent. In addition, the extracts yielded higher phenolics content followed by flavonoids, proanthocyanidins and flavonols. A positive linear correlation was established between these polyphenols and the free radical scavenging activities. The results obtained from this study indicate that L. leonurus is a potential source of antioxidants and thus could prevent many radical related diseases.
  S.O. Oyedemi , G. Bradley and A.J. Afolayan
  Strychnos henningsii Gilg is commonly used in Southern Africa herbal medicines for the management of diabetes mellitus. The beneficial effect of the aqueous extract of S. henningsii at the dose of 125, 250 and 500 mg kg-1 was investigated on some biochemical and hematological parameters in diabetic rats after 15 days of experimental periods. Significant decrease of blood glucose levels were found after oral administration of the extract at the dose of 250 mg kg-1 (10.03 mmol L-1) followed by 500 mg kg-1 (7.60 mmol L-1) and then 125 mg kg -1 (6.70 mmol L-1). The extract did not alter the levels of cholesterol, uric acid and kidney body weight ratio. In addition, there was no significant effect on the levels of basophils, monocytes and eosinophil but appreciably increased White Blood Count (WBC), neutrophils and lymphocyte at 500 mg kg-1. Moreover, the level of triglyceride, calcium, urea and liver body weight ratio was drastically reduced at certain doses. Treatment of diabetic rats with these extracts significantly reduced the activities of Aspartate Transaminase (AST) and Alanine Phosphatases (ALP). Whereas the levels of hemoglobin (Hb), Packed Cell Volume (PCV), Mean Concentration Volume (MCV), Red Blood Cell (RBC), Mean Concentration Hemoglobin (MCH), total protein, Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT), albumin and globulin were significantly increased as compared with diabetic rats. The present study indicated potent antidiabetic and antilipidemic properties of S. henningsii extract and its capability of regularizing some abnormalities associated with pathophysiologic condition of diabetes mellitus.
  O.O. Olajuyigbe and A.J. Afolayan
  Phenolic compounds are well known for their antioxidant activities. The objectives of this study were to determine the phenolic content of the crude extracts of Acacia mearnsii De Wild and to evaluate the antioxidant properties of these extracts. The Folin-ciocalteu procedure was used to assess the total phenolic compositions of the extracts as garlic acid equivalents. Antioxidant activity was evaluated using 2,2-Azinobis-3-ethyl benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) diammonium salt and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging methods. All the extracts showed antioxidant potential. Ethanolic extract had the highest total flavonoids. Acetone extract had the highest total phenolic contents. The total proanthocyanidins was highest in the methanol extract while aqueous extracts had the least of these phytochemicals. The reducing power of the extracts of A. mearnsii was dose dependent. Aqueous extract showed the least reducing power, methanol extract indicated the highest reducing power. The reducing power of the extracts is lower than those obtained from the reference standard such as Butylated Hydroxytoluene (BHT), Rutin and ascorbic acid. 2,2-Azinobis-3-ethyl Benzothiazoline-6-Sulfonic acid (ABTS) diammonium salt showed that ethanol extract exhibited the highest activity at the highest concentration tested. 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay indicated that ethanol extract had the highest activity at the lowest concentration and the activities of all the extracts decreased with increase in their concentrations. This study revealed a positive linear correlation between the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of the extracts of A. mearnsii.
  S. Maposa , A.J. Afolayan and G.A. Otunola
  Background and Objective: Vachellia karroo is a forage plant for goats belonging to Fabaceae family, that is also used for the treatment of sexually transmitted infections in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. However, the pods from the tree are often discarded as waste causing environmental pollution. This study, therefore, aimed at evaluating the antimicrobial potentials of the pods towards minimizing their loss and negative impact on the environment. Materials and Methods: Antimicrobial evaluation of acetone, aqueous, hexane and methanol extracts of V. karroo pods using agar dilution assay was done. Eight bacterial strains and 6 fungal isolates were screened. Results: The results revealed that methanol extract had a broad-spectrum activity, with greater sensitivity against Gram-positive than Gram-negative strains. The extracts also showed great inhibition against Candida albicans the fungal isolate responsible for causing candidiasis in women. Conclusion: Since the pods showed a promising antimicrobial activity, they could serve as a cheap and ready source of antibiotic for the treatment and management of sexually transmitted infections, caused by these organisms.
  O.T. Asekun , D.S. Grierson and A.J. Afolayan
  Helichrysum odoratissimum is one of the most commonly used medicinal plants in South Africa. The essential oil from the herb was extracted and characterized for the first time using different drying methods. The oils isolated from fresh, air-dried, sun-dried and oven-dried aerial parts of the plant yielded 0.28, 0.46, 0.33 and 0.36%, respectively. The fresh leaf oil was characterized by a high content of oxygenated monoterpenes with the main constituents as p-menthone (35.4%), pulegone (34.2%) and 1, 8-cineole (13.0%). The dried plant oils had limonene (31.6-22.6%), β-caryophyllene (13.0-12.0%) and α-pinene (10.0-7.7%) as their major constituents. Generally, the yield and chemical profile of H. odoratissimum were affected by the drying methods utilized. There were noteworthy chemical alterations in the major components of the essential oils using different methods of drying. The compounds pulegone and menthone were reported as potentially harmful compounds, hence their substantial reduction in the dried oils as compared to the fresh leaf oil is noteworthy as it aids reduction of toxicity in the oils.
  O.O. Okoh , A.A. Sadimenko and A.J. Afolayan
  The variations in the yield and composition of the essential oils from Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae) cultivated in Alice, Eastern Cape of South Africa are reported. Essential oils of this plant were obtained by hydrodistillation using the Clevenger apparatus and analysis was performed by GC-MS. The yield in essential oil showed a maximum at the full flowering stage (0.97%) and a minimum during the pre-flowering stage (0.13%). The compositions also showed different patterns at different phases of the vegetative cycle. Sesquiterpenes (α-cadinene, α-cadinol, T-muurolol and epi-bicyclosesquiphellandrene) and monoterpenes (limonene, 1, 8-cineole and trans-β-ocimene) showed the highest correlations with the age of the plant. Aiming the use of essential oil as a food ingredient, the most interesting stage is the post-flowering period, the essential oil at this time being rich in α-cadinene, α-cadinol, t-muurolol, limonene, 1,8-cineole, with P-cymene present at lower levels. α-cadinene is an important flavouring agent in baked foods, candy and chewing gum and also used as a fragrance in cosmetics and detergents. T-muurolol and α-cadinol are important antimicrobial agents.
  A.O.T. Ashafa , D.S. Grierson and A.J. Afolayan
  The essential oil was extracted by hydrodistillation. A total of thirty-eight compounds were identified with α-pinene (9.1%) β-pinene (3.5%), myrcene (18.7%), limonene (26.5%), cis-ocimene (2.2%), trans-ocimene (4.8%) and terpineol (3.4%) as the major monoterpenes, while, cis-lachnophyllum ester (16.2%) was the major non-terpenoid polyacetylenic compound. The antibacterial activity of the oil was investigated against 16 bacterial strains using broth microdilution method. The oil inhibited all the test organisms with more pronounced activity on Gram-positive than the Gram-negative bacteria. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) for Gram-positive bacteria range from 0.08-2.50 mg mL–1, whereas, it was 0.08-5.00 mg mL–1 for the Gram-negative bacteria. The ability of the oil from F. muricata to inhibit a range of nosocomial pathogenic bacterial strains at a concentration less than that of streptomycin makes the oil a candidate for possible development of antibiotic drug.
  A.J. Afolayan , O.M. Aboyade and M.O. Sofidiya
  The free radical scavenging activity of the methanolic extract of Malva parviflora L. was examined using spectroscopic method against 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH), radical cation ABTS•+ (2, 2`-azinobis [3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid] diammonium salt) and the ferric reducing agent. Total phenolic, flavonoid and proanthocyanidin contents were also determined to assess their effects on the antioxidant activity of the extract. The results showed that the methanol extract of M. parviflora differed in its capacity to quench or inhibit DPPH and ABTS•+. The extract showed a greater ability to quench ABTS•+ by inhibiting 94.3% of the radical cation while it inhibited 9.3% of DPPH. The free radical scavenging activities were compared using BHT and rutin as reference antioxidants. The plant possessed a higher flavonoid content than phenolics and proanthocyanidins and a positive linear correlation was established between these polyphenols and the free radical scavenging activities.
  A.O.T. Ashafa , D.S. Grierson and A.J. Afolayan
  The antimicrobial activities of the acetone, methanol and water extracts from the leaves, stems and roots of this herb were investigated against 10 bacterial and 5 fungal species using the dilution method on solid agar medium. The acetone extracts from the leaf and root were active against Gram-positive bacteria with Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) ranging between 1.0 and 7.0 mg mL-1, whereas the acetone stem extract was able to inhibit all the bacterial strains at 0.5-7.0 mg mL-1. The methanol extracts of the 3 plant parts showed activity against all the bacterial isolates with MIC values ranging between 0.1 and 10.0 mg mL-1. Again all the extracts exhibited appreciable activity against all the fungi species investigated. The methanol extract of the root showed 100% inhibition against Aspergillus niger, A. flavus and Penicilium notatum at 5 mg mL-1 while it was 88.61% inhibition in Mucor hiemalis. The ability of the extracts of F. muricata to inhibit the growth of several bacteria and fungi is an indication of its broad-spectrum antimicrobial potential which may be employed in the management of bacterial and fungal infections.
  O.O. Odeyemi , M.T. Yakubu , P.J. Masika and A.J. Afolayan
  The effects of the essential oil from Tagetes minuta leaves at 125, 250, 375 and 500 μL kg-1 b.wt. on some biochemical parameters of Wistar rats were studied. There was no significant difference in packed cell volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, monocytes, lymphocytes, eosinophils, basophils, serum alanine transaminase, liver and kidney body weight ratios. However, the 125 μL kg-1 b.wt. resulted in significant decrease in red blood cell and hemoglobin, whereas the same dose produced increase in mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, neutrophils and large unstained cell. Sodium, inorganic phosphorus, conjugated bilirubin, albumin, globulin and total protein at all the doses were not affected while potassium, chloride, urea, creatinine and total bilirubin concentration were increased at certain doses. Whereas the activity of serum gamma glutamyl transferase was significantly increased at all the doses, those of serum aspartate transaminase were increased only at 125 and 500 μL kg-1 b.wt. The kidney-body weight ratio was increased only at 375 and 500 μL kg-1 b.wt. The result showed that the oil of T. minuta had a mild effect on the parameters investigated at certain doses. This dose and parameter specific effects may influence the use of the essential oil from T. minuta as an insecticide against Sitophilus zeamais in maize grains meant for human and animal consumption.
  O.A. Aiyegoro , D.A. Akinpelu , A.J. Afolayan and A.I. Okoh
  In vitro antibacterial activities of four fractions of stem bark of Distemonanthus benthamianus Baill. against some bacterial isolates implicated in oro-dental infections were investigated using standard microbiological methods. The aqueous and chloroform fractions exhibited significant inhibitory action against all twelve bacterial isolates tested at a concentration of 10 mg mL-1. The zones of inhibition due to the aqueous fraction ranged between 10 and 15 mm while that of chloroform fraction ranged between 8 and 13 mm. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) exhibited by aqueous fraction against the bacterial isolates ranged between 0.625 and 2.5 mg mL-1 while that of chloroform fraction ranged between 0.313 and 5.0 mg mL-1. Phytochemical analysis of Distemonanthus benthamianus extract revealed the presence of tannins, steroids, saponins and alkaloids. Between 18 and 76% of Streptococcus mutans were killed within 120 min contact time in aqueous extract concentration of between 0.3125 and 2.50 mg mL-1, while between 15 and 60% of Bacteroides gingivalis were killed within the same period and concentration by the aqueous fraction of the crude extract. The same concentrations of extracts resulted in protein leakages in the test organisms and we proposed disruption of cell membrane as a mechanism of action of the plant extract.
  Srinivas Koduru , F.O. Jimoh , D.S. Grierson and A.J. Afolayan
  In this study two steroid glycosides were isolated from the berries of this plant, which were identified as tomatidine and solasodine by spectroscopic techniques. Antioxidant activities of these compounds were investigated using DPPH, ABTS and reducing power assays. The IC50 confirmed the antioxidant potentials of tomatidine and solasodine. DPPH free radical activity was examined at 30 and 60 min. The highest inhibition was observed when the two compounds were combined, followed by solasodine while tomatidine showed the least inhibition. On the other hand, the activity of ABTS was greater than the DPPH and the activity of the combined compounds was faintly less than solasodine. The activity observed in the reducing power assay was higher in the combined compounds and followed by solasodine and tomatidine. This study has revealed strong antioxidant activity and synergistic effect of the isolated compounds from S. aculeastrum berries.
  A.O.T. Ashafa , D.S. Grierson and A.J. Afolayan
  The foliar micromorphology of Felicia muricata (Thunb.) Nees (Asteraceae) was observed with the JEOL (JSM-6390LV) Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Both the abaxial and adaxial surfaces were characterized by anisocytic stomata which were more prevalent on the abaxial surface than the adaxial surface. The leaves have only one type of multicellular non-glandular trichomes that are long and cylindrical, tapering to a sharp point and running parallel to the leaf surface in the direction of the apices. Crystal deposits were also observed on the surfaces of the leaves near the stomata. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy-SEM shows that Na, Al, Si, and K were the major constituents of the crystal analyzed. Since no glandular trichomes were present on the leaves of this herb, the bioactive components present in this plant may be produced in some other tissues in the leaf other than the trichomes.
  S.C. Pendota , D.S. Grierson and A.J. Afolayan
  Foliar micromorphology of Hippobromus pauciflorus (L.f.) Radlk (Sapindaceae) was investigated by scanning electron microscope examination. The leaves were characterized by anisocytic stomata which were found only on the abaxial surface. The leaves have long unicellular non-glandular trichomes which were distributed over the mid rib and densely populated at the edges of the upper and lower surfaces. Crystal deposits were also observed on the abaxial surface of the leaves. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy SEM of the crystals showed predominant mineral components of Na, Al, Si, K and Ca ions. These micro (Si, Na and Al) and macro (K and Ca) elements are very essential to plant growth. Their presence in the trichomes could contribute to the mechanical stability of the leaf appendages.
  J.R. Appidi , D.S. Grierson and A.J. Afolayan
  The structure and distribution of foliar appendages on the leaves of this plant were investigated with the JEOL (JSM-6390LV) scanning electron microscope (SEM). Both glandular and non-glandular trichomes were observed, which differed from each other in morphology and location on the leaves. Long stalked glandular trichomes were present on both the abaxial and adaxial surfaces while short stalked glandular trichomes were present only on the adaxial surface. Glandular trichomes were capitate while non-glandular trichomes were stellate with many arms. Some crystal deposits were observed on the surfaces of the leaves. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy-SEM of these crystals showed that Al, Ca, K, Na, Ti and Si were the major constituents. We hypothesize that the bioactive therapeutic compounds secreted by H. incana may be produced in the glandular trichomes.
  S.C. Pendota , D.S. Grierson and A.J. Afolayan
  Information on medicinal plants, used by the people of the Eastern Cape for the treatment of eye infections, was collected through questionnaires which were administered to herbalists, traditional healers and rural dwellers. The information collected revealed 12 plant species. These plants belong to 9 families, of which Sapindaceae was the most prominent. The leaves were reported to be the most used part of the plants, constituting 75% of herbal preparations. This was followed by bark and roots which constituted 25%. Generally, the plant parts are crushed and the sap squeezed directly into the infected eyes. In few cases, the material is mixed with water and boiled; after cooling, the extract is applied to the infected eyes. Hippobromus pauciflorus was the most commonly used plant species for the treatment of eye infections in the province. Majority of the plants used have been reported in literature to possess some other pharmacological activities.
  J.R. Appidi , D.S. Grierson and A.J. Afolayan
  An ethnobotanical study of plants used for the treatment of diarrhoea in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa was carried out, using a questionnaire which was administered to herbalists, traditional healers and rural dwellers. Information collected revealed the names of plants used for the treatment of diarrhoea, the parts used and the methods of preparation. This survey indicated a total of 17 plant species from 14 families used in the Province. Elephantorrhiza elephantina, Hermannia incana, Pelargonium reniforme, Alepidea amatymbica and Bulbine latifolia were the most frequently mentioned and highly recommended plants for the treatment of diarrhoea by both the traditional healers and rural dwellers. Roots, bark and leaves are the common parts of plants used, while decoctions and infusions are the main methods of preparation.
  B.T. Aluko , O.I. Oloyede and A.J. Afolayan
  This study assessed the polyphenolic contents and antioxidant activity of ethanol, butanol and ethyl acetate extracts of Ocimum americanum leaves using in vitro models. The ability of the extracts to scavenge 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS●+), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), Nitric Oxide (NO) and hydroxyl radical (OH) was investigated. The inhibition of lipid oxidation, reducing power, total flavonoids, phenols and flavonols contents of the extracts were also determined using spectrophotometric methods. The result revealed highest concentration of polyphenolic compounds in the ethanol extract followed by n-butanol while ethyl acetate extract contained the least concentration. Free radical scavenging potentials of the extracts were found to be proportional to their respective polyphenolic contents. This study provides evidence that O. americanum leaves contain biologically active components with effective antioxidant activity and thus could be used for the management of radical related diseases.
  A.A. Aliero , P.O. Adebola , D.S. Grierson and A.J. Afolayan
  The response of Solanum pseudocapsicum to watering periods and nitrogen levels was investigated in a glasshouse experiment. The two factors studied significantly affected the vegetative growth and biomass production at p≤0.05. A significant interaction was also determined for 70% of the parameters studied. The application of 100 kg N ha-1 was found to be optimum for vegetative growth and biomass production no matter the watering period. Beyond this level, fertilizer application did not increase the magnitude of the growth parameters. The result of this study showed that this plant, although grows in the wild, is intolerant to drought condition and require small amount of fertilizer for its successful propagation. This might explain its adaptation to moist and shaded habitats and its survival ability as indoor ornamental plant.
  A.J. Afolayan and F.B. Lewu
  Alepidea amatymbica Eckl. & Zeyh (Apiaceae) is a medicinal plant traditionally used for the treatment of various diseases including asthma, influenza, and diarrhea in South Africa. The antimicrobial activities of the acetone and methanol extracts of the leaf, stem, rhizome, and root of the species were assessed in an effort to validate the traditional medicinal uses of this herb, especially for the treatment of infectious diseases. Ten bacterial and three fungal species were bioassayed using the agar dilution method. All the extracts demonstrated appreciable activities against three Gram-positive bacteria. These bacteria have been implicated in different respiratory diseases. The inhibitory activity of some of the extracts against pathogens implicated in diarrhea diseases further validated the use of the herb in traditional medicine. Except for acetone leaf extract against Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger, all the extracts showed more than 50% mycotic inhibition with activity ranging from 51.39% on A. niger to 81.11% on Penicillium notatum at 5mg mL−1 which was the highest concentration tested in the study. The ability of the herb to inhibit the growth of various bacteria and fungi species is an indication of the broad-spectrum antimicrobial potential of A. amatymbica; this further validates the use of the herb for various diseases by the people of the Eastern Cape.
  O.T. Asekun , S.O. Okoh , O.B. Familoni and A.J. Afolayan
  Natural antioxidants have been proven safe and potent for the treatment and prevention of several human diseases. This study aimed to investigate the chemical profiles and antioxidant activities of essential oils extracted from the leaf and stem of Parkial biglobosa (Jacq) Benth. The leaf and stem of the plant were subjected to hydro-distillation (modified Clevenger apparatus) to obtain essential oils analyzed by GC/MS method. The antioxidant activities of the oils were determined by evaluating their scavenging activities against DPPH, ABTS and nitric oxide using different concentrations (0.5, 0.2, 0.05 and 0.025 mg mL-1). Positive controls were vitamin C and rutin. The essential oils extracted from the leaf and stem contained 34 and 15 constituents accounting for 84.9 and 95.9% of the total oil, respectively. Of the 34 eluted, 33 compounds were identified in the leaf essential oil. The major components were limonene (16.0%), hexadecanoic acid (12.5%) and farnesene (10.2%). Thirteen compounds were identified in the stem oil, the major compounds were caryophyllene oxide (16.6%), β-caryophyllene alcohol (14.9%), terpinene-4-ol (12.1%) and β-caryophyllene (8.1%). The three antioxidant assays were concentration dependent with varying antioxidant potentials. The antioxidant activity of the stem and stem oils were similar to that of the standard drugs used. The present findings suggest that the essential oils obtained from the leaf and stem of P. biglobosa posses strong antioxidant potential and can be used to produce natural antioxidants as well as natural food preservatives.
  M.O. Sofidiya , F.O. Jimoh , A.A. Aliero , A.J. Afolayan , O.A. Odukoya and O.B. Familoni
  Lecaniodiscus cupanioides Planks. ExBth (Sapindaceae) is widely used in Nigerian folk medicine for the treatment of inflammatory conditions, hepatomegaly and bacterial infections. This study investigated the antioxidant and antibacterial activity of the methanolic extract of the leaves to justify its use in traditional medicine. Extract exhibited strong DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activity greater than BHT and comparable to ascorbic acid. 0.1 mg mL-1 extract inhibited DPPH and ABTS radicals up to 99.4 and 98.5%, respectively. Multiple antioxidant activity of extract was evident with moderate reducing power. TAE (37.678±1.66 mg g1 dry extract) was higher than that reported in many other plant extracts. Flavonoid and proanthocyanidin contents were 4.142±0.06 and 2.548±0.32 mg g-1, respectively. Strong correlation recorded; ABTS/TAE (R2 = 0.89), DPPH/TAE (R2 = 0.90). Antimicrobial activity was highest on gram +ve organisms B. cereus, S. aureus, M. kristine and S. pyrogens (MIC value < 1.0 mg mL-1). Gram-ve S. pooni and P. aeruginosa (MIC value = 2.0 mg mL-1). Results attributed the antioxidant potential of L. cupanioides leaf extract to its strong proton donating ability and justified its use for the treatment of bacterial infections in ethnomedicine.
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