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Articles by A.J. Afolayan
Total Records ( 6 ) for A.J. Afolayan
  S. Koduru , D.S. Grierson and A.J. Afolayan
  Solanum aculeastrum is a medicinal plant that showed low seed germination under laboratory conditions. The objective of this study was to establish whether germination could be improved by the exposure of its seeds to high temperatures such as those registered on surface soils during natural fires. Our results indicated that temperatures of 100 and 120°C applied to green mature seeds of S. aculeastrum, for 45 to 60 min may break their innate dormancy, thus stimulating their subsequent germination to more than 85%. Germination in dry seeds, however, showed very low germination when subjected to high temperatures. Where the effect of smoke was tested on the germination of the green mature and dry seeds of S. aculeastrum, no stimulation of germination was observed. The ecological implications of these observations are discussed.
  A.A. Aliero , O.T. Asekun , D.S. Grierson and A.J. Afolayan
  The chemical compositions of hexane extractable fractions of the leaves of Solanum pseudocapsicum were analyzed by GC-MS. Out of the 35 compounds detected, 26 were identified. The first fraction was dominated by aliphatic hydrocarbons with decane (44.1%), undecane (24.6%) and nonane (6.1%) as the main constituents, while the second fraction was dominated by decane (24.9%), undecane (13%), tetradecane (10.0%) and hexadecane (8.3%). The main constituents of the third fraction were nonane (20.7%). α-terpinolene (7.2%). The acyclic diterpene phytol (35.8%), fatty acids (32.5%) and α-terpinolene (6.3%) dominated the fourth fraction. Other notable components identified include ketones and esters. The high percentage of hydrocarbons, terpenes and fatty acids could contribute to the understanding of the biological characteristics of this species as a poisonous plant.
  S. Koduru , D.S. Grierson , M. van de Venter and A.J. Afolayan
  Solanum aculeastrum is a medicinal plant used by the traditional healers of the Eastern Cape of South Africa, for the treatment of cancers. The antiproliferative activities of this plant were studied in vitro using three human tumour cell lines (HeLa, MCF7 and HT29). Methanolic extracts of the fruits had the highest antiproliferative activity with IC50 between 17.1 and 41.9 μg mL-1 while the activities of their aqueous extracts ranged between 27.9 and 48.5 μg mL-1. The leaf extracts had no anticancer activity under the experimental conditions tested. Overall, the HeLa and MCF7 cell lines were much more sensitive to both extracts than HT29 cells.
  Srinivas Koduru , D.S. Grierson and A.J. Afolayan
  Solanum aculeastrum is an important medicinal plant which is used for the treatment of several diseases including cancer in South Africa. The structure and distribution of foliar appendages on the leaves of this plant were examined by scanning electron microscope. Both glandular and non-glandular trichomes were observed, which differed from each other in morphology and location on the leaf. While short-stalked (SST) glandular trichomes were abundant on the adaxial leaf surface, single, multicellular and pointed stellate trichomes (ST) having 13-15 arms, were abundant on the abaxial surface of the leaf, together with long-stalked glandular trichomes (LST). We hypothesize that the bioactive therapeutic compounds secreted by S. aculeastrum are produced in these glandular trichomes.
  A.A. Aliero , D.S. Grierson and A.J. Afolayan
  Solanum pseudocapsicum is a poisonous plant; yet it is used for the treatment of boils, gonorrhea, tonic and against abdominal pains. The essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation of unripe berries of the shrub was analyzed by Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Twenty-one compounds were identified, constituting 69.24% of the total oil components. The major compounds were homologous series of alkanes, alcohol, aldehyde and terpenoids. The oil is predominated by decane (41.06%), undecane (29.26%), monoterpenoids (14.79%), sesquiterpene (3.21%) and a diterpene pytol (5.94%). These compounds are reported for the first time in this species.
  A.A. Aliero , D.S. Grierson and A.J. Afolayan
  Acetone, methanol and water extracts from the leaves, fruits and roots of Solanum pseudocapsicum were investigated for their antimycotic activities. The growth inhibition of the fungi was determined using the agar dilution assay against five fungal species. Acetone and methanol extracts showed significant growth inhibition of Aspergillus niger and Penicillium notatum with inhibitory activity ranging from 50.83 to 80.55% at 5.0 mg mL-1. The growth of Fusarium oxysporum was markedly suppressed by methanol and acetone extracts from the leaves and the roots. None of the extracts suppressed the growth of Aspergillus flavus and Candida albicans at the tested concentrations. This study suggests a new potential application of S. pseudocapsicum as a fungicide.
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