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Articles by A.G. Mohamed
Total Records ( 9 ) for A.G. Mohamed
  A.G. Mohamed , Hayam M. Abbas , Abeer F. Zayan and Nayra Sh. Mehanna
  Objective: The capability of production of vitamins by some strains of bacteria is the target of this research to prepared a new style of dairy beverage. Methodology: Three different strains of bacteria (L. acidophilus, L. rhamnosus and Bifidobacterium bifidum) or their mixture were evaluated for their ability for production of different vitamins in a dairy beverage. An experiment was designed to prepare papaya-whey-beverage (40:60 w/v) inoculated with 1% of each of the above strains or their mixture to serve four treatments. Estimation of 11 vitamins in the fresh beverages were conducted and the sensory properties of the resultant beverages were also evaluated. Results: Obtained data revealed that all the estimated vitamins were increased by fortification of probiotic bacteria; however their contents showed intra-values differences. Results showed that L. rhamnosus had the highly ability in production of vitamin E, D, B2 and B12, however, L. acidophilus succeeded in production of vitamin A, K, nicotinic and thiamin. On the other side, Bifidobacterium bifidum had the highest ability for production of folic acid, it produced 315.5 Fg/100 mL sample rather than all other strains. Using of 1% of mixture of strains lead to decrease the values of all estimated vitamins except vitamin C. No clear differences were observed in the organoleptic properties within all samples. Conclusion: It could be concluded that using of some probiotics bacteria can be able to produce natural vitamins in dairy beverages to improve health concept.
  A.G. Mohamed , Hayam M. Abbas , Jihan M. Kassem , Hala M.A. Bayoumi , Salwa M. Kassem , Thanaa M.T. Shoman and Mahrousa M. Hassanane
  The present investigation was an attempt to evaluate processed cheese samples made by using two types of emulsifying salt. First treatment (T1) was prepared by using tri-sodium citrate (cheese 1), while second treatment (T2) achieved by using sodium polyphosphate (cheese 2). All cheese samples were analyzed for their physiochemical properties and organoleptic characteristics. On the other side, cytogenetics evaluation including chromosomal aberrations in somatic and germ cells, DNA damage and micronucleus tests were carried out in male mice treated with cheese 1 and 2. Moreover, the effect of cheese 1 and 2 on liver function and kidney function in male mice were also studied. The results revealed that cheese 1 possessed high values of meltability and oil separation and low values of penetration compared with cheese 2. The genotoxicity study revealed that male mice treated with cheese 1 and 2 expressed significant increment in the chromosomal aberrations, DNA damage and micronucleus formation compared to control mice. In addition, levels of ALT, AST and ALP as well as creatinine, urea and uric acid were markedly increased in male mice treated with cheese 1 or 2 compared with control mice. However, cheese 2 was more effective in increase the genetic toxicity than cheese 1.The present results revealed that use of tri-sodium citrate and sodium polyphosphate in cheese processing increased the oxidative stress in male mice that increased the toxicity response on genetic materials, liver and kidney functions. So, an urgent demand for searching new materials used as emulsifying agents is still need.
  A.G. Mohamed , Hayam M. Abbas , Jihan M. Kassem , Walid A. Gafour and A.G. Attalah
  A new approach to prevent the proliferation of microorganisms or protect food from oxidation is using of essential oils or plant extracts. Among the antimicrobial agents, Commiphora myrrha is considered as natural and safe materials. The antimicrobial activity of Commiphora myrrha-essential oil against different species of pathogenic gram-positive as well as gram-negative bacteria were investigated. Data revealed that all tested microorganisms were susceptible to the action of Commiphora myrrha. Their Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) ranged from 2-5 μL mL–1 for all microorganisms. Processed Cheese Spreads (PCSs) samples were prepared by using five ratios of Commiphora myrrha-Essential Oil (EO) to evaluate their properties and their acceptability. Their properties were estimated through one year of storage at 5±2°C. Obtained results showed that using 2% (w/w) Commiphora myrrha-EO for preparing PCS gave satisfactorily sensory properties. The appearance was well shiny; gumminess and oil separation were absent. The penetration of satisfied treatment of myrrh (2%) was (33.5, 32.0, 31.2, 30.00 and 29.20 mm) compared to control samples (33.0, 30.5, 26.5, 25.1 and 24.5 mm) when fresh and after 1, 3, 6 and 12 months, respectively. On the other hand, meltability took the same trend; the treated-samples gained 85.4, 81.6, 80.0, 79.1 and 78.2 mm comparing with control samples 81.6, 80.5, 78.7, 77.1 and 76.6 mm, respectively. Therefore, it could be concluded that using of 2% w/w Commiphora myrrha-essential oil produced acceptable and satisfied processed cheese spreads and it could be used as a natural preservation in dairy products.
  A.G. Mohamed and Samah M. Shalaby
  Apricot is a natural source of polyphenols and other phytochemicals such as β-carotene and ascorbic acid that contribute to its antioxidant activity. Apricot pulp can be applied as a material for enriching different kinds of food systems such as ice cream, processed cheese. Analogue processed cheeses (PCSs) were made with different ratios of apricot pulps (10, 20 and 30%) which sweetened with different proportions of sugar (5, 10 and 15%). The base blends were standardized to contain 60% material moisture and 36% fat in dry matter in the resultant control spreads. The PCSs were evaluated for chemical, texture and sensory properties during storage at 25°C and 5°C for 3 months. The results revealed that addition of apricot pulp and sugar resulted in in PCSs with higher total solids, fiber, carbohydrates, vitamin A and potassium contents, as compared with the control cheese spread product. However, the control treatment had the highest contents of protein, ash, soluble nitrogen, fat in dry matter, as well as pH values as compared with the other treatments. Moreover, the textural characteristics of PCSc were revealed that the hardness, gumminess, cohesiveness and springiness in all treatments were lowest than the control cheese. On the other hand, the sensory evaluation scores revealed that all PCSs treatments were accepted for panels and there were slightly differences between all treatments. Furthermore, PCSs made the highest percent of apricot (30%) with the highest sugar content (15%), fresh as well as, stored was the significantly most accepted, while the control sample was the least.
  A.G. Mohamed , Samah M. Shalaby and Walid A. Gafour
  Carrot (Daucus carota L.) is one of the great nutritious origin vegetables. It is the richest source of β-carotene, precursor of vitamin A and a lot of nutrients. So, the main aims of preparing carrot based processed cheese analogue, were to enhance its nutritive value and presented new cheese for children. Carrot analogue processed cheeses (CPCSs) were made with various ratios of carrot paste (5, 10 and 15%) which sweetened with 15% sugar in all treatments. The base blends were standardized to contain 36% F/DM (fat in dry matter) and 60% moisture in the resultant control spreads. Various chemicals parameter such as total solids, ash, salt and carbohydrate were determined. Some important nutrients which the carrot presented as vitamin A, carotenoids and phenolic compounds were also measured, in addition to sensory evaluation. The CPCAs samples displayed that, insignificant higher in total solids, significant reductions in the average values of F/DM, protein and salt in water phase and insignificant for ash content; these reductions commensurate with increasing the proportion of the carrot paste addition. Moreover, enhanced cheese with carrot paste were higher than control in the each nutritional components, vitamin A, carotenoids and phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity plus lower sodium/potassium ratio. In addition, sensory evaluation showed that all samples were accepted and that the use of carrot paste as optional ingredient in processed cheese analogue would be a great way to introduce of a healthy cheese with orange color, which could be introduced to children instead of other sweetened products.
  Nayra Sh. Mehanna , Fatma A.M. Hassan , T.M. El-Messery and A.G. Mohamed
  Background and Objective: Tomato is most important vegetables that gained attention in the recent period. Tomato contains antioxidants, carotenoids and lycopene which play an important role in the observed health effects. Tomato products decrease a risk of some cancer type. Four batches of processed cheese spread were prepared. First batch let as control. Tomato juice was added with different ratios (10, 20 and 30%) to 2nd, 3rd and 4th batch, respectively. Resultant cheese was subjected for analysis. The purpose of this study is production of process cheese with high nutrition and healthy effect. Materials and Methods: Determination of total phenolic contents, antioxidants capacity, lycopene and chemical and physical properties for functional processed cheese which supplemented with tomato as a source of lycopene. Results: The results showed that the resultant cheese with tomato juice had ferrous while not detected in control. Potassium (mg kg–1) had highest in treatments and increased by increasing tomato juice. Treatments had a highest Residual Scavenging Activate (RSA%) and phenolic compounds mg/100 g than control and increased by increasing tomato juice lycopene not detected in control but found in all treatments. Penetrometer reading had highest in control and decreased during storage either control or treatments. Control had highest meltability, pH and lowest oil separation than treatments. Sensory evaluation showed that process cheese prepared with tomato juice was acceptable and had a good firmness, crumbliness. About 20% tomato juice had gained highest acceptability than other treatments. Conclusion: Addition of tomato juice in preparation of process spread cheese led to produce a good and acceptable spread cheese with high nutritional and healthy food and it’s a good for children because tomato contains lycopene which had red color attractive to children beside contains antioxidants and play important roles in the observed health effects.
  Samah M. Shalaby , A.G. Mohamed and Hala M. Bayoumi
  Background and Objective: Sauces from cheese are highly used in prepared and pre-prepared meals in the food sector. Besides submitting good flavor, often cheese sauces are desired to present functional and visible roles, i.e., color, texture and mouth-feel. This study aimed to prepare novel natural sauces from processed cheese flavored with essential oils. Essential oils (EOs) that contribute to its antioxidant, antimicrobial, flavor and color properties. Materials and Methods: Plain processed cheese sauces were manufactured from whey protein concentrate 75% and acid casein curd 25%. Cheese sauces were flavored with 2% of some essential oils turnip, shallots, Capsicum and cardamom and 1% sugar. The base blends were standardized to contain 65% moisture and 29% fat in dry matter in the resultant cheese sauces. Plain cheese sauces were evaluated for chemical, texture, color parameters and sensory properties during storage at 7°C. Results: The values of total solids, fat, ash and lactose were decreased significantly by increasing of addition of WPC and decreasing of AC curd. The protein was only compounds that increased significantly (p≤0.05) by the addition of WPC to the blend cheese. The pH values also significantly increased by increasing the ratios of WPC to the cheese blends. No chemical changes in the flavored cheese sauces. The lightness (L*-values) of PC sauces made with different EOs had the lowest values, as follow: Turnip, shallots, Capsicum and cardamom, respectively. Moreover, PC sauces were made with Capsicum and cardamom oils (light orange and pink colors, respectively) had the highest a* and b*-values (light yellowish color) than the others. The flavors of PC sauces were generally better and preferable by the panelists. Also, the body, texture, appearance and color were accepted. Generally, PCs manufactured with cardamom and turnip oils gained the highest scores. Conclusion: According to the obtained results, it can be produce processed cheese sauces with high quality and acceptability from easy and cheap materials and flavored with essential oils, which had many benefits in human health.
  H.M. Gamal-Eldin , Baraka, A. Abd El-Salam , O.A. Seoudi , Hemat A. Mahmoud and A.G. Mohamed
  Background and Objective: Yeasts have potential antimicrobial activities against the growth of putrefaction bacteria. The late gas defect is a major cause of spoilage in processed cheese. It results in the production of gas, off-odours and the liquefaction of the cheese. Some clostridial species are considered cause of late gas defect in cheese. So, processed cheese-late gas inhibition using dried supernatant of Candida pelliculosa yeast compared with nisin was studied. Methodology: Five processed cheese treatments were prepared. The treatments were A (control 1) fortified with clostridial spores only, B (control 2) fortified with clostridial spores and nisin (1000 IU g–1), while, C, D and E treatments fortified with clostridial spores and 1, 3 and 5 mg of dried supernatant of Candida pelliculosa yeast DSCPY per gram, respectively. The resulting processed cheese treatments were storage at 30°C for 3 months. The chemical, physical and microbiological analyses of the resultant cheeses were performed every month of storage. Results: The treatments of A (control 1), C (1 mg DSCPY g–1 cheese) and D (3 mg DSCPY g–1 cheese) spoiled by producing high quantity of gas from the 1st month of the storage period and cheese glass jars were opened. Hence, the chemical, physical and microbiological analyses of these treatments weren’t performed. The chemical composition of fresh processed cheese treatments and those of with 5 mg DSCPY g–1 or nisin during storage period was not significantly affected. Changing physical properties (penetrometer reading, oil separation and melting index) of studied processed cheese treatments did not happen at zero time. The penetrometer reading of E treatment (5 mg DSOCY g–1) was higher than those of with nisin B (control 2) during storage period. The oil separation index increased but melting index and penetrometer reading decreased gradually during storage period in treatment E (5 mg DSCPY g–1) or those of with nisin. Also, color properties of studied cheese treatments were determined. The microbiological results showed that the most effective concentrate of DSCPY against clostridial spores was 5 mg g–1. Conclusion: It be concluded that the addition of 5 mg g–1 of DSCPY during processed cheese spread manufacture prevented of late-blowing in cheese.
  A.G. Mohamed , Hesham A. Eissa , Hala M. Byoumi and Wafaa A. Ibrahim
  Background and Objective: The study was utilized of different (green, yellow and red) Bell Pepper Juice (BPJ) in preparing of Processed Cheese Spread (PCS) to improve its organoleptic, nutritional and functional properties. Methodology: The BPJ was added to base blend at the levels of 20%. The prepared samples were analyzed for chemical, physical, microbiological and sensory properties. Results: Processed Cheese Spreads (PCSs) were analysis after fortification with BPJ and processing. The vitamins content (A, E, K, D, C and B6) was significantly higher in PCSs incorporation of BPJ, also nicotinic acid, thiamin, riboflavin and folic acid content was significantly increased in cheese spread containing 20% BPJ compared with control or unfortified PCSs. Furthermore, the total phenol compounds and residual scaving activity content were significantly higher in cheese spread containing 20% of BPJ. No significant change was observed in the chemical and physical composition of PCSs made with and without incorporation of BPJ. Conclusion: In general, organoleptic grade of the PCSs made with 20% of different BPJ were better among the other treatments. Using of BPJ in PCS makes this dairy product useful as a healthy and a functional food.
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