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Articles by A.G. Ambali
Total Records ( 6 ) for A.G. Ambali
  Y.A. Geidam , A.G. Ambali and P.A. Onyeyili
  Resistance of some bacteria, especially some stains of E. coli to common antimicrobial agents has created an urgent need to develop alternative antimicrobial drugs from herbs that are safe, cheap and may overcome the resistance of the pathogens. The crude aqueous extract of Psidium guajava leaf which is known to possess some antibacterial properties was further subjected to sequential fractionation with organic solvents (chloroform, ethyl acetate, normal butanol) of different polarity. This was done until the organic layer was visibly clear to obtain chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol soluble fractions and residual aqueous fraction. Phytochemical screening and antibacterial activity of organic solvents soluble fractions and residual fraction of the extract on some gram positive and gram negative microbes were carried out. The different fractions showed variation in phytochemical constituency and thus in their antibacterial properties. The ethyl acetate soluble fraction of the extract showed broad spectrum antibacterial properties against all the organisms tested. The fraction also showed a good activity against E. coli at a relatively lower concentration and hence could possibly be use against E. coli infections.
  M. Muhammad , L.U. Muhammad , A.U. Mani and A.G. Ambali
  A questionnaire-based survey was conducted to investigate chick mortality at hatching in three commercial hatcheries in and around Jos, central Nigeria. Mortality was defined as the sum of dead chicks, dead-in-shell embryos and culls due to various other reasons. There was a large variation in culling rates due to poor hatching. The major reasons for culling were dead-in-shell embryos, weak chicks, dead chicks, omphalitis and physical abnormalities such as incomplete feathering, weak limbs, distorted beaks and wetness. There was no significant correlation between the age of breeding flock and percentage of culls indicating that culling rate was not strongly influenced by the age of breeding flock. Although, factors contributing to poor hatching include management and incubation failures, the most probable cause of abnormalities, weak chicks and omphalitis are diseased breeder flocks or poor hygiene and sanitation in hatchery operations. Two of the hatcheries used a combination of formaldehyde and iodine for disinfection but hygiene standards were compromised due to inadequate cleaning in all three hatcheries. The poor hatch experienced in this study suggests that there is considerable room for improvement in hatchery operations particularly with regards to hygiene and sanitation. Adequate training of hatchery operators in understanding the crucial role hygiene plays in ensuring high chick quality is needed.
  M. Muhammad , L.U. Muhammad , A.G. Ambali and A.U. Mani
  A questionnaire-based survey was conducted to investigate early chick mortality and its causes during the first two weeks on small-scale poultry farms in Jos, central Nigeria. The survey covered layer and broiler farms procuring day-old chicks from three selected hatcheries. Flock sizes varied from 20 birds up to 2000. Average mortality was 10.4 per flock with a standard deviation of 14.4. As a percentage of flock size, mortality was 11.4% with a standard deviation of 18.8%. The major causes of mortality were stress, Pullorum disease and diarrhoea. There was no significant relationship (p = 0.01, R2 = 0.02) between flock size and mortality. There was also no significant relationship (p = 0.01, R2 = 0.04) between mortality and the breed of stock. Of farms experiencing mortalities, only 28.8% consulted a veterinarian for diagnosis and treatment. The other 71% self-diagnosed the problems and instituted treatment which included vitamin supplementation or antimicrobial therapy, with enrofloxacin and gentamycin being the most popular drugs. Medication without consultation with qualified veterinarians may result in the abuse and misuse of antibiotics with the attendant consequences of resistance and the occurrence of drug residues in poultry and poultry products. The wide-spread use of antibiotics in the study area is cause for concern from both a veterinary and public health point of view. Although factors responsible for early chick mortality are complex, information on chick mortality on small-scale farms can be used for the training of farmers on its control. A better understanding of the causes of mortality in the crucial first few weeks of the chick’s life may lead farmers to rely more on better management such as better hygiene and sanitation and less on antibiotics for problems encountered during the early brooding period.
  Nusirat Elelu , Z. Jaji , A. Badiru , F. Olowoleni and A.G. Ambali
  A descriptive cross sectional study was carried out to assess certain management and health practices in some selected poultry establishments in Ilorin, Kwara state with the view to improving poultry production. Structured questionnaires were distributed via the Poultry Association of Nigeria (PAN), Kwara state chapter. The mean age of respondents was 47.93(±12.397) years. Majority (60.5%) of the respondents were large holder farmers with greater than 200 birds; Deep litter (48.7%) was the most practiced management system. Almost half 48.5% of the respondents administered all the recommended vaccines. Commercial feed was the most widely used (68.4%). Veterinarian (39.5%) and Retail Vendors (39.5%) were the source of poultry stock. About 35.1% did not use any form of protective clothing on farms. About 36.8% of respondents disposed waste by use as manure. 42.1% of respondents routinely consulted Veterinarian. Coccidiosis reported by about one third (33.3%) of respondent was identified as the most common disease outbreak followed by IBD (24.2%) and NCD (21.2%). Veterinary clinic (35.1%) and fellow farmer (32%) were the most important source of information on poultry. The Chi-square analysis revealed management system (p<0.0001) and number of birds kept (p<0.006) significantly determined the method of waste disposal while age (p<0.0001), Length of being in profession (p<0.03) and Number of birds kept (p<0.0001) determined the reasons for Veterinary consultation. The study gave an overview of the type of management system in Ilorin. Recommendations are therefore made for strengthening of PAN as well as improve biosecurity as a means of disease prevention.
  J.R. Lawal , S.M. Jajere , A.M. Bello , M. Mustapha , Y. Wakil , J.J. Ndahi , F.B. Mustapha , B.T. Paul , I.A. Gulani , U.I Ibrahim , Y.A. Geidam , A.G. Ambali and I. Waziri
  A cross-sectional study was conducted from July 2013 to March 2014 to determine the prevalence of Infectious Bursal Disease (IBD) in 5 Local Government Areas (LGAs) of Gombe State, Northeastern Nigeria. A multi-stage random sampling technique was employed in the selection of 3 districts within each of these LGAs and 10 households within each selected district with moderate number of village chicken growers within the age range of 12-16 weeks old were selected. A total of 1500 cloacal samples comprising 651 males and 849 females were collected and tested for IBD antibodies using Rapid IBD Antigen Detection Test Kits (RADTK). Of this, 953 (63.5%; 95% CI: 61.06-65.94) were positive for the disease. A high prevalence of 84.4% (95% CI: 81.8-87.0) was obtained during the rainy season as compared with 40.3% (95% CI: 36.8-43.8) in the dry season (p<0.05). Males had a slightly higher prevalence of 59.9% (95% CI: 56.1-63.7) as compared with the female birds 52.2% (95%CI: 48.8-55.6) (p>0.05). Based on the LGAs, the prevalence ranges from 69.3% (OR = 1.45, 95% CI: 0.10-2.80) in Gombe to 61.0% in Funakaye LGA (p>0.05). Urban region had high prevalence of 37.6% (OR = 2.6; 95% CI: 1.79-3.41) as compared with 26.3% in the rural areas (p<0.001). It was concluded that IBD is endemic in Gombe State particularly within the urban city. Therefore, appropriate control and preventive measures were highlighted to mitigate the resultant economic losses to the backyard poultry farmers and halt further escalation of the disease.
  Y.A. Geidam , A.G. Ambali and P.A. Onyeyili
  The leaves of Psidium guajava is used in folk medicine as an antidiarrhoic in Nigeria and many other countries of the world. It is also employed for the treatment of vertigo and regulation of menstrual periods. World health organization encourages and indicated that studies on medicinal plants should include both identification of chemical constituents and determination of the biological activities of such plants. In this preliminary study, phytochemical and antibacterial properties of crude aqueous extract of Psidium guajava leaf were evaluated. The extract was subjected to qualitative chemical screening for identification of various classes of active chemical constituents while disc diffusion method was used to determine the antibacterial properties of the extract against some gram positive and gram negative bacteria. The extract showed the presence of tannins, saponins, carbohydrates, flavonoids, steroids and cardiac glycosides. The extract inhibited the growth of Salmonella typhi and Klebsiella pneumoniae, but has no effect on the growth of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus fecalis organisms. The study revealed some antibacterial properties of the extract that justify the use of the plant in folk medicine. However, further studies need to be carried out to identify the potentials of the plant to be considered as a natural source of antibacterial agent.
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