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Articles by A.A. Oyagbemi
Total Records ( 5 ) for A.A. Oyagbemi
  A.B. Saba and A.A. Oyagbemi
  A study on the haemotoxic effect of orally administered chloramphenicol palmitate (CAP) and the possible countering effect of multivitamin-haematinic complex (MVH) on chloramphenicol-induced anaemia was conducted using rabbits as the animal model. Twenty male rabbits were used in this study. They were randomly divided into four groups of five rabbits each according to the drug administered. Rabbits in group A were administered with 0.9% physiological saline; group B rabbits were administered with chloramphenicol only while rabbits in group C were given combination of chloramphenicol and MVH. Rabbits in group D were administered with MVH only. Chloramphenicol palmitate was administered at dosage of 50 mg kg-1, 6 h interval per day for a period of three weeks. Chemiron® was the source of multivitamin- haematinics used in this study and 5 mL of the syrup was administered thrice daily for the same period of time. All the administration of drugs was done orally. Blood samples were collected from the rabbits in all the groups on the 7th, 14th and 21st of drug administration. Peripheral blood parameters such as the Red Blood Cell count (RBC), Packed Cell Volume (PCV), haemoglobin concentration (Hb), Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV), Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin Concentration (MCHC), Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin (MCH) and White Blood Cell count (WBC) were evaluated. The haemotoxic effect of CAP was evident from the 7th day to the 21st day of drug administration with the lowered haematological values of rabbits in group B when compared with those of the rabbits in control group A. Statistical comparison shows that the differences of the means of group A and B were significant for RBC (p<0.01), PCV (p<0.05) and Hb (p<0.05) on day 7; for RBC (p<0.001), PCV (p<0.001) and Hb (p<0.01) on day 14; for RBC (p<0.001), PCV (p<0.001) and Hb (p<0.05) day 21. The administration of MVH to the rabbits in group D produced higher mean haematological values for the group compared with the mean values of the control group A and these changes were only significant for RBC (p<0.05), PCV (p<0.05) and MCH (p<0.05) on day 21. The rabbits of group C administered with MVH and CAP exhibited significantly lower levels of PCV (p<0.05) on day 7, RBC (p<0.01) PCV (p<0.01) and Hb (p<0.05) on day 14 relative to the values obtained in the control group A. This study further confirmed the anaemic side effect of chloramphenicol and it also established the limitations of haematopoietic micronutrients in reducing or ameliorating this anaemic effect especially during prolonged administration of chloramphenicol.
  A.A. Oyagbemi , A.B. Saba and R.O.A. Arowolo
  Stresroak® is a herbal preparation from combination of Phyllatus emblica, Ocimum sanctum, Withania, somnifera, Mangefira indica and Shilajit species. The Ayurvedic drug is used as anti-stress, immunomodulator, adaptogen and performance enhancer in poultry management. with outstanding results. The toxicological effects of prolonged administration of Stresroak in grower Cockerels was evaluated using haematological parameters and serum biochemical assay. Sixty growing Cockerels were used in this study. The birds were randomly but equally divided into 5 groups. Birds in groups A, B, C and D were administered with 109.8mg 292.8mg, 585.6mg and 951.6mg of the drug dissolved in 2 litres of distilled water, daily for 60 days respectively. While the dose of group A was recommended by the drug manufacturer, the birds in group E were administered with 0.9% Physiological saline. The haematological parameters analyzed were total red blood cell (RBC) count, total white blood cell (WBC) count, haemoglobin concentration (Hb), platelets count and heterophil/lymphocytes ratio. Plasma enzymes and proteins analyzed were total proteins (T.P), albumin (ALB), globulin (GLO), fibrinogen (FIB), total bilirubin (T.Bil), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine Aminotransferase (ALT) and gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT). Stresroak generally improved haematological parameters in chicken administered with the drug when compared with the chicken in the control group. The significant (P< 0.05) increase in total RBC and WBC counts and MCH both at 30 and 60 days post-administration especially for the therapeutic dose, show that Stresroak® probably enhances erythropoiesis. Lower heterophil/lymphocyte ratio was observed for the groups that received the highest doses of Stresroak® and this was consistent throughout the course of the experiment, which implies that the herbal preparation improved the immunity of the chicken. The plasma levels of total protein, globulin, albumin and fibrinogen increased dose-dependently both at 30 and 60 days post- Stresroak® administration. The plasma levels of ALP and AST were significantly lowered while non-significant changes were observed for plasma levels of ALT and GGT at 30 days post- Stresroak® administration. Conversely, by 60 days post- Stresroak® administration, the plasma levels of ALT and GGT were significantly (P< 0.05) elevated except in cockerels in group A that received the recommended therapeutic dosage; where the plasma levels was observed to be lower for ALP (P< 0.05) and AST (P>0.05). Histopathological findings did not however reveal any damage to the liver or kidney. It was concluded that Stresroak® exhibits haematinic, hepato-protective and immune stimulation properties and is safest at its recommended therapeutic dose as it was found to have potential tendency to cause hepatic injury when administered for longer period and at higher dosages.
  O.I. Azeez , A.A. Oyagbemi and J.O. Oyewale
  Diurnal fluctuation in haematological parameters such as packed cell volume (PCV), red blood cell (RBC) count, haemoglobin concentration (Hb), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) and erythrocyte osmotic fragility of the domestic fowl in the hot humid tropics was investigated using Nera Black cocks. Blood samples were collected from the birds at 6:00 am, 10:00 am, 2:00 pm, 6:00 pm, 10:00 pm and 2:00 am during a 12-hour light and a 12-hour dark period. PCV showed considerable diurnal variation with the lowest value obtained at 10:00 am and the peak value recorded during the early morning (2:00 am). RBC, Hb, MCH and MCHC values also varied according to the time of the day, with the lowest values observed at 2:00 pm, probably as a result of haemodilution following increased feed and water consumption at this period of the day. Peak values for RBC, Hb, MCH and MCHC were observed at 10:00 pm when the birds were already roosting (during the dark phase of the day) as a result of which physical and metabolic activities were generally lowered. Haemoconcentration so produced might be responsible for the higher haematological parameters during the night because the birds were neither eating nor drinking water at this period of the day. Erythrocyte osmotic fragility at 0.3% NaCl concentration was also significantly higher (P < 0.05) at 6:00 am than at any other period of the day.
  O.I. Azeez , A.A. Oyagbemi and J.O. Oyewale
  The effects of transportation stress and pretreatment with non-enzymic antioxidants vitamins C and E on the erythrocyte osmotic fragility, haematocrit, haemoglobin, red blood cell and white blood cell counts, Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV), Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin (MCH), Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin Concentration (MCHC) and the differential leucocyte counts were investigated using the domestic chicken. About 32, adult female domestic chickens of the Nera black strain were used. The birds were divided into four groups A-D consisting of 8 birds each. Groups A and B did not receive any medication. Group C received vitamin C (650 mg kg-1 diet) while D, vitamin E (270 mg kg-1 diet) in feed for 2 weeks. Birds in groups B, C and D were transported through a distance of 200 km. Blood samples were collected within 30 min after the journey for analysis. Contrary to the expectation, the erythrocyte osmotic fragility was lower in the transported, untreated birds than the control while those pretreated with vitamins C and E had higher osmotic fragility. Haemoglobin and MCHC values were higher in the transported, untreated while other parameters were similar. This study demonstrated that nucleated erythrocytes of the domestic chicken unlike other animals with non nucleated erythrocytes, respond to acute stress by increase in osmotic resistance and membrane stability in hypotonic solution, this was antagonized by pretreatment with vitamins C and E.
  A.A. Oyagbemi and A.A. Odetola
  The study was designed to evaluate the possible hepatoprotective effect of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius on paracetamol poisoning in rats. Twenty five male Wistar rats were used in this study. They were divided into 5 groups of 5 rats. Groups I and II received normal saline (0.9% physiological saline). Animal in groups III-V were administered Cnidoscolus aconitifolius at 100, 500 and 1,000 mg kg-1, respectively for 7 days. All animal in groups II-V were given paracetamol at 3 g kg-1 by gastric gavage on days 8 and 9. Animals were sacrificed by cervical dislocation on day 10 after an overnight fast. Paracetamol overdose caused significant (p<0.05) increase in the plasma Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN), triglycerides (TAG) and total cholesterol (TC) and Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL-cholesterol) and significant (p<0.05) decrease Total Protein (TP) and High Density Lipoprotein (HDL-cholesterol) in rats treated with paracetamol alone when compared with rats pre-treated with extract of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius. Pre-treatment with ethanolic extract of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius led to significant (p<0.05) decrease in serum ALT, ALP, AST, LDL and BUN when compared with the paracetamol treated rats in dose-dependent manner. The extract also similarly caused significant (p<0.05) increase in HDL values compared with paracetamol treated group. In conclusion, the results of this study demonstrated that the Cnidoscolus aconitifolius can ameliorate paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity. Significant hepato-protective activity was observed in rats treated with the dose of 1000 mg kg-1 b.wt.
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