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Articles by A.A. El-Deek
Total Records ( 5 ) for A.A. El-Deek
  A.A. El-Deek , Safa M. Hamdy , Y.A. Attia and A.M. El-Shahat
  The effect of different dietary levels of sun dried Guava by-product (GBP, pulp, peel, seeds and inedible fruits) processed by various ways in laying hen diets was investigated. GBP was collected and sun dried and fine grinded. GBP was processed by boiling for half an hr or an hr in water, acid (0.1 N) and alkaline (0.1 N) and their chemical composition was done. Furthermore, a total of 264 laying hens were fed from 32-48 wk of age twenty two diets consist of three level of GBP at 5, 10 and 15% processed by seven techniques in addition to the control diet (GBP free-diet). Each diet was assigned to three replicates of 4 hens each. Different processing methods induced an alternation in chemical composition of GBP. The ME value of GBP sun dried only, boiled for half an hr or an hr in water, acid (0.1 N) and alkaline (0.1 N) was 2200, 2040, 2540, 2310, 2160, 2650 and 2480 kcal/kg, respectively. Hens fed 15% of sun dried GBP or 15% of GBP boiled for half an hr in acid laid significantly more eggs, whereas, those fed 5% GBP boiled for half an hr in water had the least egg number. Hens fed 5% sun dried GBP boiled for an hr in alkaline had significantly the best FCR. Sun dried or processed GBP in layer diets did not adversely affect quality of eggs and shell.
  A.A. El-Deek and Mervat A. Brikaa
  The aim of this research was to evaluate the nutritional value of seaweed as a feedstuff for poultry and evaluate the use of seaweed as pellet binder in duck diets. Chemical analyses of dried marine red seaweed (Polysiphonia SPP) showed reasonable amounts of protein (32.4%); ether extract (17.7%), crude fiber (14.9%), ash (6.0%) and nitrogen free extract (23.4%). Seaweed contained appropriate amounts of minerals required by poultry. Leucine and lysine were the most abundant amino acids in seaweed protein. The content of each amino acid in seaweed protein is lower than the whole egg protein. Methionine is the first limiting amino acid (with chemical score 50.0%), valine and arginine were the second and third limiting amino acids in seaweed protein (with chemical score 71.63 and 74.33%, respectively). The estimation of Essential Amino Acid Index (EAAI) was 63.34% and the average of Total Protein Efficiency (TPE) value is 1.26. Thus seaweed is an intermediate source of protein for growing chicks. The metabolizable energy value of marine seaweed was 3518 kcal/kg. Seaweed up to 3% as a pellet binder did not adversely influence growth performance of ducks. Also, the physical test showed some improvement in pellet hardness quality. The inclusion of seaweed meal in the diet for ducks had no significant effects on all of carcass traits. In conclusion, seaweed is a valuable feed resource for poultry feeding and can be utilized as a pellet binder in duck diets.
  A.A. El-Deek , K.M. Ghonem , Saffa M. Hamdy , M.A. Aser , Fahad M. Aljassas and M.M. Osman
  An experiment was run to study the possibility of elimination of uric acid from poultry manure and increasing its nutritive value by using it as a medium for single cell protein (SCP, yeast) production. Dried Poultry Manure (DPM) was collected freshly from battery brooders of broiler chicken house, dried in an oven at 80oC for 48 h, crushed with mill and stored in plastic bags. Seven strains of yeast (Candida utilis, Candida tropicalis, 3 strains of Saccharomyces cerevisae, S. uvarum and Rhodotorula rubra) were tested to hydrolyzed uric acid and produce protein when grown on DPM containing medium. In addition, forty five one-day old commercial broiler chicks were used to determine Total Protein Efficiency (TPE) of raw and treated DPM. The chickens were randomly divided among 3 equal groups of approximately similar initial body weight of three replicates each containing 5 chicks. Another, one hundred and sixty two broiler chickens were allotted to 9 dietary treatments of 3 replicates of 6 chickens each in a randomized complete block design. This experiment aimed to evaluate the nutritive value of the treated DPM. The experimental diets were corn-soybean meal diet in which 3, 6, 9 and 12% treated DPM and untreated DPM were added on the expense of soybean meal protein. Candida utilis offered the highest protein yield (12.7%) and the highest efficiency to hydrolyze uric acid; therefore, it was selected for further study. Shorter growth periods (< 5 days) favor protein yields while longer growth times (>5 days) were concomitant to higher uric acid hydrolysis. The optimum amount for protein production and uric acid hydrolysis under the specified fermentation condition were 2 g /50 ml medium and pH range between 6-7. Inoculum size from 2-8% and medium should be consists only 40 g DPM /l without any salt increased the protein yield and high utilized of uric acid. The chemical analysis of the DPM showed 19.1% Crude Protein (CP), 18.2% ash, 7.9% Crude Fiber (CF), 1.7% Ether Extract (EE) and relatively high uric acid content, 7.2%. Fermentation of DPM increased the CP content from 19.1 to 24.9%, the NPN content decreased from 9.6 to 8.7%, uric acid content decreased from 7.2 to 0.3% and the EE increased from 1.7 to 2.4%. Amino acids of fermented DPM were greatly increased than those of the DPM except for glycine, histidine and tyrosine. Results of TPE assay indicated that chickens fed diet containing treated DPM gained significantly more weight than those given diets containing untreated DPM. Chickens fed treated DPM gained significantly more weight than those given the untreated DPM, throughout the experimental period. In conclusion, yeast treatment for DPM improved its nutritive value, thus it could be included up to 9% in broiler diets without adverse effect on growth performance of broiler chickens up to 4 wks of age.
  A.A. El-Deek and M.A. Al-Harthi
  The effect of feeding different dietary levels of Dried Whole Eggs (DWE) processed by various ways during 14-20 wk of age on the performance of pullets up to 25 wk of age was investigated. Eggs that are not approved for human consumption were collected and then were dried at 55oC. DWE were processed by freezing at -18oC, freezing with boiling and autoclaving at 121oC. It was included in the pullet diets at 2.5 and 5%. There was also, a control diet that was fed without DWE. Thus, the experimental design was factorial (2 x 3) with added a control group (0% DWE). Each diet was fed to three replicates of 8 pullets each. Pullet's performance, egg production and quality traits and absolute and relative weight of reproductive organs was studied. Growth of pullets up to 25 wk of age was not significantly affected by various processing techniques, however, age at 50% production significantly decreased due to autoclaving compared with freezing with boiling technique. Level of 5% DWE increased growth of pullets up to 20 wk of age and this effect diminished at 25 wk of age. Laying rate, egg weight, egg mass and Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) were significantly improved due to feeding DWE processed by freezing with boiling compared to the other methods and this was obvious within each DWE level. Age at 50% production significantly decreased and egg production traits significantly improved due to inclusion of 5% DWE. Egg quality traits of fresh eggs were not significantly affected by DWE level and/or technique of processing. However, freezing technique maintained better Haugh unit score and freezing with boiling maintained better yolk index after stored for one month in the refrigeration. On the other hand, 2.5% DWE maintained shell thickness and Haugh unit score of eggs stored for one month in the refrigeration. Absolute and relative weight of organs were significantly affected by processing methods and/or DWE levels and 5% DWE significantly increased absolute and relative weight of blood, intestinal length and leg color while significantly decreased absolute and relative weight of liver and absolute weight of intestinal. In conclusion, up to 5% frozen with boiled DWE can be included in the pullet's diets during 14-20 wk of age without adverse effect on pullet's performance and egg production and quality traits up to 25 wk of age.
  M.A. Al-Harthi , A.A. El-Deek and Y.A. Attia
  Rejected eggs were collected and dried at 55oC. Thereafter, Dried Whole Eggs (DWE) were processed by different methods e.g. freezing for 48 h at -18oC, freezing with boiling for 15 min at 100oC or autoclaving for 20 min at 120oC with a pressure of 1 kg/cm2. The DWE processed by different methods were fed to broiler chickens during 3-41 d of age at 0, 3.5 and 7.0%. Diets were fed without or with Growth Promoting Mixture (GPM) containing probiotic 0.5 g, Vit C 0.5, black pepper 0.5 g, red pepper 0.5 g/kg diet), thus there were fourteen experimental treatments. Growth was not affected by level of DWE and/or processing way, while GPM significantly increased growth. Feed intake significantly increased by autoclaving, whilst inclusion of DWE at either level significantly decreased feed intake and there was a significant interaction between DWE level and processing method for feed intake. DWE at either 3.5 or 7% significantly improved FCR similarly. Moreover, GPM supplementation improved Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) within each level. Supplementation of GPM significantly increased absolute and relative weight of bursa, while the opposite trend was shown in thymus parameters. Abdominal fat, plasma total protein, albumin significantly decreased although plasma total lipids significantly increased due to GPM supplementation. Abdominal fat significantly decreased, and plasma total lipids significantly increased due to autoclaving, whilst freezing with boiling increased plasma cholesterol. Heart and pancreas significantly increased, however skin colour significantly decreased due to inclusion of frozen with boiled DWE. Increasing DWE level resulted in significant linear increase in heart and pancreas, whilst skin colour significantly decreased due to 3.5% DWE and GPM supplementation. Plasma cholesterol exhibited a significant linear increase with increasing DWE level.
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