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Articles by A.A. Aganga
Total Records ( 15 ) for A.A. Aganga
  A.A. Aganga and E.O. Mesho
  The mineral composition of 22 browse species (Acacia species (erubescens, fleckii, giraffae, karroo, mellifera and tortillis); Grewea species (bicolor, flava and flavascence); Boscia species (albutrunca and foetida); Peltophorum africanum, Combretum hereroscence, Ehretia rigida, Terminalia serecia, Ziziphus mucronata, Euclea undulata, Commiphora species, Ximania africanum, Ochna pulchra, Dichrostachys cineria and M. senegalensces) from Kweneng district was evaluated. Concentration of Ca, Mg, Na, K and P varied among the species from 0.69-1.89, 0.24-0.66, 0.42-2.42, 0.41-3.03 and 0.03-0.40 g/100 g on dry matter basis, respectively. The browses contained low levels of most micro minerals. The grazing livestock in the area should be provided with mineral supplements due to the low levels of both macro and micro minerals in the browses in the sand veld of Kweneng districts.
  E.E. Waugh , A.A. Aganga , D. Seabo , U.J. Omphile and C.M. Tsopito
  The objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of grit on the growth rate, feed intake and feed conversion efficiency of ostrich chicks which were given grit and those not provided with grit. Six female and four male ostrich chicks aged nine (9) weeks were randomly assigned into two feeding groups using completely randomized experimental design. In each feeding group there were five young birds raised in a pen. All the young birds were fed with ostrich grower`s mash and water ad libitum. One group had access to grit during the study while other group did not. At week 18 weeks feed given to both groups of young ostriches and leftover were weighed on daily basis. Body weights were recorded on a monthly basis throughout the study. Average daily feed intake and average daily weight gain were determined. Feed conversion efficiency was calculated using average daily feed intake and average daily weight gain. The data was analyzed using Student - t analysis at P< 0.05. Average daily weight gain was higher (0.38 ± 0.03 kg/d) in ostrich chicks that had access to grit as compared to ostrich chicks (0.37 ± 0.04kg/d) that had no access to grit. Average daily feed (dry matter) intake was higher (1.95 ±0.27kg/d) in ostriches that had no access to grit than those (1.94 ± 0.20kg/d) access to grit. Feed conversion efficiency of ostriches with access to grit was higher (5.11 ± 0.93) than those (5.27 ± 1.30) without access to grit. Giving grit to young ostriches should be recommended both to improve growth rate and feed conversion efficiency and to reduce feed intake.
  A.A. Aganga , U.J. Omphile , R.G. Chabo , M. Kgosimore and M. Mochankana
  An initial study covered the feed resources and nutritional ecology of Tswana goats kept under extensive communal management conditions in Gaborone Agricultural Region. Such goats feed on a variety of browses and herbaceous forages throughout the year. Only 30% of the respondent farmers provided their goats with supplementary feeds implying that most goats in Gaborone agricultural region rely solely on natural vegetation for their feed. A further study surveyed the production parameters of goats under extensive management by smallholder farmers over a 12 month period from February 2000 to February 2001. This survey covered 375 goats, comprising 87% females and 13.5% males (12% castrates and 1.5% intact). There were 168 kids. The mortality rate for the kids was 33.3% and that for adults was 5.6%. Disease accounted for 44.6% of the overall pre-weaning mortality. Of the 168 kids born during the period of study, 52.4, 45.2 and 2.4% were singles, twins and quadruplets (one birth), respectively. The average birth weight of the kids was 3.6 kg, while the average daily weight gain was 58g per day. The kids weighed 17.7 kg on average at the age of 240 days. The mean body weights were 8.6?0.6, 15.3?0.8 and 23.3?1.4 kg for the age groups 30-120 days, 121-240 days and 241-360 days, respectively. The net numerical growth in the herd was -17.6%, with a prolificacy rate of 93.3%.
  M.H.D. Mareko , A.A. Aganga , U.J. Omphile and M. Mokhudu
  Twenty five Tswana goats of 7 months of age were obtained from Botswana College of Agriculture farm. The goats were balanced out for weight (average weight; 20.1±0.1 kg) and sex (3 females and 2 males per set) and were randomly allocated to the treatments. They were individually housed and fed browses (Teminalia sericea and Boscia albitrunca) for 63 days, at two levels; high (800 g) and low (400 g), resulting in the following treatments; TS 800, TS 400, BA 800 and BA 400. The control group (C 800) was instead supplemented with lurcene at 800g daily. Grass hay (Cenchrus celiaris) and wheat bran were offered as a basal diet and as an energy source, respectively, to all the treatments. On day 63, feed was withdrawn overnight and the goats were transported to the Botswana Meat Commission (BMC) on the 64th day. Goats were processed according to the standard abattoir procedures and their carcasses were cut up into 5 primal cuts (rib, chuckblade, flank, leg and neck), which were thereafter weighed. Lean tissue, free from visible fat, was obtained from the right thigh part of the leg for chemical analyses. Dry Matter (DM), moisture, ash, Organic Matter (OM), Crude Protein (CP) and crude fat was done on the lean tissue. The data were subjected to Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Duncanís multiple range tests were used to separate means. Final live weights ranged from 24.2 to 27.8kg, with C800 having significantly higher weights compared to all treatment groups. Dressing percentage ranged from 45.9 to 51.2% and TS400 had higher value (p<0.05) compared to BA400. There were no significant differences (p>0.05) in primal cuts weights between the treatments. Meat moisture content showed a significant difference (p<0.05) between BA400 goats and other treatments. However when BA400 was compared with C800, no difference (p>0.05) was observed (77.94 vs 76.04%, respectively). Meat ash content for BA800 was found to be higher (p<0.05) than that of other treatments but similar (p>0.05) to that of C800. Meat dry matter, organic matter, crude protein and crude fat averaged 24.00, 97.77, 71.06 and 6.90%, respectively, without any significant differences (p>0.05) observed between the groups. Meat mineral contents averaged 0.058, 0.133, 1.037, 0.833 and 0.224% for calcium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium and magnesium, respectively and again no without significant differences (p>0.05) were observed between the groups. Goats supplemented on browses performed relatively like the lurcene supplemented goats though the browses are known to contain tannins. B. albitrunca and T. sericea can be successfully used by farmers as supplements during the dry seasons to raise goats for good quality meat.
  A.A. Aganga and C.B. Motshewa
  This study was aimed at developing Molasses-urea Blocks (MUB) for purposes of providing supplementary feeding that will supply crude protein and minerals to ruminant livestock during drought periods. In order to accomplish this, urea, molasses, sorghum bran, Acacia erubescens or Dichrostachys cineria as local browse trees in Botswana and dicalcium phosphate as a commercial mineral ingredient, salt and cement were used. Cement was used as a cold binder and roughages such as grass hay or Lucerne were also used in some MUB and their nutritional contents were compared to those containing browse plants. Dry matter, crude protein and mineral contents were analyzed using proximate analysis. All the 4 blocks hardened within 5-7 days and yielded dense blocks. MUB containing Acacia erubescens and Lucerne had higher nutrient contents than MUB containing Dichrostachys cineria and grass hay. All the macro mineral contents were within the normal range required for maintenance by grazing animals. Dry Matter (DM), Crude Protein (CP), Ash, Neutral Detergent Fiber (NDF), Acid Detergent Fiber (ADF), Acid Detergent Lignin (ADL) and in vitro DM digestibility differed (p< 0.05) between MUB types evaluated. All the MUB had crude protein content varying from 11.83-26.58%. Average mineral content (%) of all MUB were 16.33, 9.35, 5.38, 1.09 and 0.27 for P, Ca, Mg, Na and K, respectively. Also some of the trace minerals Fe (%), Mn and Zn (ppm) had average values of 0.098, 0.018 and 0.002, respectively.
  A.A. Aganga , U.J. Omphile , T. Thema and L.Z. Wilson
  The study was conducted to determine the effect of additives on the chemical composition of ryegrass (L. multiflorum) cut at five different stages of growth. They were harvested fortnightly as from September to November 2003.The grass samples were ensiled and then analysed for the proximate composition, in vitro digestibility nutrient and mineral elements. The young and immature plants were highly digestible but as maturity increased, yield also increased, but quality decreased. The digestibility decreased as lignification of the plant material increased with plant maturity.
  A.A. Aganga , U.J. Omphile , T. Thema and J.C. Baitshotlhi
  The study was conducted to determine the influence of additives on the chemical composition of napier grass (P. purpureum) cut at five different heights of growth (50, 75 cm, 1, 1.25 and 1.5 m). They were harvested monthly from September 2003 to January 2004. The grass samples were ensiled and then analysed for the proximate composition, in vitro digestibility, nutrients and mineral elements. The young and immature napier grass cut at 50 cm height were highly digestible but as maturity increased, yield also increased, but quality decreased. The digestibility decreased as lignifications of the plant material increased with grass height and maturity. There was improved chemical composition and digestibility of napier grass silage cut at different heights treated with additives compared to the plain napier grass silage without additives.
  A.A. Aganga , U.J. Omphile and T.F. Ntshontsi
  Browse species were analysed to determine their forage value to goats in Kgatleng district of Botswana. The plants were analysed for Crude Protein (CP), Neutral Detergent Fibre (NDF), Acid Detergent Fibre (ADF), ash, dry matter and condensed tannins. Most of the plants have CP content around 8% in the dry season. Ash ranged from 3.25-9.58% and the tannin content of 1.03-2.98%. Goats under traditional management depend mostly on browses especially in the dry season. There is no supplementary feed provided by the majority of the farmers. This study recommends the provision of supplementary feeds in the dry season for grazing goats.
  A.A. Aganga and P. Kgwatalala
  This study was conducted at the Botswana College of agriculture Content Farm in Gaborone for a period of 90 days. Three groups of 18 Tswana bucks in a group of six each, designated A, B, C of almost the same age and weight were used. Group A bucks were fed Dolichos lablab (as a supplement) and Veldt grass (as basal diet) at a ratio 60:40 and water at adlibitum. Group B were fed as Group A with an addition of common salt (Sodium Chloride- NaCl) and Group C were also fed as Group A with an addition of a mixture of Dicalcium phosphate and common salt at a ratio of 1:1. The water, veldt grass and dolichos lablab leftovers were weighed daily and the mineral supplements weighed every two days, then all the consumed ration was calculated. The bucks were weighed fortnightly. The results showed that mineral supplementation had influenced the production of Tswana bucks as there was an improved weight gains on goats fed mineral supplements.
  U.J. Omphile , A.A. Aganga and B. Malamba
  The study was aimed at determining the botanical diet composition of goats foraging in Acacia bush savanna rangeland in southeast Botswana. The dominant species in the study area were of the genus Acacia with an understory of mostly perennial grasses. Acacia were the dominant plant species consumed by goats. Certain perennial grasses also featured prominently in their diets, but only during the wet season. Preference ratings for the plants comprising diets of goats were positive for about 80% of the woody plants during the dry season and 50% during the wet season. Less than 30% of the grasses were selected for during the wet season while all were discriminated against in the dry season.
  A.A. Aganga , U.J. Omphile and T.M. Sebolai
  Fifteen female and ten castrated yearling Tswana goats were weighed and randomly divided into five groups of five goats of which 3 were females and 2 were males. The objectives of the project was to determine effects of T. serecia and B. albitrunca at two levels on faecal egg worm count, bacterial count and bacterial identification. All the goats were fed buffel grass hay (Cenchrus ciliaris) as a basal diet, while Medicago sativa (0% tannin content) was fed to the control group as a supplements. The other four groups were fed low B. albitrunca (0.267% tannin in diet), high B. albitrunca (0.497% tannin in diet), Low T. serecia (0.342% tannin in diet) and high T. serecia (0.497% tannin in diet) as a supplement. The basal diet comprised of 60% of the ration, while Lucerne or the browses made up the remaining 40%. Wheat bran was provided at 250 g to provide energy for the goats. Water was provided daily. The study lasted for 60 days and faecal sampling was done fortnightly from the rectum of the goats in the morning. The faecal samples which were collected fortnightly from rectum of the goats were used for evaluation of egg worm count and bacterial identification. After a week of feeding T. sericea there was significant reduction on egg worm count (p<0.05), while on other treatments there were no significant differences in all faecal sampling dates (p>0.05).
  A.A. Aganga , U.J. Omphile and F.G. Keitheile
  In a metabolism trial study conducted at the Botswana College of Agriculture`s farm, twenty yearling Tswana goat castrates were used to determine the digestibility of diets containing two browse plants namely Terminalia serecia or Boscia albitrunca fed along with Cenchrus ciliaris and wheat bran. The browse plants were obtained from Sebele rangelands which were analyzed for proximate composition and evaluated for in vivo dry matter digestibility using Tswana goats. The animals were divided into five groups the control group and four treatment groups. Control group was offered per animal 800 g of lucerne while the treatment groups were offered; 400 g B. albitrunca, 800 g B. albitrunca, 400 g T. serecia and 800 g T. serecia, respectively. Buffel grass hay was offered at 400 g and 250 g wheat bran per goat for all groups and clean water was available at ad libitum. Percentage crude protein values obtained were 10.4, 6.84, 5.72 and 6.11 for lucerne (Medicago sativa), Cenchrus ciliaris, Terminalia serecia and Boscia albitrunca, respectively. The dry matter digestibility coefficients obtained for the goats were 0.692, 0.545, 0.481, 0.412 and 0.490 for control group, treatments 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively.
  A.A. Aganga and S. Tshwenyane
  Panicum maximum (guinea grass) is native to Africa but this grass was introduced to almost all tropical countries as a source of animal forage. It grows well on a wide variety of well drained soils of good fertility and it is suitable to stop soil erosion. It can survive quick moving fires which does not harm the underground roots and drought because of the deep, dense and fibrous root system. Guinea grass is a clump-forming perennial which grows best in warm frost free areas receiving more than 900 mm rainfall. Crude protein (CP) content of fresh guinea grass varied from 5.0 to 5.6% while guinea grass silage contains 5.0 to 5.5% CP. The digestibility (IVDOM) varied with the variety from 56.9% for Gatton to 87.7% for Vencidor. This paper reviews the potential of P. maximum as a forage for animal production in the tropics and Sub tropics.
  A.A. Aganga and L. Fabi
  The study was conducted at Botswana College of Agriculture, Notwane-farm, Sebele, Gaborone for 150 days from June to October 2006. A flock of 60 Tswana sheep were used consisting of 30 males and 30 females. Fifteen of the males were castrates, 7 weaners and 8 lambs while the female group consisted of 15 ewes, 7 weaners and 8 lambs. Animals were weighed on monthly basis for five consecutive months, using Avery Walk-in Scale. The flock grazed daily for 8 h on a fenced natural pasture and were housed at night in kraals with corrugated roofing. Water was provided ad-libitum in kraals and feed supplements such as sorghum bran and salt lick were also provided. Lambs had access to lamb-finisher. The data collected were analyzed using the box-plot, between males and females. Linear multiple regression was used to analyze data within each age-group while Duncanís multiple range test was used to separate the means. The means of male and females were different at p< 0.05. In month 1, means body weights (kg) were 32.4±17.5 and 27.2±14.0 for males and females, respectively. Final body weight (kg) after 150 days were 36.5±13.7 and 27.8±8.10 for males and females, respectively. Generally, all sheep age-groups showed a significant increase in growth although July which is the second month of the study drastic decline in growth rate was observed which is one of the coldest winter month in Botswana. It can be concluded from the study that growth rates of different age-groups of Tswana sheep under semi-intensive management are different and also there is interaction between time and gender and time and type/age-group. The time of the year is amajor factor that influenced the growth rate of range grazed Tswana sheep.
  A.A. Aganga , U.J.Omphile and F. Manyeula
  This study was to evaluate the impact of feeding Terminalia serecia and Boscia albitrunca at 2 levels on growth rate and feed intake of Tswana goats. The experiment was conducted at Botswana College of Agriculture farm for 61 days. Fifteen female and 10 castrated yearling male goats were randomly divided into 5 groups of 5 goats (3 female and 2 male) each, using complete randomized design and balancing them according to sex and weight. They were selected from College herd of about 200 Tswana goats based on age and weight. The goats were housed individually in goat units under a common roof made up of corrugated iron sheets with a dwarf wall to allow free ventilation on a concrete floor. The goats were weighed for initial, interim and final weights every month using Avery walk in scale. Buffel grass was given at 400 g to all animals supplemented with 250 g wheat bran. The treatments were as follows; 400 g Terminalia serecia, 800 g Terminalia serecia, 400 g Boscia albitrunca and 800 g Boscia albitrunca were provided to animals on treatments1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively while those in the control group were offered Lucerne as supplement. The browse leaves and twigs were cut and wilted and fed to the goats the following day. Cleaning of the pens and removal of leftovers from the previous day were done before each dayís feeding. Water was made available at all times. The animals were fed T. serecia or B.albitrunca at two levels daily (400 or 800 g).The browse leaves were fed together with buffel grass hay (Cenchrus ciliaris) as basal ration while wheat bran was offered at 250g/day/animal as an energy source. Average Daily body weight Gain (ADG) was obtained by subtracting the initial body weight from the final body weight and dividing by the number of days animals were in the treatment. All data collected were statistically analyzed using ANOVA and Duncanís new multiple range test was used for mean separation at 5% P level. Results obtained show that there a was significant (p< 0.05) difference in ADG of goats fed Lucerne compared to those on browses. Total intake of dry matter was significantly affected by level and type of supplement. The study shows that goats fed browses as supplement gained weight but lower than goats fed on Lucerne as supplement. Feed conversion of Tswana goats fed browses as a supplement were lower than those fed Lucerne as supplement, showing that Tswana goats cannot utilize these browses as efficiently as they utilize Lucerne.
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