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Articles by A. Singh
Total Records ( 15 ) for A. Singh
  Man Singh , A. Singh , R.S. Tripathi , R.K. Verma , M.M. Gupta , H.O. Mishra , H.P. Singh and A.K. Singh
  About 4 strains of kalmegh (Andrographis paniculata Nees.), CIMAP/AP-3, CIMAP/AP-10 and CIMAP/AH-89 and local check were evaluated at three population densities (74,074, 111,111 and 222,222 plants ha-1) for growth behavior, biomass and diterpenoid lactones production at the Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, Lucknow, India during July to November, 2004 and 2005. The strain CIMAP/AP-3 was found to possess desired agronomic traits viz., 60 cm plant height, 45 cm plant spread, 28 branches per plant and 60° branching angle from main shoot. The advantage in biomass and diterpenoid lactones (andrographolide and neo-andrographolide) production with CIMAP/AP-3 over other strains was 33.4-79.4 and 31.6-70.7%, respectively. Planting at a closer spacing of 30x15 cm accommodating 2,22,222 plants ha-1 produced maximum dry biomass and andrographolide and neoandrographolide yield under the subtropical climate of North India.
  A. Singh
 

Professor W. B. Reddaway (known to friends and colleagues as Brian Reddaway) was an exceptional economist who had a huge influence on how economics in Cambridge has been taught and researched. He held leadership positions in the Faculty of Economics and Politics at Cambridge for 25 years, between 1955 and 1980. The main purpose of this paper is to explain Reddaway's method and his distinct approach to economics. It also briefly reviews his life and times. The words in the title summarise his philosophy of research, as will become clear in the paragraphs which follow.

  P Sarkar and A. Singh
 

This paper analyses a longitudinal dataset on legal protection of shareholders over a 36 year period, 1970–2005, for four advanced countries, the UK, France, Germany and the USA. It examines two aspects of the legal origin hypothesis—whether shareholder protection is higher in the common law countries (UK and USA) than in the civil law countries (France and Germany) and whether shareholder protection matters for stock market development in the short and long runs. It also examines the ‘causation’ issue and the ‘endogeneity’ problem—whether greater shareholder protection leads to stock market development or whether stock market development leads to changes in law. The paper casts serious doubt on the validity of the basic theses of the Anglo Saxon legal and developmental model.

  E. G. Wilmot , M. Leggate , J. N. Khan , T. Yates , T. Gorely , D. H. Bodicoat , K. Khunti , J. P. A. Kuijer , L. J. Gray , A. Singh , P. Clarysse , P. Croisille , M. A. Nimmo , G. P. McCann and M. J. Davies
 

Aim

A pilot study to phenotype young adults (< 40 years) with Type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Methods

Twenty people with Type 2 diabetes (aged 18-40 years), 10 lean and 10 obese control subjects underwent detailed assessment, including tagged cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, inflammatory proteins, lipids, vitamin D and maximal oxygen uptake. Outcomes were compared between the group with Type 2 diabetes and the control group.

Results

Mean (standard deviation) age, Type 2 diabetes duration and BMI in the group with Type 2 diabetes were 31.8 (6.6) years, 4.7 (4.0) years and 33.9 (5.8) kg/m2 respectively. Compared with lean control subjects, those with Type 2 diabetes had more deleterious profiles of hyperlipidaemia, vitamin D deficiency, inflammation and maximal oxygen uptake relative to body mass. However, there was no difference between the group with Type 2 diabetes and the obese control group. The group with Type 2 diabetes had a higher left ventricular mass and a trend towards concentric remodelling compared with the lean control group (P = 0.002, P = 0.052) but not the obese control group (P > 0.05). Peak early diastolic strain rate was reduced in the group with Type 2 diabetes [1.51 (0.24)/s] compared with the lean control [1.97 (0.34)/s, P = 0.001] and obese control [1.78 (0.39)/s, P = 0.042] group.

Conclusions

Young adults with Type 2 diabetes and those with obesity have similar adverse cardiovascular risk profiles, higher left ventricular mass and a trend towards left ventricular concentric remodelling. In addition, those with Type 2 diabetes demonstrate diastolic dysfunction, a known risk marker for future heart failure and mortality.

  U. Aliyu , M.D. Magaji , A. Singh and S.G. Mohammed
  Field experiments were conducted in 2003/2004 and 2004/2005 dry seasons to study the effect of Nitrogen (N) and Phosphorus (P) on the growth and yield of irrigated onion in the Sudan Sananna of Nigeria. The treatments consisted of factorial combinations of four levels of nitrogen (0, 50, 100 and 150 kg N ha-1) and three levels of phosphorus (0, 17.5 and 35 kg P ha-1) laid out in split-plot design with three replications. Nitrogen was allocated to the main plots while phosphorus was assigned to the sub-plots. Results revealed that N and P as well as their interaction, significantly affected plant height, number of leaves per plant, percentage bolters, crop growth rate and individual bulb weight. However, interaction was not significant on bulb yield. Nitrogen at the rate of 150 kg N ha-1 gave the best results, though, statistically at par with 100 kg N ha-1. 17.5 kg P ha-1 gave statistically similar results as 35 kg P ha-1. The optimum combination from the results of this investigation was 100 kg N ha-1 and 17.5 kg P ha-1.
  R.K. Sahu , A. Singh , R. Gupta , A. Roy and J. Dwivedi
  In the present study, it was envisaged to prepare three polyherbal formulations (F1, F2 and F3) containing leaves of Solanum xanthocarpum and Andrographis paniculata, rhizomes of Curcuma longa and stem of Tinospora cordifolia in varying ratio and evaluating the polyherbal formulations for the antipyretic and antinociceptive activities. The antipyretic activity of methanol extracts (MF1, MF2 and MF3) and aqueous extracts (AF1, AF2 and AF3) of polyherbal formulation were studied in Brewer’s yeast induced pyrexia in mice. The antinociceptive activity of methanol and aqueous extracts of polyherbal formulation were studied using Eddy’s hot plate method and tail flick method in mice. The polyherbal formulation of all extracts showed significant reduction in the elevated body temperature of rat which was compared with standard paracetamol. The extract of polyherbal formulation produced significant increase in the reaction time by Eddy’s hot plate method and tail flick method in mice which was compared with standard morphine sulphate. From these results it may be concluded that AF1 formulation demonstrated maximum significant antipyretic and antinociceptive activities that might be due to combined effect of active constituents present in all plant material.
  P. Khera , R. Priyadarshi , A. Singh , R. Mohan , M.G. Gangashetti , B.N. Singh , C. Kole and V. Shenoy
  With the objective of identifying mitochondrial DNA based markers that can distinguish cytoplasmic sources and restorer lines, 7 male sterile and fertile counterparts of Cytoplasmic Male Sterile (CMS) lines and 4 restorers (R) lines were characterized, using 20 universal mitochondrial DNA specific markers. Diverse CMS lines, other than the Wild Abortive (WA) one have been developed at International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), Philippines (IR66707A with cytoplasm of Oryza perennis), Central Rice Research Institute (CRRI), Cuttack (CRMS-32A with “Kalinga” cytoplasm from ‘Dunghansali’) and at Directorate of Rice Research (DRR), Hyderabad (DMS 3A with cytoplasm of Oryza nivara and DMS 4A with cytoplasm of Oryza rufipogon). Traditionally, the differences between the cytoplasmic sources were studied by differential response of the Cytoplasmic Male Sterile (CMS) lines when test crossed with a set of known maintainers and restorers. However, these methods could not distinguish the genetic variation at molecular level, since, CMS trait has been found to be associated to mitochondrial DNA aberration. In the present study, seven potential primers were identified, viz., cox1B, nad4ex1, nad5D, nad1, alp, nad4ex2 and rpS14 which showed polymorphism. The results suggested effective utilization of mitochondrial specific primer pairs in hybrid purity testing and marker aided heterosis breeding in rice.
  M.B. Sokoto , M.D. Magaji and A. Singh
  Field study was conducted in 2003/2004 and 2004/2005 dry seasons at the Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching and Research Fadama Farm, Sokoto to study the effects of intra-row spacing and potassium on growth and yield of sweet potato. Treatments consisted of factorial combinations of five levels of potassium (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 kg K ha-1) and four intra-row spacings (20, 30, 40 and 50 cm) laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) replicated three times. Results showed significant effect of intra-row spacing on all parameters measured. Close intra-row spacing (20 cm) produced tubers of comparatively lower weight, while wide intra-row spacing (50 cm) resulted in significantly bigger tubers. Yield increased with every increment in plant population and was highest at closest intra-row spacing (20 cm). Application of potassium had no significant effect on all the growth parameters under study but significantly increased marketable tuber and fresh tuber yield. Thus, 40 cm intra-row spacing (Due high proportion of marketable tuber) and 50 bags of 100 kg of ash/ha is recommended for use under irrigated condition in the Sokoto Fadama.
  L.S. Aliyu , A. Singh , M.D. Magaji and M.S. Umar
  Field experiments were conducted in 2004 and 2005 rainy seasons to determine the effects of Phosphate Rock (PR) levels and variety on growth and yield of cowpea varieties. Treatments consisted of factorial combinations of two varieties (Baadare and IAR 48) and three levels of phosphate rock (25, 50 and 75 kg ha-1) along with a control (0 kg PR ha-1) laid out in a randomized complete block design replicated three times. Results showed that, at 0 kg PR ha-1 (control) the two varieties had similar performance in all the parameters measured. But application of PR resulted in significant (p<0.01) response compared to control in most parameters studied. Application of 50 and 75 kg PR ha-1 resulted in significant increase in pods yield and number of pods plant-1 in 2004 trial, while shelling percentage, grain and stover yields, 1000 grain weight, number of seeds plant-1 and harvest index were not significantly influenced by PR levels. Significantly (p<0.05) higher pods yield, shelling percentage, grain and stover yields, 1000 grain wt. number of pods plant-1 and number of seeds plant-1 were observed with Baadare (local) than with IAR-48 (improved) but higher harvest index was observed with IAR 48. Therefore, from this study it was concluded that, application of 25 kg PR ha-1 was adequate for cowpea production and Baadara (local) variety was suitable for Sudan savanna zone.
  M.M. Ellah and A. Singh
  Field experiments were conducted in 2002 and 2003 at the Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching and Research Farm, Sokoto to determine effects of phosphorus (P) on the yield of bambara groundnut cultivars. Treatment consisted of factorial combinations of two cultivars (Ex-Tangaza and Pategi black), three levels of phosphorus (0, 15 and 30 kg ha-1) and three intra-row spacing (15, 20 and 25 cm) laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design replicated three times. Results of P and cultivar are presented in this study. Results revealed significantly (p< 0.05) higher stover yield in Ex-Tangaza than Pategi Black cultivar both in 2002 and 2003. While, kernel yield was higher in Pategi black (530.7 kg ha-1) than Ex-Tangaza (516.5 kg ha-1) in 2003 only. P had significant effect on stover yield in the two trials with higher stover yield with 30 kg P ha-1. Similar results were obtained with kernel yield in the two seasons where 30 kg P ha-1 resulted in higher kernel yield. Both the cultivars responded significantly to the applied P at both 15 and 30 kg ha-1 but higher response was obtained with Pategi black than Ex-Tangaza. Therefore, in this study, it was concluded that Ex-Tanzaga may be used for stover yield while, Pategi black would be better for kernel yield in the semiarid tropic of Nigeria. Application 30 kg P ha-1 (382 kg SSP ha-1) gave highest yield with both cultivars. Further yield increment could be obtained by increasing the P levels from 30 kg upwards.
  U. Aliyu , A.U. Dikko , M.D. Magaji and A. Singh
  Experiments were undertaken at the Usmanu Danfodiyo University Fadama Teaching and Research Farm, Sokoto in 2004 and 2005 dry seasons to determine the effect of different nitrogen levels (0, 50, 100 and 150 kg N ha-1) and intra-row spacing (10, 15, 20 and 25 cm) on the growth and yield of onion. Results revealed that nitrogen and intra-row spacing as well as their interaction, significantly affected plant height, number of leaves, crop growth rate, individual bulb weight, bulb diameter and total bulb yield per hectare. Nitrogen at the rate of 100 or 150 kg N ha-1 gave the best results and was statistically at par in all the parameters measured. Tweenty and 25 cm intra-row spacing were found to have recorded the highest and statistically similar values. The optimum yield of onion bulbs (30.83 t ha-1) was obtained from 15 cm intra-row spacing combined with 100 kg N ha-1. However, for large bulb size, application of 150 kg N ha-1 in plants spaced at 25 cm intra-row spacing and 20 cm inter-row spacing may be recommended.
  A. Muhammad and A. Singh
  Two field trials were conducted during 2004/05 and 2005/06 dry season under irrigation at the Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Fadama Teaching and Research Farm, Sokoto in order to evaluate the effects of intra-row spacing and pruning on Roma VFN cultivar of tomato. The treatments consisted of factorial combination of two training (Staked and unstaked), three intra-row spacings (20, 40 and 60 cm) and three pruning levels (three-stem, two-stem and unpruned) laid out in a split-plot design replicated three times. Training was allocated to the main plots while spacing and pruning were allocated to the sub plots. This paper presents the results on spacing and pruning effects. Results showed that mean fruit length and diameter was significantly (p<0.05) higher in 60 cm spaced plants than 20 and 40 cm and two to three stem pruned plants recorded higher fruit length and diameter. Highest total fresh fruit yield was obtained at closer (20-40 cm) intra-row spacing. Pruning reduced number of marketable fruits per plant and increased the weight of marketable fruits per plant. Mean fruit weight was higher for 40 and 60 cm inter-row spacing and three-stem pruning while total fresh fruit yield was higher in 20-40 cm intra-row spacing and three stem pruning. Therefore it can be concluded from this study that pruning of tomato could be practiced to increase the yield and quality of tomato. An intra-row spacing of 20-40 cm was appropriate for maximum fresh tomato yield and quality. Three-stem pruning coupled with closer intra-row spacing (20-40 cm) may be recommended for higher production of tomato variety (Roma VFN) in the Sudan savanna of Nigeria.
  H.G. Ahmed , M.D. Magaji , A.I. Yakutu , L. Aliyu and A. Singh
  Field trials were carried out during 2002/03 and 2003/04 dry seasons (Nov. to March) at Sokoto to investigate the performance of garlic (Allium sativum L.) to varying levels of irrigation interval and clove size. Treatments consisted of factorial combinations of four irrigation intervals in days (3, 5, 7 and 9 days) and two clove sizes (small, < 2 cm and large, 2-3 cm). Treatments were laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The results obtained revealed that 3-day irrigation interval significantly affected number of leaves per plant, plant height at maturity, bulb yield, bulb weight, number of cloves per bulb and clove weight throughout the period of investigation, while increase in the number of days between irrigation interval negatively affected the growth and yield and performance of the garlic. Generally, 3-day irrigation interval out-yielded the rest of the irrigation intervals in all the parameters assessed in both seasons. Clove size had significant effect on the number of leaves per plant, plant height, bulb yield, bulb weight, number of cloves per bulb and clove weight and they increased as the clove size increased. Large sized cloves had significantly and consistently out yielded small sized cloves in both seasons. It was concluded from this study that large clove size and applying irrigation at 3-day interval may be recommended for good performance of garlic under semi-arid condition of Sokoto, Nigeria.
  K.P. Singh , J. Kumar , A. Singh , R.K. Prasad , R.P. Singh and D. Prasad
  Experiments were conducted to forecast the Potential Ascospore Dose (PAD) of the apple scab, caused by Venturia inaequalis (Cks.) Wint. (anamorph: Spilocaea pomi Fr.), was evaluated in Gangotri valley over 15 years (1994-2012) at four different place. In India, the disease causes significant economic losses in the states of Jammu and Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh each season and has been prevalent in Uttarakhand hills, the 3rd largest apple growing state in the country. Yield losses during epidemic years in 1996 and 2008 in the region went up to 70%. The PAD has great impact on disease development in the following season. It varied between 645-373421 in various orchards of Gangotri valley. The PAD value was low during 1999-2001 (645-1894 ascospore/m2) and medium during 2002-2006 (2108-29685 ascospore/m2) due to the fact that the springs were early, dry and unfavorable for ascospore maturation. In 1996 and 2008, the PAD values were high because of the favourable weather conditions and increase of inoculum accumulation. The scabbed lesion and leaf litter density were approximately more than twice in Gangotri fruit belt in 1996 and 2008. For this reason, reduction of primary inoculum sources played very important role in the improvement of scab management of apple in Uttarakhand Himalayas.
  K.P. Singh , J. Kumar , A. Singh , R.K. Prasad , R.P. Singh and D. Prasad
  Background: Apple scab, caused by Venturia inaequalis (Cke.) Wint. (anamorph Spilocaea pomi Fr.) is considered to be one of the most important fungal diseases of apple. In Uttarakhand Himalayas, the yield losses during scab epidemic years in 1996 and 2008 went up to 70%. Methodology: Random surveys were conducted during 1995-2014 from 3rd week of August until last week of September in apple orchards planted mostly to cv., Delicious. An apple scab forecasting and monitoring systems (μMETOS, Austria) installed at overwintering sites at Bhatwari fruit belt, Purola-Naugao, Tuni-Chakarata and Auli-Joshimath fruit belts recorded weather parameters including temperature, which were used to calculate degree-day accumulations. Results: The leaves falling early in the season appeared not to contribute much to the build-up of primary inoculum for the ensuing apple season. Leaves falling late had more scab lesions per leaf and posed a greater risk of increasing primary inoculums. The pseudothecia formation took 32-48 days more after sexual reproduction at temperature around 8-10̊C and this process was completed between February and March every year. The maximum ascospore productivity was recorded at fruit development stage of apple with ascospore productivity of 1,23,000 mL–1, which declined gradually. The ascospore emission period was 64-78 days and mean number of cumulative degree-days for 50 and 95% spore release were 456 and 960, respectively. Mills infection periods ranging from 19-47 were recorded from April-September every year that varied depending upon the weather conditions. The results revealed 2 day (light infection), 1 day (moderate infection) and 1 day (severe infection) delay in symptom expression under orchard conditions. Wetting requirement for infection to occur was also found to be more. More wetting of the leaves was required and symptoms were expressed within 7-9 days at higher temperature. Conclusion: The results of this study provide evidence that the use of average daily temperatures in spring to developed forecasting models based on degree-day accumulation could be used to predict the beginning and the end of the ascospore discharge during the apple growing season. The reduction of primary inoculum sources could have a decisive role in the management of apple scab.
 
 
 
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