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Articles by A. Shanmugam
Total Records ( 22 ) for A. Shanmugam
  A. Shanmugam , A.R. Abdul Rajak , S. Vishwanath and R. Upendra
  Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) performs well in a multi-cellular environment where a single frequency is used in all cells. Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) has severe problems associated with multipath and Channel noise. One possible problem is that the receiver may require a very large dynamic range in order to handle the large signal strength variation among users. Due to that the Bit Error Rate (BER) is getting increased. Moreover due to the addition of uncontrollable random channel noise degrade the performance of the receiver. The multipath problems give inter symbol interference. This can be reduced by Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) technique. More work could be done on investigating suitable techniques for doing OFDM promising to be a suitable modulation technique for high capacity wireless communications and will become increasing important in the future as wireless networks become more relied on. In order to increase the wireless network performance, this study has concentrated on OFDM with a novel forward error correction by data transmission with Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK) as modulation techniques. Here a FEC scheme by concatenation of Reed Solomon (RS) and Irregular Turbo code is implemented in OFDM. The simulation results show that the system BER performance is decreased with this technique, when compared to the system having Forward Error Correction (FEC) by RS code alone and irregular turbo code alone.
  B. Gomathy , A. Shanmugam and S.M. Ramesh
  In today’s era prediction of diseases is made in the way of data mining that is providing big deal of finding hidden patterns in large data bases. This prediction is made on the basis of association rules which are large in number and consists of many looping of rules. This increases the complexity of the whole system to arrive a simple result. This association rules compares the parameters of tested data of a patient such as risk factors and arrives results of presence of disease by following some predictive rules which consists of branches in decision tree structure. So, researchers generate system that work on entropy weighted deviation approach having effective resource allocation and utilization of data in minimum cost. In future, the system provides an adept methods disease prediction in various bio-medical applications.
  K. Yasoda and A. Shanmugam
  The attention and cognitive capacity of an individual is an evaluating factor in assessment of cognitive impairment and for analyzing the rate of progression. The prevailing method of evaluation of cognition is questionnaire based followed by the analysis of Electro Encephalo Gram (EEG). The present research is based to bring a correlation between Eye Blink Rate (EBR) obtained from Electroculogram (EOG) and P300 which is an event related component of the EEG for evaluation of cognition. Frontal and parietal electrodes are used to pick the EOG and ERP respectively. The biopotential raw signals obtained are preprocessed and stored. The signals are then taken to MATLAB environment for analysis. For a designed stimulus presentation, EBR (index of attention) and the P300 component (measure of cognitive capacity) are acquired from 10 participant’s data base set and the values are tabulated and analyzed using brain computer interface. The remarkable correlation and dependence exist between EBR and ERP through the statistical analysis.
  S. Siamala Devi and A. Shanmugam
  Clustering is one of the effective techniques that separate the data into meaningful groups. Feature selection is an important concept to enhance efficiency in clustering process. Existing work presented a method called hybridization of K-means algorithm and Harmony Search Method (HSM) for clustering the documents. In this method, concept factorization is used to extract the meanings to cluster the documents. But it needs to improve clustering accuracy in the document clustering process. In this manuscript, Kernel and Weighted feature based Clustering (KWC) method is presented to cluster the documents. Spherical kernel is utilized as the higher order kernel that is higher rate of computation. Furthermore, the weight of each concept is calculated and select as the weighted features. The problem in this method is poor generalization performance so it needs to select optimal kernel matrix. So, Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) based Optimal Kernel Matrix Selection (PSO-OKMS) is presented to select the optimal value of kernel matrix. In this method, kernel set is to chosen accurately to improve clustering performance but the accuracy is less. Furthermore Unsupervised Constrained based Hybrid Clustering (UC-HC) to improve the clustering performance. In this method, data are extracted by identifying an assignment that rises similarity score between strings and informs to the constraints. Experimental result compares methods such as KWC, PSO-OKMS and UC-HC to measure the clustering accuracy. The proposed UC-HC method shows high accuracy when compared to KWC and PSO-OKMS methods.
  R. Saravanan , V. Pavani Devi , A. Shanmugam and D. Sathish Kumar
  The fungus Trichoderma reesei produces extracellular lytic enzymes such as β-1, 4 glucanases, β-1, 6 glucanases and β-1, 3 D glucanases. In the present study the PDA medium was used for the production of β-1, 3 glucanases from the fungal strain. Extra cellular protein (β-1, 3 glucanase) was partially purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation and dialysis. The amount of reducing sugar (126 mg/100 mL) liberated by the action of enzyme was determined by using DNS method. The molecular weight of the enzyme (52-62 kDa) was determined through SDS-PAGE.
  R. Murugan and A. Shanmugam
  The wireless nature and inherent features of mobile ad hoc networks make them vulnerable to a wide variety of attacks. In an internal attack, the attacker gains normal access to the network and takes part in the network activities. The major challenges related to securing ad hoc networks are to make ad hoc network unconditionally secure against different external and internal attacks security solutions should be energy efficient to perform the functionality of the network (routing the packets properly and securely) if some of the nodes are captured or any node goes out of the radio range. To avoid the overhead of handling the network as a whole, the nodes are grouped into clusters. The challenges can be handled by formalizing the trust relationship between the nodes. To enhance security, it is important to evaluate the trustworthiness of nodes without depending on central authority. In this study, a cluster based trust mechanism is evaluated to mitigate the internal attacks. The entire network is divided into hierarchical group of clusters. Each cluster having a fully trusted Cluster Head (CH). Each node calculates the trust value for its one hop neighbours and sends it to CH. In turn, the CH issues the trust certificate to its member nodes if the trust value is positive otherwise that particular node is declared as misbehaving node. By simulation results it is shown that the cluster based trust mechanism provides better packet delivery ratio and resilience against internal attacks.
  B. Gomathy , A. Shanmugam and S.M. Ramesh
  In today’s era prediction of diseases is made in the way of data mining that is providing big deal of finding hidden patterns in large data bases. This prediction is made on the basis of association rules which are large in number and consists of many looping of rules. This increases the complexity of the whole system to arrive a simple result. This association rules compares the parameters of tested data of a patient such as risk factors and arrives results of presence of disease by following some predictive rules which consists of branches in decision tree structure. So, researchers generate system that works on entropy weighted deviation approach having effective resource allocation and utilization of data in minimum cost. In future, the system provides an adept methods disease prediction in various bio-medical applications.
  P. Murugesan and A. Shanmugam
  Peer to peer network access is the integral part of the day to day business for most of the computer users. Preserving load balance on heterogeneous peer to peer networks is a challenging purpose and several existing works presented Load Redistribution algorithms for load division and load diversions at the instance the new peer enters. The aim of load balancing in P2P networks is to equilibrium the workload of the network nodes in quantity but lacks to eliminate traffic occurring in the routes of the P2P network efficiently. In this study, the behaviors are characterized by eliminating the traffic using the Arbitrary Selection Load Balancing (ASLB) approach with Tremendous Store Model. Tremendous Store Model is investigated to extend the impact of node heterogeneity and agitate to the load distribution in P2P networks. The performance of the Arbitrary Selection Load Balancing (ASLB) approach with Tremendous Store Model reduces the network traffic routes with minimal cost of P2P in contrast to existing saturn load balancing scheme. An analytical and empirical result offers a collision free system with the quantization of information by balancing the load in the P2P network system. Performance of the arbitrary selection load balancing is measured in terms of peer failure probability and traffic control efficiency.
  V.S. Prakash and A. Shanmugam
  The perturbation technique has been widely considered for privacy preserving in data mining for different datasets. Generally, multi-partitioned datasets comprises of both vertical and horizontal data sets which is being a current demand of e-Business and e-Commerce data mining environment. In perturbation process, arbitrary noise from a recognized distribution is processed as privacy susceptible data, prior the data is thrown to the data miner. Consequently, the data miner rebuilds estimation to the unique data distribution from the perturbed data and exercises the renovated delivery for data mining principles. Owing to the count of noise, loss of information versus conservation of privacy is a constant transaction in the perturbation based techniques. The question is to what level the users are disposed to cooperate with their privacy? This is a preference that amends from individual to individual. To assess a tradeoff among data privacy and simplicity of individual’s data, the first research is to describe the data perturbation technique with validation and authentication. Diverse individuals may have diverse approaches towards confidentiality, based on traditions and cultures. Unfortunately, the earlier perturbation based privacy preserving data mining techniques do not permit the individuals to decide their preferred privacy levels. This is a negative aspect as privacy is an individual choice. In this study, researchers propose an individually adaptable perturbation model which enables the individuals to choose their own privacy levels. The effectiveness of the proposed model lies is the enhancement of the Applicability of Privacy Preservation for Perturbed Data in Multi-partitioned datasets (APPDM) demonstrated by diverse experiments conducted on both synthetic and real-world data sets. Based on the experimental evaluation, researchers propose a simple, valuable and resourceful method to construct data mining models from perturbed data and enhance the process of privacy preservation.
  B. Gopalakrishnan and A. Shanmugam
  An efficient and optimized secure group communication plays a vital role in many emergency communication. The operations on group key management protocol like joining or leaving the group dynamically and rekeying the group key when changes happen in the group are performed in many protocols. In the proposed system, a trust node is elected and a contributory group key is generated using the 24 bit color values (RGB) that provides a secure communication of messages among the group members in the dynamic environment through Diffie Hellman key exchange. The proposed system also reduces the cost of rekeying the group key when the mobility of the node increases. It was simulated to analyze the various issues related to group key management protocols like reliability, cost of contracting the group key when member join or leave the group dynamically, membership duration on re-keying overhead, inter-move variation on decryption/re-encryption overhead with member arrival duration. The above parameters are analyzed with respect to various other group key generation protocols and results are produced. The proposed system provides an optimized secure group key generation protocol for MANETs.
  A. Rex Macedo Arokiaraj and A. Shanmugam
  Secure communication, an important aspect of any networking environment is an especially significant challenge in mobile ad hoc networks. Masquerading and eavesdropping are major threats to the security of wireless communications and mobile networks. The scheme proposed in this study describes the framework to solve the security threats by designing a certificateless based cryptography scheme. Certificateless Routing Method (CRM) as a combination of ad hoc node address and public key cryptography. CRM is a certificateless public key cryptography solution in that public keys of mobile nodes are directly derivable from their known Ad hoc node address plus some common information. Thus, it eliminates the need for certificate-based authenticated public-key distribution essential in conventional public-key management schemes. CRM is an efficient construction method of address-based public/private keys cryptography which not only ensures high-level authentication to node exchange information but also enables efficient network-wide secure key update via a single broadcast message. It also provides general information about how to choose the secret key sharing parameters used with public key cryptography to meet desirable levels of security and authentication. The advantages of CRM over existing certificate-based solutions are justified through extensive simulations. The proposed scheme CRM gives a new innovation towards more effective and efficient security design for MANETs.
  S. Vairamani , V. Sofia , S. Sudharsan , S. Vasanthkumar , V. Ramasubramanian , P. Madeswaran , A. Srinivasan and A. Shanmugam
  In the present study an attempt was made to isolate the fatty acids from the digestive gland of cephalopod squid Loligo duvauceli. Generally fish and their by-products are the major natural sources of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, particularly EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid), both of them plays a vital role in the food and pharmaceutical industries. The percentage yield of oil extracted was found to be 40.17. In the liver oil, the total lipids, triglycerides, cholesterol, HDL, LDL, VLDL and free fatty acid contents were found to be 2.445 mg g-1, 295.45, 204.28, 45.88 0, 99.31, 59.09 and 10.67 mg dL-1, respectively. The fatty acid profile was also analyzed both quantitatively and qualitatively. The Saturated Fatty Acid (SFA), PUFA (Poly Unsaturated Fatty Acid) and (Multi Unsaturated Fatty acids) MUFA were found to be 70.31, 2.30 and 6.99%, respectively. In the search of new potential source for fish oil, the present study brought out the possibility of the usage of digestive gland of cephalopod as a potent alternative source.
  N. Bhalaji , Sinchan banerjee and A. Shanmugam
  Problem Statement: Mobile adhoc networks (MANETs) were extensively used in defense and rescue applications. The dynamic topology of MANETs allows nodes to join and leave the network at any point of time. This dynamic property of MANET has rendered it vulnerable to various security attacks. Many trust establishment methods were proposed to increase the security in MANET. In this study we propose a new trust based relationship among the nodes to combat the packet dropping attack. Approach: In the proposed scheme we considered the dynamic source routing protocol for simulation due to its common usage and flexible nature. Network simulator-2 was used for the simulation and the standard DSR and proposed relationship enhanced DSR were compared. Results: The result of the proposed scheme was compared with the standard DSR protocol. The performance metrics such as normalized throughput, packet delivery ratio, dropped data packets and ratio between the total drop and malicious drops were used for the comparison study. The results obtained prove that the proposed scheme outscores the traditional DSR protocol in all aspects. Conclusions/Recommendations: The proposed trust enhanced dynamic source routing protocol provides the solution for the possible packet dropping attack in an adhoc network. As the results show it has enhanced technique for encountering such type of attacks when compared to the traditional DSR protocol.
  T.V.P. Sundararajan and A. Shanmugam
  Problem statement: Health monitoring, telemedicine, military, interactive entertainment and portable audio/video systems were most promising applications where WBANs can be used. However, designers of such systems face a number of challenging tasks, as they need to address often quite conflicting requirements for size, operating time, precision and reliability. Network security is very important in Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) since the vital human life might be jeopardized, unless managed properly. Approach: This article presented security architecture of a wireless body area network for ambulatory health status monitoring. A novel Intrusion Detection System (IDS) inspired by the biological immune system that use Negative Selection Algorithm (NSA) was proposed to enhance the performance of Wireless Body Area Networks (WBAN) to operate despite the presence of compromised (misbehaving) nodes. Results: The proposed IDS scheme had been implemented using network simulator Qualnet v5.2. The performances of IDS scheme had been analyzed using AODV, DSR and DSDV routing protocols for parameters such as average detection rate and false alarm rate. These negative selection detectors are capable of distinguishing well behaving nodes from compromised nodes with good degree of accuracy. The high false positives rate is also minimized. Conclusion/Recommendations: Wireless Body Area Networks are an enabling technology for mobile health care. The IDS can be implemented on today’s devices as it only requires minimal and low-cost hardware changes. The authors strongly believe that adding sufficient security mechanisms to WBAN will study as a trigger in the acceptance of this technology for health care purposes. Simulation results indicate the non-degradability of network performance when these IDS is incorporated in the routing algorithm for security enhancements.
  R. Murugan and A. Shanmugam
  Problem statement: In Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET), both the routing layer and the Medium Access Control (MAC) layer are vulnerable to several attacks. There are very few techniques to detect and isolate the attacks of both these layers simultaneously. In this study, we developed a combined solution for routing and MAC layer attacks. Approach: Our approach, makes use of three techniques simultaneously which consists of a cumulative frequency based detection technique for detecting MAC layers attacks, data forwarding behavior based detection technique for detecting packet drops and message authentication code based technique for packet modification. Results: Our combined solution presents a reputation value for detecting the malicious nodes and isolates them from further network participation till its revocation. Our approach periodically checks all nodes, including the isolated nodes, at regular time period λ. A node which recovers from its misbehaving condition is revoked to its normal condition after the time period λ. Conclusion/Recommendations: By simulation results, we show that our combined solution provides more security by increased packet delivery ratio and reduced packet drops. We also shown that our approach has less overhead compared to the existing technique.
  G.M. Tamilselvan and A. Shanmugam
  Problem statement: In universal networking environments; two or more heterogeneous communication systems coexisting in a single place. Especially, Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs) based on IEEE 802.11b specifications and Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPANs) based on IEEE 802.15.4 specifications need to coexist in the same Industrial, Science and Medial (ISM) band. If the WPAN communication coverage is expanded using a cluster-tree network topology, then the 802.15.4 network is more susceptible to interference from neighboring WLANs. Approach: In this study, we propose an adaptive transmission power aware cluster scheduling algorithm using multiple channels in a WPAN in the presence of WLAN interference. Results: The algorithm includes node identification, channel allocation, clustering and time scheduling. To evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm, the performance metrics such as Bit error, Packet Error Rate (PER), Throughput, Average End-End Delay and Average Jitter is measured through Qualnet simulation. PER is calculated from bit error rate. The simulation results are compared with the conventional TDMA scheme. Conclusion/Recommendations: The measurement result shows that the proposed algorithm is effective in an IEEE 802.15.4 cluster-tree network in the presence of multiple IEEE 802.11 interferers.
  A. Shanmugam , T.S. Mahalakshmi and A. Barwin Vino
  Polysaccharide isolated from the cuttlebone of Sepia aculeata and Sepia brevimana using 10 mM EDTA were studied for their antibacterial and antifungal activity against nine bacterial (Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhii and Shigella sp.) and four fungal (Candida sp., Rhizopus sp., Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus fumigatus) pathogens at different concentrations such as 25, 50, 75 and 100% against control. The activities were found to be increasing with the increasing concentration of the extracts. No antibacterial activity was recorded against V. cholerae in all concentrations of S. brevimana. In S. aculeata, maximum (8 mm inhibition zone in 100%) and minimum (2 mm inhibition zone in 25%) activity was recorded against E. coli, but in S. brevimana the highest and lowest activity was recorded as 17 mm (100%) and 2 mm (25%) (inhibition zone) against P. aeruginosa and E. coli, respectively. In the antifungal activity study, the highest and lowest inhibition zones of 12 mm (100%) and 3 mm (25%) were noted against A. flavus, Candida sp. and A. fumigatus and Rhizopus sp. respectively, but in S. brevimana, maximum and minimum activity of 9 mm (100%) and 2 mm (25%) (inhibition zone) were observed against A. flavus and A fumigatus, respectively. In both species the cuttlebone polysaccharide showed no activity against Candida sp.
  A. Shanmugam , T. Bhuvaneswari , R.A. Nazeer , S. Sambasivam , S. Vairamani , S. Ravindrand , S. Babuji and G. Devanathan
  Mid Gut Gland (MGG) and Salivary Gland (SG) of B. spirata were collected separately and extracts were prepared in three volumes of 1% Acetic Acid in Methanol, centrifuged and lyophilised. The lyophilised powder was dissolved with 0.9% saline solution in a required amount and used for further assays. The assays were done in perfused isolated frog heart, isolated frog rectus abdominis muscle, frog sciatic nerve-muscle preparation, lumbar plexus of frog and in albino mice. Both MGG and SG extracts showed dose dependent effect and cholinergic principle in the perfused frog heart preparation. They didn’t alter the acetylcholine-produced contraction in the rectus abdominis muscle and they affected the sciatic nerve much than the muscle in nerve-muscle preparation which showed that they contain neurotoxins like TTX. The MGG extract proves that it has the local anaesthetic effect in the lumbar plexus experiment.
  L.M. Nithya and A. Shanmugam
  In this study, it is proposed to enhance the grid job scheduling algorithm by including economic parameters-deadline and budget that schedule the job to a suitable resource which is capable of satisfying not only computational requirements but also economic constraints of a job. As grid environment is heterogeneous in nature, there may be wide range of failures that might affect job execution. In order to handle failures and to avoid rescheduling of jobs after the detection of failure, pro-active failure handling methods are included in the enhanced scheduling algorithm to estimate the availability of resources in the grid and also to preemptively calculate the expected long term capacity of the grid. The performance indicators such as average waiting time and queue completion time are calculated for the proposed job scheduling algorithm and backfill algorithm, comparison exemplifies that the proposed algorithm gives significant results. The proposed scheduling algorithm with failure handling methods outperforms the scheduling algorithm without failure handing in most of the situations. It has increased the job processing rate by 58%, decreased the job failure rate and job rejection rate by 66 and 16%, respectively.
  A. Samydurai and A. Shanmugam
  In distributed computing environment there are several servers and quite a few number of middleware. This concept takes into account the load, object’s memory usage, object’s function execution duration and CPU usage of the middleware in handling remote method calls thus providing fault tolerance and improving QoS. Traditionally, the middleware performs an analysis over the parameters to ascertain the resource availability and to entrust the task to the appropriate server. So far, due consideration has not been given to the identification of the right middleware to manage such remote method invocations. This study focuses in particular on choosing an appropriate middleware for a given scenario and also performing sufficient data replication at chosen middleware to improve high availability and fault tolerance of data thus improving QoS of the distributed systems. Choosing the middleware with deliberate attention to vital parameters of QoS can impact in significant performance improvements and high reliability can be achieved through fault tolerance than merely being tied to the one prefixed by default.
  S. Vairamani , N. Subhapradha , P. Ramasamy , A. Barwin Vino , S. Raveendran and A. Shanmugam
  Marine animals have great potential for providing novel drug leads with novel mechanism of action. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antimicrobial potency of methanolic extract of whole body tissue of Sepiella inermis and Ethylene Diamine Tetra Acetate (EDTA) extract of cuttlebone (polysaccharides) against ten human pathogens. S. inermis tissue was extracted with 100% methanol for about 48 h, centrifuged and supernatant was concentrated under vacuum in desiccator. The polysaccharide extract was obtained from the internal shell using 10 mM hot EDTA. The final product was used for assaying the antibacterial activity by disc diffusion method in different concentrations. In 100% concentration, the highest inhibition zone of 12 mm was observed against Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus in methanolic extract of whole body tissue and Staphylococcus aureus alone in EDTA extract from cuttlebone. In 75% concentration, methanolic extract showed highest activity of 9 mm against K. pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus pneumoniae whereas the EDTA extract showed highest activity 8 mm against Vibrio cholerae, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Vibrio alginolyticus. In 50% concentration, the maximum activity of 9 mm was recorded against Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus in methanolic extract; whereas maximum activity (11 mm) was recorded against E. coli in EDTA extract. In 25% concentration, the both maximum and minimum activity 7 mm was recorded against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus aureus in methanolic extract; Vibrio alginolyticus in EDTA extract. This study reveals that both the methanolic extract of the whole body tissue and EDTA extract of cuttlebone have good antimicrobial activity depending on the concentration.
  G. Devanathan , A. Shanmugam , T. Balasubramanian and S. Manivannan
  Aspergillus niger was isolated from the soil samples of mangrove debris in Vellar estuary (Parangipettai, India) and it was used for cellulase production. The physical and chemical parameters of fermentation like pH, temperature, incubation time, substrate, carbon and nitrogen source were optimized. The optimal conditions for the biosynthesis of cellulase by A. niger were found to be pH: 6.5, Temperature: 30°C, Incubation period: 96 h, carbon source: Lactose, Substrate: wheat bran and nitrogen source: peptone.
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