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Articles by A. Lodhi
Total Records ( 7 ) for A. Lodhi
  A. Lodhi and F. Azam
  The effect of Baythroid (an insecticide) on dry matter yield and N yield of maize (Zea mays L.) was observed with particular emphasis on the uptake of N from soil and applied (15NH4)2SO4. Baythroid was applied @ of 0, 0.4, 0.8, 1.6, 3.2 and 6.4 mg kg-1 and N @ of 25 mg kg-1. The plants were harvested at two growth intervals i.e., 22 days and 47 days after sowing. At the two lower rates, Baythroid had no significant effect on dry matter yield of plants, while at the highest rate studied i.e., 6.4 mg kg-1, it had a negative effect. Maximum beneficial effect of Baythroid on dry matter yield and N uptake was observed at 3.2 mg kg-1. Trends in total plant N were similar to that for dry matter yield and a close correlation was observed between the two parameters. Baythroid application resulted in a significant increase in the uptake of both applied N and native soil N and the losses of applied N were substantially reduced.
  A. Lodhi , N.N. Malik , T. Mahmood and F. Azam
  Laboratory incubation experiments were conducted to study the response of bacterial and fungal population, soil microbial biomass, urease, amylase, invertase and cellulase to Baythroid applied at 0, 0.4, 0.8, 1.6, 3.2 and 6.4 pg g–1 soil (on an active ingredient basis). Generally, a positive effect on bacterial and fungal population was observed. 'Bacterial population increased from 13 to an average of 25 after 5 days of incubation of soil samples treated with different levels of Baythroid. Baythroid did not have a significant effect on fungal population, which was quite low after 5 days of incubation. After 15 days of incubation, however, Baythroid caused a substantial increase in fungal population although no consistent trends were observed with the rate of application.
Carbon dioxide evolution from soil was almost unaffected by Baythroid except at the lowest and the highest levels of addition, where a negative and a positive effect, respectively, was obvious. Cumulative losses of CO2-C increased by 38% at the highest level of Baythroid. The microbial biomass C varied between 138 and 147 pg CO2-C g–1 soil in differently treated soils, a substantially positive effect of Baythroid was observed only at the highest rate of addition, while at lower levels a positive but non-significant effect was observed. Amylase activity increased by a maximum of 91.5% at Baythroid level of 1.6 μg g–1. At 6.4 μg g–1 soil Baythroid, however, the activity was reduced by 47.9%. Invertase activity also increased by 110.9% at 1.6 μg Baythroid g–1 soil followed by a decrease of 40.3% at the highest level tested. Cellulase activity was not much affected, although an increase of 18.5% was observed at 1.6 pg g–1 soil Baythroid. At the highest level of Baythroid, however, cellulase activity was reduced by 25.9%. Response of urease was almost similar to that of other enzymes. However, maximum increase of 40.9% was achieved at 0.8 pg g–1 soil Baythroid, while the decrease (9.1%) at higher levels of Baythroid was less pronounced as compared to that for other enzymes. All the four enzymes showed a positive relationship in their response to different rates of Baythroid.
  F. Azam , M. Ashraf , A. Lodhi and A. Gulnaz
  A microplot field experiment was conducted to study the effect of irradiated and unirradiated sewage sludge on dry matter yield and N uptake of wheat. Sewage sludge was applied at rates equivalent to 120, 180, and 240 kg N ha–1, either with or without 15N-labelled (NH4)2SO4-N at 20 kg ha–1. In addition, one control (no treatment) and a treatment receiving 120 kg N ha–1 as 15N-labelled (NH4)2SO4 was also included in the experiment. Wheat was grown to maturity and the plots were then sown to Sesbania aculeata (a green manuring legume). A highly positive effect of sewage sludge, whether irradiated or unirradiated on dry matter yield and N uptake. Sewage sludge not only served as an additional source of plant available N but it helped conserve fertilizer N leading to its increased uptake by plants. The beneficial effect of sludge was more pronounced in the presence of fertilizer N and the effect increased with the rate of application. The effects seemed to persist after harvesting wheat as suggested by higher dry matter yield and N yield of Sesbania. However, the analyses of physico-chemical and biological properties of the soil after harvesting wheat indicated that probably the applied sewage sludge decomposed quite rapidly and thus did not add much to the soil organic matter content and other properties. Nevertheless, N content of the soil showed some improvement although not very consistent with the rate of application.
  A. Lodhi , N.N. Malik and F. Azam
  A field lysimeter experiment was conducted to study the uptake by plants, dissipation and movement in soil of 14C-cyfluthrin (active ingredient of Baythroid, an insecticide produced by Bayer, Germany). Cotton and wheat plants were grown in succession to study the uptake of 14C. The chemical was worked well into the soil supporting the growth of a healthy cotton plant. The plant harvested at maturity contained 0.376 percent of the applied 14C; a major portion (ca 65 percent of the total) of the 14C being located in the stem portion. Wheat plants grown after cotton contained 0.11 percent of the initially applied 14C.
Dissipation of 14C from the soil-plant system was fairly rapid and after 9 weeks (during growth of cotton), ca 50 percent of the applied 14C was unaccounted. Subsequent losses were slower and during the remaining study period of 29 weeks, a further decrease of only 10 percent of the applied 14C occurred. Wheat growth and organic amendment caused a decrease in the loss of 14C from the soil-plant system. At all sampling intervals, a greater proportion of 14C was restricted to the top 0-10 cm layer and the amount consistently decreased with depth. In general, >80 percent of the 14C determined in soil at different sampling intervals was present in forms non-extractable with methanol.
  A. Lodhi , N.N. Malik and F. Azam
  A greenhouse experiment was conducted to study the uptake and metabolism in cotton leaves of 14C-labelled cyfluthrin, (C22H18Cl2FNO3, active ingredient of Baythroid insecticide). The labelled chemical was sprayed onto the selected portions of leaves which were subsequently studied for the movement (using autoradiography) and recovery of 14C (using extraction, purification procedures). Autoradiography showed a fairly rapid movement of 14C in the leaf tissues through vascular tissues. Movement was more efficient when application was made on the mid-rib region. Dissipation of 14C was also fast and even after 2 days, >60 percent of it was unaccounted. Subsequently, however, the losses were slow and amounted to 70.6 percent after 35 days. Thin layer chromatography/co-chromatography of organic extracts followed by linear scanning revealed that >60 percent of the 14C was still present as parent compound. Partial hydrolysis of cyfluthrin was found to be the main process involved in degradation that resulted in two major degradation products or metabolites.
  M.H. Sajjad , F. Azam and A. Lodhi
  Laboratory and greenhouse experiments were conducted to study the changes in mineral N, humus N and plant available N during following decomposition of plant residues (wheat straw, maize straw and sesbania straw) for different time periods. Accumulation of mineral N in soil was found to depend on the chemistry of plant residues, more mineral N being released in soil amended with plant residues with narrow C/N ratio i.e., maize and sesbania. These residues also contributed more to humus N and maintained a higher content of potentially mineralizable N. Wheat straw not only caused a net immobilization of N during 8 weeks of aerobic but a substantially higher loss of NO3 +NO2 -N during anaerobic incubation. The loss of N under these conditions appeared to depend on the length of time the residues were allowed to decompose in the soil, more losses being recorded for residues at early stages of decomposition. Undecomposed or partially decomposed plant residues had a negative effect on plant (wheat) growth; the effect was positively related to N uptake by plants. The negative effect was eliminated by increasing the time of residue decomposition to 8 weeks at which point maize and sesbania had a positive effect on grain yield and total biomass of wheat. Since N availability could be the main yield determining factor, sufficient time for residue decomposition will be required to achieve net N mineralization and thus improved plant growth especially for plant residues with a wide C/N ratio. However, the N released during aerobic incubation (or during land preparation prior to planting) may indeed be lost at first irrigation from the soil-plant system depending upon the content of easily oxidizable organic C.
  M.H. Sajjad , A. Lodhi and F. Azam
  An incubation experiment was conducted under laboratory conditions to study the changes in some soil enzymes during the decomposition of plant residues. Soil samples amended with powdered plant material of wheat, maize and sesbania were incubated for 8 weeks at moisture content of 60% of the maximum water holding capacity and 22-26°C for 8 weeks. At 0, 2, 4 and 8 weeks of incubation, portions of soil were analyzed for total C and activity of different enzymes. Maximum dehydrogenase and invertase activity was observed for sesbania and minimum in unamended soil, however there was no consistent trends with incubation intervals. Cellulase activity was not affected strongly by organic amendments, however it increased with time in amended than unamended soils. The differences between different treatments were non significant for urease.
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