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Articles by A. Idris
Total Records ( 4 ) for A. Idris
  F. Hamzah , A. Idris , R. Rashid and S.J. Ming
  Microwave-alkali (MW-A) pre-treated EFB consisting of 74% cellulose, 16% hemicellulose and 8% lignin was subjected to Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF) of lactic acid using Rhizopus oryzae NRRL 395. Two different morphologies of Rhizopus were studied for SSF of lactic acids; i.e., the clump and pellet form. Aspect Ratio (AR) was introduced to classify the pellet morphology, since cultivation of Rhizopus sp. produced non-uniform size pellets. Pellet with AR = 1 indicated a perfect pellet, while AR = 1.5 represented an ellipsoidal pellet. The AR of Rhizopus pellet used in the SSF was controlled to 1. The results showed that lactic acid production from MW-A pre-treated EFB using pellet exhibits higher lactate yield as compared to the clump Rhizopus. The lactate yield was 0.77 g g-1 EFB used after 96 h cultivation. Meanwhile, productivity of the lactic acid obtained from SSF of MW-A pre-treated EFB using pellet (AR = 1), clump (AR = 1.5) and pellet (AR = 1.5) Rhizopus oryzae NRRL 395 were 0.12, 0.089, 0.099 g L-1, respectively.
  R. Rashid , S.M. Mohamed Esivan , S.R. Radzali and A. Idris
  Artificial Neural Network (ANN) approach was applied in developing software sensor for production of lactic acid using pineapple waste from Lactobacillus delbreuckii. Lactic acid production currently is one of the significant materials in industry and production with renewable source such as pineapple waste made the production of lactic acid faced a lot of disturbances in measuring the quality of lactic acid produced. An artificial neural network (ANN) was developed to predict the concentration of lactic acid, using collected data from an offline analysis. Multi layer perceptron (MLP) was used for mapping between the input and output parameters. Two variables were used as input parameters. MSE was used to evaluate the predictive performance of MLP. Logsig and purelin was used as the activation function and Levenberg-Marquadt was utilized as the training algorithm. The result showed that having 2 inputs is better in predicting the concentration of lactic acid; instead of 1 input. The optimum structure found was 2-5-1.
  S.A. Hussain , H.T. Tan and A. Idris
  Cosmo ball is a media used in wastewater treatment to increase the surface area of contact and provide longer contact time for biological activities. It is usually placed as a media or as packing in the aeration tank, BioFil tank or even in the activated sludge tank. It induces the growth of bacteria on its surface, which will serve as a contact area for the wastewater and the microbial. The objective of this simulation is to analyze the flow pattern around the Cosmo ball which is been packed in the wastewater treatment tank. By conducting this analysis, the overall insights on the interaction of the fluid flow with the Cosmo ball surface can be visualize. The velocity of the fluid flow across the ball is at a speed of 2 cm sec-1. The velocity was obtained from the conventional wastewater treatment plant. During the simulation process, the model will undergo each section of program in ANSYS™ Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) such as Design Modeler, Meshing, Pre-Processing, Solver and Post-Processing. The flow distribution across the Cosmo ball was analyzed by varying the angle of attack of the flow. The rationale for this simulation arrangement is that the ball could take any orientation in the bulk media and the fluid flow across it would be at random angle. The result shows that the flow around the Cosmo ball was dispersing sideways thus inducing mixing in the wastewater system. Retention of flow has been observed to occur in the Cosmo ball. The retention of flow provides better microbial interaction with the wastewater.
  H.W. Goh , A. Salmiaton , N. Abdullah and A. Idris
  Bis(2-hydroxyethyl) Terephthalate (BHET) produced from Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) waste glycolysis process was purified and compared using two stages evaporation or crystallization processes. ASPEN PLUS equipped with vapor-liquid equilibrium databank together with solubility data was used to simulate these operations. Flash column and mixed product removal crystallizer were used to model two stages evaporation and crystallization process, respectively. First stage evaporation process was run at 90-180°C and 130-10,000 Pa while second stage was operated at 120-180°C and 50-250 Pa. The effect of various operating temperatures and pressures on the efficiency of evaporator and product quality were investigated. The optimum conditions for the first and second stage evaporation processes were selected based on the higher Ethylene Glycol (EG) removal with higher BHET recovery and lower heat duty needed. It was found that at higher operating temperature and lower operating pressure the performance of evaporator increased but the heat duty needed also increased which at the same time reduced the BHET recovery. Crystallization operation was simulated at 5-30°C. The BHET recovery in crystallization process decreased as temperature increased. As a conclusion, less heat duty is required as compared to previous works, higher yield and purity of BHET compared to conventional crystallization process, higher EG removal compared to previous works and conventional process and optimum operating temperatures and pressures are obtained for future scaling up process.
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